(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Medicinal plants ?an illustrated and descriptive guide to plants indigenous to and naturalized in the United States which are used in medicine, their description, origin, history, preparation, chemistry and physiological effects fully described ... /by Charles F. Millspaugh."

MEDICINAL 



PLANTS 















NAL PLAN 






V.I 



AN 



ILLUSTRATED AND DESCRIPTIVE GUIDE 



TO 



PLANTS INDIGENOUS TO AND NATURALIZED IN THE UNITED STATES 



WHICH ARE USED IN MEDICINE 



DESCRIPTION 



PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS FULLY 



DESCRIBED TOGETHER WITH THE PROPERTIES OF THE MOST IMPORTANT MEDICINAL 

PLANTS OF OTHER COUNTRIES THUS GIVING INFORMATION UPON OVER 



ONE THOUSAND MEDICINAL PLANTS 



PA' 



CHARLES F. MHLSPAUGH. M.D. 




Physician Botanist and Artist 



ILLUSTRATED 



EMBODYING OVER IOOO DRAWINGS BY THE AUTHOR 



VOL. I 




Mo. Bot. Garden, 



1894 



PHILADELPHIA 



JOHN C. YORSTON & CO., 131$ WALNUT ST 

1892 



COPYRIGHTED 



JOHN C. YOR rON & CO 

1892 



TO 



JOHN HILL MILLSPAUGH, Artist 



MY BELOVED FATHER 



TO WHOM I AM INDEBTED FOR WHATEVER I MAY POSSESS 



OF ART IN DRAWING AND COLORING 



THE PLATES 



ARE GRATEFULLY DEDICATED 



TO 



TIMOTHY F. ALLEN, A.M., M. D. 



MY HONORED PROFESSOR AND PRECEPTOR 



THE TEXT OF THIS WORK 



IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED 



CONTENTS 



VOLUME 



Preface 



PAGE 



IX 



List of the Natural Arrangement of the Plants 



xm 



Full-Page Colored Plates with Descriptive Text to each Plate . i to 99 



VOLUME 




Full-Page Colored Plates with Descriptive Text to each Plate . 100 to 180 



APPENDIX 



Glossary 



3 



Bibliography 



23 



Bibliographical Index 2 7 



General Index 



43 



Therapeutic Index 6 7 



Index of French Common Names 7 1 



Index of German Common Names 73 



Additions and Corrections 75 



Vll 






PREFACE 



Publ 



In preparing for the use of students of materia medica this 

cinal Plants in the order of their botanical classifi 



account of Med 



d 



ystemati 
ation. th 



ngement, which they bel 
kind ever 



to call attention to its important features, and explan 



ition of 
show it to be one of the best works of 



ever prepared, and offered for the use and benefit of the profession. 
The work occupied over five years of continuous labor, in addition to many 
years of preparatory work, on the part of the careful and talented author, 



who besid 



being a phy 



well k 



as an 



and the fact that the colorino- and drawings are 



fficient guarantee of their accuracy. 

The study of botany for medical remedies, or any other p 



>mplished botanist, and 
by his own hand is a 



without 



colored plates would be like the study of 
of geography without maps. However < 
may be, its verbal description cannot c 
thing described, or what is next best, its faithful 



prehen 



thout bo 
2 or pra< 



the 



a 



study 
book 



pare in value with a sight of the 



The following 



presentation 



some of the featu 



d arrangement referred to, viz. : 



i 



The i So beautifully colored full-page plates, embodying over iooo minor 
drawings, illustrating the root, stem, leaves, calyx, flower, corolla, stamen, 
filament, anther, ovary, fruit, seed, etc., are all made to a mechanical 
scale, and drawn from the plants as they stood in the soil, by the author, 



the coloring is natural, without regard to artistic beauty or pleasing 
fancy, executed from fresh living individual plants, selected with especial 
reference to typical features, propitious soil, and natural localities, in 



which he was aided, 




experienced botanists. 



2 



The plants are 



arranged 



in the work in their natural order, given 



in prominent type, and under the first plant of each order the order 
itself being described, and the properties of most of the medicinal 
plants of other countries of the world coming under such order men- 
tioned, thereby giving information upon over One Thousand Medicinal 
Plants. 



3°. Then follows the Tribe, — should the order be a large 

rect idea of its place. 



one, to give 



a cor- 



4°. Then the Genus is mentioned in black-faced type, with foot-notes, show- 



ing, wherever possible, the derivation of the name. 



IX 



X 



P R E F A C 1 



5°. Then the name of the Botanist who classified it, and lastly, in thi d part- 

ment is given the old, or sexual, arrangement according to Linn 

6°. All of this is considered e sential, as it is concede that plant oi like 

botanical, and therefore chemical, nature, ha> a imilar action, ivin^ 

a class of what we may term generic Symptoms, though each has its 

special {specific) symptoms that characterize it. It i for this reason 

that the plants here treated of are arranged as al >ve ; t r, if alpha- 
betically arranged, the work would have lost at 1 t one-half its value. 



7°. Then follows the Botanical and common names. 



8°. Then the Synonymy which follows has 1 



pe 



unfortunately, have received more than one name, resulting mostly 
from two causes: first, that of different views held concerning the limits 
of the genera and species; and, second, from an unavoidable ignorance 
in the discoverer, in a given locality, of the previous discovery of the 
plant in another. The descriptive binominal system, invented by Linnaeus 
in 1753, is the earliest date any such names can have, though many 
plants had been quite fully described before that time. It becomes, 
therefore, quite a necessity in all botanical works that full mention ot 
aliases should be made, to render reference to earlier writers satisfactory. 
The Common Names in the English, French and German languages, 



under which the plant is known in different localities and countries. 



9 . Then follows a Description of the plant, which is condensed even at a 



sacrifice of grammatical construction, using botanical terms freely, but 
not unreservedly; where several species of a genus occur in sequence, 
the genus is separately described to avoid repetition, and under the 
first genus of any order the natural order itself is described in brief. 



io°. Then the origin of the plant, its geographical distribution throughout the 

United States, its favorite locations and time of flowering; this is fol- 
lowed by a concise history of the species, and fully describes the uses 



of the plant for Medicinal purposes, from the earliest known period, 
according to the Aborigines, and all schools of practice in Medicine. 

ii°. Then follows a mention of the part used, and the various preparations 

in use in general pharmacopoeias, which are, chiefly according to the 
text of the last revision, (6th) of the "United States Pharmacopoeia," 
and the "American Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia." The description of 
the physical properties is, however, original and of great value. 

12 . Then the Chemical Constituents or nature of the plants. 

1 3 . The Physiological action of the plants is described symptomatically, 




f actual toxic effects are duly noted, and its scope is also 



full in pharmacology 



r y 






PREFACE 



XI 



1 4°. It contains a Glossary of botanical names. 



5°. A Bibliography, and Bibliographical Index to the works consulted in 

general, amongst which the following are only a few of those con- 
sulted, viz. : Drs. Robert Bentley, F. L. S., and Henry Trimen, M. B., 
F. L. S., "Medicinal Plants" London. Dr. Wm. P. C. Barton, "Vegetable 
Materia Medica of the United States" Dr. Jacob Bigelow's "American 
Medical Botany" Drs. Friedrich A. Fliickiger and David Hambury, 
F. L. S., "Pharmacographia" — a history of drugs of vegetable origin 
met with in Great Britain and India. Dr. Wm. Woodville, "Medical 
Botany" London. The "American Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia." The 
" Pharmacopoeia of the United States" Dr. G. Spratt's "Medicinal Plants," 
admitted into the London, Edinburgh and Dublin Pharmacopoeias. u New 
Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia" of Buchner and Gruner. Dr. Asa Gray's 
"Flora of North America" and "Genera of the Plants of the United 
States." John Lindley's, Ph.D., F. R. S., "Flora Medica" London. 



1 6°. A carefully prepared General Index is given in order to render it easy 

of consultation, whereby any plate, reference or subject matter thereto 
can be quickly found. 

17 . Also a Therapeutic Indi v showing the use of remedies lor the cure of 

disease, a very practical and valuable feature of the work, and one that 
will be found of great assistance to physicians, pharmacists and chemi is. 

i8°. And Indexes of Common Names of the Plants in both the French, and 

German languages, whereby they can be easily found in the work, by 
the names they are known in those countries. 



19 . In conclusion, The Author says: — I offer my thanks to many who have 

kindly contributed to whatever success this work may attain. To the 
many authors from whose books, pamphlets, and articles I have drawn. 
I must generalize my obligation, hoping that j tonal references in the 
text will in all cases be found satisfactory. To the late Professor 
Asa Gray, who, in disinterested kindness, allowed me the unreserved 
use of his many most valuable works on our American Flora, my 
special consideration is due. To the following botanists who willing 
lent their aid in procuring many species not growing near my locations 




I can but generally acknowledge: Mr. J. II. Sears, Salem, Ma i. ; 
Dr. T. F. Lucy, Elmira, X. Y. ; Mr. 1 V. Coville, Ithaca, N. Y. ; Mr. 

C. H. Gross, Landisville, N. J.; Mr. J. A. Shaf r, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Mis 



Mary C. Cuthbert, Augusta, Ga. ; Messrs. J. U. and C. (i. Lloyd, 
Cincinnati, O. ; Mr. James Galen. Rawlinsville, Pa.; Miss M. C. Reynolds 
St. Augustine, Fla. ; Dr. Thos. M. Wood, Wilmington. N. C. ; Rev. 1 . \ 
Campbell, St. Cloud, Minn.; and Mr. A. B. Seymour, Cham] mi, 111. 

The I'm,! isher . 



NATURAL ARRANGEMENT 



OF TUB PLANTS INCLUDED IN THIS WORK 



Dicotyledonous Ph/Enogams. 



RANUNCULACE^E. 

Anemonece. 

Anemone patens, var Nuttal- 

liana, i 

Anemone triloba, 2 

Ranunculece* 

Ranunculus sceleratus, 3 

repens, 4 



bulbosus, 5 
acris, 6 



Helleborinece. 



Caltha palustris, 7 
Helleborus viridis, 8 

Cimicifugece. 

Hydrastis Canadensis, 9 

Actaea alba, 10 
Cimicifuga racemosa, 11 



MAGNOLIACEiE. 

Magnolia glauca, 12 



ANONACEiE 

Asimina triloba, 13 



MENISPERMACEiE. 

Menispermum Canadense, 14 



BERBERIDACEiE. 

Berberis vulgaris, 15 
Caulophyllum thalictroides, 16 

Podophyllum peltatum, 17 



NYMPHACEjE. 

Nymphaea odorata, 18 



SARRACENIACE^E 

Sarracenia purpurea, 19 



PAPAVERACEjE. 

Argemone Mexicana, 20 
Chelidonium majus, 21 
Sanguinaria Canadensis, 22 



CRUCIFERiE. 

Brassicece. 

Brassica alba, 23 

nigra, 24 

Lepidinece. 

Capsella Bursa-pastoris, 25 

Raphanece. 

Raphanus Raphanistrum, 26 



VIOLACEjE 

Viola tricolor, 27 



CISTACE^E. 

Helianthemum Canadense, 28 



DROSERACEjE. 

Drosera rotundifolia, 29 



HYPERICACEjE. 

Hypericum perforatum, 30 



CARYOPHYLLACEiE 



Lychnis Githago, 3 



1 



GERANIACEiE. 

Geranium maculatum, 32 



RUTACE^. 

Xanthoxylum Americanum, 33 
Ptelea trifoliata, 34 



SIMARUBACEjE. 

Ailantus glandulosus, 35 






ANACARDIACEiE. 

Rhus glabra, 36 

venenata, 37 
Toxicodendron, 38 
aromatica, 39 



VITACEiE. 

Ampelopsis quinquefolia, 40 



RHAMNACEiE. 

Rhamnus catharticus, 41 



CELASTRACEiE. 

Euonymus atropurpureus, 42 



SAPINDACEiE. 

JSsculus Hippocastanum, 43 

glabra, 44 



POLYGALACEjE 

Polygala Senega, 45 



LEGUMINOSjE. 

Genistece. 
Genista tinctoria, 46 

Trifoliece. 

Tri folium pratense, 47 

repens, 48 

Melilotus officinalis, 49 

alba, 49 

Galcgece. 

Robin ia Pseudacacia, 50 









XIV 



URAL 



Phaseolecz. 

Phaseolus vulgaris, 51 
Sophorece. 

Baptisia tinctoria, 52 

Casa/pinea. 

Gymnocladus Canadensis, 53 



RUBIACEiE. 

-neat. 

Cephalanthus occidcntalis, 
Mitchella repens, 77 



COMPOSITE. 



PLANTAGINACEiE 

PLintago maj 107 



PRIMULACEiE 

Anagallis a: ensis, 108 



ROSACEA 



Drvadea. 



Geum rivale, 54 
Fragaria vesra, 55 
Po mece. 

Pirns Americana, 56 



CRASSULACEiE. 

Penthorum sedoides, 57 



HAMAMELACEiE 

Hamamelis Virginica, 58 



ONAGRACEiE. 

Epilobium palustre, var. lineare, 

59 
CEnothera biennis, 60 



CACTACE^E. 

Opuntia vulgaris, 61 



UMBELLIFERiE. 

Eryngium yuccse folium, 62 
Pastinaca sativa, 63 

Vrchangelica atropurpurea, 64 
JEthusa cynapium, 65 
Thaspium aureum, 66 
Cicuta maculata, 67 
Conium maculatum, 68 



ARALIACEiE. 

Aralia racemosa, 69 

quinquefolia, 70 



CORNACE^E 

Cornus florida, 71 

circinata, 72 
sericea, 73 



CAPRIFOLIACEiE 



Lonicerece. 



Triosteum perforatum. 74 
Sambuctce. 

Sambucus Canadensis, 75 



TUBUL1FI OK 



Eupatoriacea. 

Eupatorium purpureum, 78 

perfoliatum, 7 

Astcroidece. 

Erij ron Canadense, 80 

Inula Helen iutn, 81 
Smec ion idea. 

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia, 82 

Helianthus annuus, 8 
Anthemis nobilis, 84 
Achillea Millefolium, 85 
Tanacetum vulgare, 86 
Artemisia vulgaris, 87 

al inthium, 88 
Gnaphaliura polycephalum, 89 
Erechthites hieracifolia, 90 
Senecio aureus, 01 
Cvnarea. 



i 



Lappa officinalis, 92 



LIGULIFLOR-F 



Cichorium Intybus, 93 
Prenanthes serpentaria, 94 
Taraxacum Dens-leonis, 9 
Lactuca Canadensis, 96 



LOBELIACEiE 
Lobelia cardinal is, 97 

syphilitica, 98 
inflata, 99 



ERICACEAE. 

Ericinece. 

Argtostaphylos Uva ursi. 100 
Epigaea repens, 10 1 

Gaultheria procumbens, 102 

Kalmia latifolia, 103 
Pyro/ece. 

Chimaphila umbellata, 104 

Monotropae. 

Monotropa uniflora, 105 



AQUIFOLIACEjE 
Ilex verticillata, 106 



BIGNONIACE/E 

< talpa bignoni id 109 



SCROPHULARIACE/E 

/ ' > 

\ iln inn Tha] , no 

intirrhint 

Linaria vuU ris, 1 1 1 
Che Ion 

Sfcrophularia nodo . \\i 

Chelone glabra, 1 1 
/ r eronicece. 

Veronica Virginica, 114 
Euphrasia 

Euphrasia officinalis, 115 



3 



LABIATE. 

Saturiece. 

Menthi piperita, 116 
Lycopus Virginicus, i 1 7 

Hedeoma pulegioides, ti8 
Collinsonia Canadensis, ii< 
Stachydece. 

Scutellaria lateriflora, 120 

Lamium album, 121 



HYDROPHYLLACEiE. 

Hydrophyllum Virginicum, 
1 22 



CONVOLVULACEiE 
Convolvulus arvensis, 123 



SOLANACE^. 

Solanum Dulcamara, 124 

nigrum, 125 
Hyoscyamus niger, 126 
Datura Stramonium, 127 
Nicotiana Tabacum, 128 



GENTIANACEiE. 

Menyanthes trifoliata, 129 



NATURAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE PLANTS. 



xv 



LOGANIACEiE. 

Gelsemium sempervirens, 130 
Spigelia Marilandica, 131 

APOCYNACEiE. 

Apocynum androsaemifolium, 
132 

Apocynum cannabinum, 133 

ASCLEPIADACEiE. 

Asclepias cornuti, 134 

tuberosa, 135 

OLEACEiE. 

Chionanthus Virginica, 136 
Kraxinus Americana, 137 

ARISTOLOCHIACE^. 

Aristolochia Serpcntaria, 138 

PHYTOLACCACEiE. 

Phytolacca decandra, 139 

CHENOPODIACEiE. 

Chenopodium album, 

var. anthelminticum, kjo 



POLYGONACEiE. 

Polygonum acre, 141 

Fagopyrum esculentum, 142 
Rumex crispus, 143 

obtusifolius, 144 

LAURACEiE, 

Lindera Benzoin, 145 

THYMELEACE/E. 

Dirca palustris, 146 

EUPHORBIACEiE. 

Appendicular. 

Euphorbia hyperici folia, 147 

corollata, 148 
Es < appendicular <• . 

Ipecacuanhas, 149 

Lathyris, 150 

Stillii ia sylvatica, 15 1 

URTICACE^E. 

I r lmaeca. 

Celtis occidental , 152 

I r/irnr. 

Urti< a urens, 1 5 ; 



Cannabinece. 

Cannabis sativa, 154 
Humulus Lupulus, 155 

JUGLANDACEiE. 
Juglans cinerea, 156 

Carya alba, 157 

CUPULIFERiE. 

Castanea vesca, 

var. Americana, 158 
Ostrya Virgin i( ,159 

MYRICACEiE. 

M) rica cerifera, 160 

SALICACEiE. 

Salix purpui i, 1 61 
Populus tremuloid( [62 

CONIFERS. 
Abietitn 

Abies nigra, 163 

< idensi 164 
Hpr< iece. 

Thuja oc< i ntalis, 1 65 
Juni] rus Virgin iana, 166 



MOXOCOI VLKDOXOUS PiLKNOGAMS 



ARACEiE. 



Arissema triphyllum, 167 

dracontium, 168 
Symplocarpus foetidus, 169 



ORCHIDACEiE. 



Cypripedium pubescens, 170 



HiEMORODACEiE. 
Lachnantl tinctoria, 171 

Aletris farinosa, 1 72 



IRIDACEiE. 

Iris versicolor, 1 73 

DIOSCOREACEiE. 
Dioscorea villosa, 1 74 



LILIACEiE. 

7 ) illid 

Trillium erectum, 1 75 

var. album, 1 7 

Melanthica. 

Vcratrum viride, 1 76 
( hamadirium luteum, 1 7 

J J. ill r . 

Lilian] superbum, 1 78 



ACROGENOUS 




RYPTOGAMS. 



EQUISETACEiE 
Equisetum hyemale, 1 1 



LYCOPODIACEiE. 

Li opodium ( lavatum, 1 o 






PLATES i to 1 66 



SERIES 




H^NOGAM 





Plants producing true flowers and seeds. 



CLASS 






OTYLEDONS. 




Plants with stems composed of bark, wood, and pith ; 

netted veined leaves; and a pair or more o 

opposite or whorled seed-leaves 

(cotyledons). 



« 

[To prec le plate i.] 






1. 





7 





6 











«C 



9 



^m.adnatdel.etpinxt ANEMONE PATENS,var. NUTTALUANA.Gray, 



N. ORD -RANUNCULACE^E. 

GENUS.— ANEMONE,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— POLYANDRIA POLYGNIA. 



1 



PULSATILLA 

NUTTALLIANA 



PASO TIE FLO WEE. 



SYN. — ANEMONE PATENS, VAR. NUTTALLIANA, GRAY; ANEMONE 

NUTTALLIANA, D. C. ; ANEMONE LUDOVICIANA, NUTT. ; ANE- 
MONE PLAVESCENS, ZUCC. ; CLEMATIS HIRSUTISSIMA, POIR; 
PULSATILLA PATENS, GRAY ; PULSATILLA PATENS VAR. ; WOLF- 
GANGIANA, TRAUVT; PULSATILLA NUTTALLIANA, GRAY. 

COM. NAMES.— PASQUE FLOWER (CROCUS, MAY FLOWER, PRAIRIE 

FLOWER, AMERICAN PULSATILLA, HARTSHORN PLANT, GOSLIN- 
WEED). 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT, ANEMONE PATENS, VAR. 

NUTTALLIANA, GRAY. 



Description.— This beautiful prairie flower grows to a height of from 4 to 10 
inches, from a branched perennial root. Stem erect and hairy, encircled near the 
flower by a many-cleft, silky-haired involucre, composed of numerous linnear, acute 
lobes, which form the true stem-leaves. Leaves upon long hairy petioles, rising 
more or less erect from the rootstock ; they are ternately divided, the lateral 
divisions sessile and deeply 2-cleft, the central stalked and 3-cleft; all the seg- 
ments deeply incised into narrow, linnear, acute lobes, smooth above and hairy 
beneath. Inflorescence a conspicuous, terminal, villous, light purplish-blue flower, 
fully developed and fertilized before the appearance of the true leaves. Sepals 

snerally 5, at first incumbent, then spreading, answering to petals in appearance ; 

llous upon their outer surface. Petals -wanting, or replaced by minute glandu- 
lar bodies, resembling abortive stamens. Stamens innumerable, in a dense cir- 
clet surrounding the pistils; filaments slender; antJws extrose, 2-celled; pollen 



& 



with three longitudinal, deep sulci. Pistils numerous, in a dense cluster, separate, 
hairy ; style long and slender, with a somewhat recurved summit ; stigma indefinate. 
Fruit a plumose head, similar to that of Clematis ; carpels 1 -seeded, with long 
feathery tails, composed of the lengthened, persistent, hairy styles. Seeds sus- 
pended. 

Ranunculacese— This natural order is composed of herbs and woody climbers. 



* Aw/io,-. anemos, the wind. So named upon the supposition that the flowers of this genus only opened when the 



wind was blowing. 



1-2 

Its genera are various, but easily distinguishable b\ the acrid juic< prevailing to a 
greater or lesser extent in all species, and by the disconnection of the parts ot its 
flowers. The tribes vary greatly in regard to the se/> 's ; in some they arc want- 
ing, and replaced by petal-like organs ; in others, very fugacious ; while in one 
only, in this country, are they present in the mature flower. The stamens are 
numerous, furnished with short anthers. The fruit vari« from a dry pod to a 
fleshy berry; the ovul < are anatropous, so distinguished by the dors.il rhaphe 
when suspended; the seeds have a minute embryo, invest I with ll shy albumen. 
The leaves are usually palmately, and generally t rnately, divided, and are desti- 
tute of stipules. This family of plants, many of which arc poisonous, contains, 
beside those treated of in this work, th following species of special interest to 
us : Clematis ere eta, Helleborus niger % Delphinium Staphisagria, A eon it um napel- 
lus, catnmarum, ferox, and lyeoetonum, and Paonia officinalis. 



History and Habitat.— The American pasque flower is found in abundance 



pon the prairies from \\ 



rd, and westward to the Rocky M 



tains, flowering from March to April. Lieberg says :;: that in Eastern Dakota this 
plant attains a luxuriance of growth never met with farther east, and that it wholly 
disappears west of the Missouri. Its habit of being in flower about Easter- 
t.de gave it the principal distinguishing name, " Pasque flower ;" its peculiar effect 
upon the nose and eyes when crushed between the fingers gave it another, but 
local, appellation, "Hartshorn plant ;"f and the silky-hariness of the involucre and 
newly-appearing leaves caused the children in localities to term it " Goslin weed." 

The U. S. Ph. allows the use of this species under the drug Pulsatilla, with or 
in place of Herba Pulsatilla nigrieantis. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION— The whole, fresh, flowering plant is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of 
alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the 
rest of the alcohol added. After thorough mixture the whole is allowed to stand 
eight days in a well-stoppered bottle. The tincture thus prepared, after straining 
and filtering, should have a light seal-brown color by transmitted light, an acrid 
astringent taste, and a decidedly acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— I am unable to find any data upon this 



sp 



cies. It is said to have been found similar to its European relative, Anemone 
Pulsatilla, which, together with Anemone 7iemorosa and pratensis (Eu.), contains; 

Anemonin, C 15 H 12 O f) . — This body forms in colorless, klinorhombic prisms, from 
an aqueous distillate of the herb when the volatile oil is present. When dry it has 
a sharp and burning taste and neutral reaction. It softens at i so° (102 o° F ) 



d soon decomposes ; it dissolves in hot water and alcohol, slightly also in cold 



Anemonic Acid, C 15 H u O T . — This amorphous, white powder separates from 
the aqueous distillate together with the above and under the same circumstances. 



* Bot. Gaz., 1884, p. 104. f ibid, 1884, p. 77. 



1-3 



It is a tasteless acid, insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, oils, and dilute acids, b 
enters into combination with alkalies. (Wittstein.) 

Oil of Anemone.— This acrid yellow oil separates from the aqueous iniusic 
of the plant, and, owing to the presence of the water, soon breaks down into tl 
bodies mentioned above. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.-The following 



f 



the tincture when taken in moderate doses, as reported by Drs. Burk, Duncan, 
and Wesselhoeft: Profuse lacrymation, with smarting and burning of the eyes, 
mouth, and throat, followed by mucoid discharges; sharp pains about the stomach 
and bowels, with rumbling of flatus ; pressure in the r< ;ion of the stomach as from 
a weight; frequent urging to urinate, with an increased secretion; a tickling in 
the throat and constant inclination to cough; rheumatic pains, especially in the 



thigh 



th great deb 



prions, especially about the* limbs; heat and fi 



The action of this drug will be seen to be very like that of I lerbit Pulsatilla 



differing mostly 



I)} rim ion 01 Plate i. 



i. Whole plant, from St. Cloud, M .,* \pril nth, 1S84. 

2. Full-grown leaf in outline. 

3. Sexual organs. 

4. Receptacle. 

5. Pistil (enlarged). 

6. Stamen (enlarged). 

7. Pollen x 380. 

8. Ripe carpel. 

9. Fruit. 



* One of a number of typical living plants, nt m< . with their nam t f 1 y Rev, 1 I unpbcll, th 

whose kindnesi 1 also procured the full-grown leaf and ripe fruit. 



\. 




2. 




^!m. 



ad natdei.et pinxh 



Anemone Hepatica., Linn. 



A 



N. ORD. RANUNCULACE/E. 

Tribe-ANEMONE/E. 

GENUS.— A NEMONE, LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 



O 



HEPATICA 



LI VER-LEAF. 



SYN.— ANEMONE HEPATICA, LINN.; HEPATICA TRILOBA, CHAIX. ; 

HEPATICA TRILOBA, VAR. AMERICANA, D. C. ; HEPATICA TRI- 
LOBA, VAR. OBTUSA, PURSH.; HEPATICA AMERICANA, KER. 

COM. NAMES.— LIVER -LEAP, HEPATICA,* ROUND -LOBED HEPATICA, 

LIVER- WORT,t LIVER-WEED, TREFOIL, HERB TRINITY, KIDNEY- 
WORT; (FR.) HEPATIQUE; (GER.), EDELLEBERE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH LEAVES OF ANEMONE HEPATICA, LINN. 



& ' 



Description.— This dwarf herb, so eagerly sought after as one of our earliest 
spring flowers, grows from radical scaly buds amid the thick, leathery leaves of 
the previous year's growth. Root fibrous, perennial. Stem none. Leaves ever- 
green, all radical on long, slender petioles ; light green and hairy when young 
dark olive-green above and purplish beneath, when old, and while the plant is 
in blossom ; they are cordate in general outline, 3-lobed, the lobes ovate, obtuse. 
Inflorescence solitary, terminal, on long, hairy scapes, circinate, then erect. Invo- 
lucre simple, composed of three entire, obtuse, hairy, persistent leaves, somewhat 
resembling a calyx, from its close proximity to the flower. Calyx composed of 
from 6 to 9 ovate, obtuse, petaloid sepals, varying in color from pure white to a 
deep purplish-blue with white borders ; these latter, I have noticed, are always 
destitute of stamens. J Stamens numerous, hypogynous ; filaments long, slender, 
and smooth; anthers short, 2-celled. Pistils 12 to 20, hairy; ovary 1 -celled ; ovules 



spended, anatropous ; style single, short, pointed ; stigma 



matose marginal line, extending down the inner side of the style. Achenia loosely 
aggregated in a globose head, ovate-oblong, hairy, tipped with the short persistent 
style ; seed filling the whole cell to which it conforms. 

History and Habitat.— Hepatica is a native of the colder portions of the 
North Temperate Zone, growing in rich, open woods as far as the limit of trees. 
In North America it grows from Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri, east and north- 
east to the Atlantic ; flowering, in some seasons, as early as March, and continu- 



ino- in flower until May. This plant was placed in the genus Anemone 




■EirariKdi, epatikos, affecting the liver; or, 'n**?, cpar, the liver, from a fancied resemblance of the leaves to that 

organ, or their action upon it. 

f The proper liverwort is Marchantia polymorpha, a cryptogamous plant {Muscales) of the order Hepatic* . 

% Author in Bull. Torr. Club, 1884, p. 55. 



2-2 

Linnaeus, from 



d several removal until finally it ha been 



returned to its original place among it congeners. The 1 .i\ r-leaf has held a pi 

among medicinal plants from ancient times until the pn nmt. It is now falling i 

disuse on account of its mild properties, forming as it does simply a slightly asti 

rent, mucilaginous infusion. It was used in h moptysis, cough and other h 

tl-u* liver and in h morrhoids ill the la 



affections, as well as in all diseases of the liv r, and in hemorrhoid in 
troubles its exhibition must have met with no very tlattering succe . A pecto 
it may be taken in the form of an infusi n. hot or cold, in almost any amount 
its virtues are not of a powerful or disturbin nature. 

Hepatica has been dismissed from the U. S. Ph., ami i simply mention < d 
the Eclectic Materia Medica. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The full-grown lea\ of th< year an 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two \ irts by w ht of alco- 
hol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest 
of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well it is poured into a well- 



ppered bottle and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The 

parated by straining and filtering, should have a very light g 



by transmitted light, a slightly 



gent taste, and an acid 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-The only bodies found in this plant are tan- 
nin, in small amount, sugar, and mucilage. No special analysis has been made to 
determine an active principle. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— As far as known, Hepatica has very little action 
upon the system. A farther proving may develop some symptoms in the direc- 
tion of a slight irritative cough with expectoration. 



Description of Platk 2. 

1. Whole plant, Binghamton, N. Y., April 27th, 1884 

2. Stamen (enlarged). 

3. Pistil (enlarged). 




3 



4 







:* 



2 




.TU.adnatdel.etjinxt 



Ranunculus ScELERATus.Lmn 



N. ORD.-RANUNCULACE^E. 

Tribe.-RANUNCULE/E. 

GENUS— RANUNCULUS,* LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— POLVANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 



3 




RANUNCULUS 

ATU 









CURSED CROWFOOT. 



SYN.— RANUNCULUS SCELERATUS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES. — CURSED CROWFOOT, CELERY-LEAVED CROWFOOT, 
MARSH CROWFOOT; (FR.) RANONCULE; (GER.) SCHARF HAHNEN- 
FUSS. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT RANUNCULUS SCELERATUS, LINN. 



Description. — This smooth perennial herb grows to a height of about i foot 
Stem erect, glabrous, thick, succulent, hollow, and branching ; juice acrid and blis- 



g 



Leaves thickish, the upper sessile or nearly so, the lobes oblong 



,nd nearly entire ; stem-leaves 3-lobed, rounded ; root-leaves 3-parted, but not to 
he base, the lobes obtusely cut and toothed ; petioles of the lower leaves long, and 
heathing at their dilated bases. Flowers small, pale-yellow ; sepals reflexed ; petals 



dino- the sepals. Fruit an oblong, cylindrical head ; carpels 



barely 



1 



Ranunculus.— This large genus contains, in North America, 53 species and 
3 varieties, characterized as follows: Root annual or perennial. Leaves mostly 
radical, those of the stems alternate and situated at the base of the branches, 
variously lobed, cut, or dissected, seldom entire, hiflorescence solitary or some- 
times corymbed ; flowers yellow, rarely white. Sepals 5, rarely only 3, not append- 
aged, deciduous, and imbricated in the bud. Petals 5, or often more, flat, with a 
little pit, pore, gland, or nectariferous scale at the base inside. Stamejis numer- 
ous ; filaments filiform. Style short, subulate. Fruit a cylindrical or rounded head, 
composed of numerous carpels; achenia mostly flattened and pointed by the remains 
of the style ; seeds solitary, erect, rarely suspended. 

History and Habitat.— The Cursed Crowfoot is indigenous to Europe and 
North America ; with us it appears as if introduced. It grows in marshy tracts 
and wet ditches, and blossoms from June to August. 

The general and medical history of the species is generic, they having been 
used indiscriminately, R. seeleratus, however, being considered the most poisonous, 
its juice possessing remarkable caustic power, quickly raising a bli ster whereve r 



* Latin for a little fro^, referring to its habitat. 



3-2 

applied, and a dose of two drops sometimes exciting fatal inflammation along the 
whole alimentary tract. 

This genus was known to the ancient physicians as Ityarpa^ior (B 'ratrac hion) . 
Hippocrates, Paulus ./Egineta, and Dioscorides spoke of various species, the latter 
using them as external applications for the removal of psora, leprous nails, steoto- 
matous and other tumors, as well as fomentations to chilblains, and in toothache. 
Galen, Paulus, and the physicians of Arabia, all speak highly of the plants as 
powerful escharotics ; and the Bedouins use them as rubefacients. 

Gerarde says: "There be divers sorts or kinds of these pernitious herbes 
comprehended under the name of Ranunculus or Crowfoote, whereof most are 
ry dangerous to be taken into the body, and therefore they require a very 



exquisite mod 



nd due manner of tempering; not any 



of them are to be taken alone by themselves, because they are of 
force, and therefore have the great nede of correction. The knowledge of these 
plants is as necessarie to the phisition as of other herbes, to the end they may 
hun the same, as Scribonius Largus saith, and not take them ignorantly, or also 
r necessitie at any time require that they may use them, and that with some 
deliberation and special choice and with their proper correctives. For these dan- 
gerous simples are likewise many times of themselves beneficial and oftentimes 
profitable ; for some of them are not so dangerous but that they may in some sort 
and oftentimes in fit and due season profit and do good." In regard to the acrid 



f 



& *.X X^£ 



properties of the plants, he further says : " Cunning beggars do use to stamp 



d 



lay it unto their legs and armes, which causeth such filthy 



w 



daily see (among such wicked vagabondes), to moove the people the more to pittie." 

Van Swieten, Tissot, and others mention a curious practice, formerly prevail- 
ing in several countries of Europe, of applying Ranunculus to the wrists and fingers 
for the cure of intermittent fevers. This practice we noted only a few days since, 
hen called to see a child of a new-settled German family in our city; the little 
one's wrists were bound up in the leaves and branches of R. acris; it was suffering 
with an attack of lobar pneumonia. 

In former practice the plants were used, in view of external stimulation in 
rheumatism (especially sciatic), hip disease, hemicrania, and in local spasmodic 
and fixed pains ; in asthma, icterus, dysuria, and pneumonia. Withering, in speak- 
ing of R.ftammula, says : " It is an instantaneous emetic, as if Nature had furnished 
an antidote to poisons from among poisons of its own tribe ; and it is to be pre- 
ferred to almost any other vomit in promoting the instantaneous expulsion of 
deleterious substances from the stomach." 

Many species of this genus are used as pot-herbs, as the process of boiling 
throws off the volatile acrid principle and renders them inert, though some cases 
are reported where this happy result failed, and serious symptoms supervened 
In Northern Persia the young tubers, leaves, stems, and blossoms of R edulis 
Boiss, are brought into market and sold as a pot-herb ; the Swedish peasantry use 
R.Jicana, Linn.; and the shepherds of Wallachia, R. sceleratus Linn • 



* Lewis Sturtevant, M.D., in Rot. Gas., vii, 316. 



3-3 



Ranunculus is among the articles dropped from the U. S. Ph. at the 



revision. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh herb, gathered when in fruit, 
but still green and untouched by frost, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and 



weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly 



mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having 
stirred the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to 
stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then separated by straining 
and filtering. Thus prepared it has a clear reddish-orange color by transmitted 
lio-ht : an acrid odor and taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— We consider here the genus as a whole, 
taking this species as a chemical type. 

Anemonol, or Oil of Ranunculus.— Mr. O. L. Erdmann* found this to be the 

acrid principle of this species, and extracted it as a golden-yellow volatile body, 
decomposing by age into anemonin and amnionic acid, both of which are as 
described on pages 1-2 and 1-3, and 

Anemoninic Acid.— When boiled with an excess of baryta water, anemonin 
decomposes, forming, among other bodies, red flakes of anemoninate of barium 
(Lowig and Weidman). Prof. Frehling, who afterward examined into the subject, 
says, "this acid cannot be formed from anemonin by simply assumption with 

water." f 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— According to Basiner.J the oil of Ranunculus 
acts, in warm-blooded animals, as an acrid narcotic, producing, in small doses 
stupor and slow respiration ; in larger doses, also, paralysis of the posterior and 
anterior extremities, and, before death, convulsions of the whole body Ine acnd 
action is shown bv a corrosive gastritis and by hyperemia of the kidneys more 



particu 



bstance. Anemonin causes similar sympto 



followed by no convulsions, nor does it irritate sufficiently to corrode the 



as in the oil. 



Krapf states § that a small portion of a leaf or flower of R. sceleratus, 
drops of the juice, excited acute pain in the stomach, and a sense of in lam 
of the throat : when he chewed the most succulent leaves, the salivary gland 



stimulated 



his tongue was excoriated and cracked ; his teeth smarted 



d his cornea became tender and blood) 



A man, at Bevay, France, swallowed a glassful of the ju.cewh.ch had bee, 

kept for some time; he was seized in four hours with v.olent coke and vom.tmg 

and died the second day.^f 



* Am. Jour. Phar., 1859, p. 44°- 



Med 



■r jjru?s ana mea. uj a- ■"■•■< '■> — , „ />/,.,. , vv? no 

% Die Vergifi mit Ranunkelol, Anemonin, etc., in Am. Jour. M*r- ■». ^ 
\ Exp. dt Vonnull. Ranun. Ven. QuaL 

Orfila, Tor. Gen., i, 754- 
« ^nur r/r (him. Med., 1836, 273. 



3-4 



Krapf 

followii 



f the facial 



ip. cit.) relates a case in which the pla 



d 



lally, g 






serious symptoms and 



Contortion of the eyes ; convulsions 






m 



parts of the abdomen, and 



limb 



pain, swelling 



. .dness, and bleeding of the gums ; peeling off of the cuticle and cracking of 1 
tongue ; ptyalism ; hiccough ; complete inactivity of the stomach, with horrid pa 
anoints of anxiety; slight fainting turns; all followed by cold sweat and death. 

The symptoms caused by this drug, as detailed in Aliens Encyclopedia of R 



Materia Medic a 



as the cases 



ported above, show this drug to be 



d 



both to the mucous membranes with which it comes 



d to the nerves them 



Description of Plate *. 



1. Whole plant (a small specimen), Salem, Mass., July 20th, 1885. 

2. Sepal. 

3. Petal. 

4. Carpel. 

5. Section of same. 
(2-5 enlarged. 



* Vol. viii, 270-77. 




4 





XCl.ad nat.del.et pinxt. 



RANUNCULUS REPENS, Linn. 



N. ORD. RANUNCULACE/E. 

Tribe.-RANUNCULE£. 

GENUS.— RANUNCULUS, LINN 

SEX. SVST.— POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 



4 



RANUNCULUS REPENS. 



CREEPING BUTTERCUPS. 



S YN. — RANUNC ULUS REPENS, 



BECK 



INTERMEDIUM 



TOMENTOSUS 



COM. NAMES.— CREEPING BUTTERCUPS OR CROWFOOT; (PR.) RANON- 
CULE; (GER.) HAHNENPUSS. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT RANUNCULUS REPENS, LINN. 



Description. — This extremely variable, low, hairy or glabrous herb, extends 
to from i to 4 feet. Stems at first upright then ascending, some forming long 
runners in summer. Leaves 3-divided to the base: leaflets all petiolulate, or at 
least the terminal one, broadly cuneate or ovate, usually 3-cleft or parted and 
variously cut. Peduncles furrowed. Calyx spreading. Petals obovate, bright 
yellow, much longer than the sepals. Fruit a globular head of numerous carpels ; 
achenia flat, strongly margined, and furnished with a stout, straight beak. 



History and Habitat. — The Creeping Buttercups are indigenous to North 
America, where they habit moist or shady places, ditches and wet meadows, from 
Georgia northward and westward ; flowering from May to August. 

In woods that tend to dryness the plant is erect and shows no tendency to 
spread much by runners ; but in low, wet ditches along swamp lands its growth is 

often prodigious. 

This species is one of the lesser in acridity, and its medical uses have been 
simply generical, it being generally used only when the more powerful species 
could not be procured ; its history, therefore, will be covered by R. sceleralus, 3. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh herb, gathered at if 
fullest growth in October, is chopped and pounded to a pulp, enclosed in a piece 
of new linen and pressed. The juice is then mingled, by brisk agitation, with an 
equal part by weight of alcohol, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool 

ace. The tincture formed by filtration should have a brownish-green color by 

msmitted light, a slightly acrid taste, and an acid reaction. 




4-2 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The provings of this species are not yet suffi- 
tly developed to distinguish its action from that of the preceding. 



Description of Plate 4. 



i. End of a flowering stem, Ithaca, N. Y., June 24th, 18S5. 

2, 3 and 4. Leaf forms. 

5. Carpel. 

6. Section of a carpel. 
(5 and 6 enlarged.) 



^r 




<fim. 



ad nat.de!. et pinxt. 



Ranunculus 3uLB6sus,Lmn 



N. ORD.-RANUNCULACE^. 

Tribe.-RANUNCULE/E. 

GENUS.— RANUNCULUS, LINN 

SEX. SYST.-POLYANDRIA POLYGYAMIA 



5 



RANUNCULUS BULBOSUS 



BULBOUS B UTTER CUPS, 



SYN.-RANTJNCULUS BULBOSUS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— BULBOUS CROWFOOT OR BUTTERCUPS, BUTTER-FLOW- 
ER, KING'S CUPS, GOLD CUPS, ST. ANTHONY'S TURNIP OR RAPE • 



KNOLLINGER 



WHOLE 



BULBOSUS, LINN. 



Description. — This erect, hairy herb grows to a height of about i foot. Stems 
many, volute, villous, from a bulbous, onion-like base. Leaves all ternately divided 
to the very base, especially noticeable in the radical ones, all appearing more or 
less pinnate ; leaflets short, cuneate, cleft and toothed, the lateral sessile, the termi- 
nal stalked, all 3-parted. Peduncles furrowed. Petals 5 or more, round, cuneate 
at the base, bright glossy yellow, much longer than the calyx. Calyx reflexed. 
Fruit in a globular head ; achenia ovoid, flatfish, and tipped with a very short 
beak. Read description of Ranunculus, under R. sccleratus r 3. 



History and Habitat. — Bulbous Crowfoot is an immigrant from Europe, now 
pretty thoroughly established along the Atlantic coast, in some places being an 
actual pest in meadows and pastures ; it has not extended far inward, but seems 
decidedly prone so to do. It blossoms northward from May to July. 

This species, being one of the more acrid of the genus, and of frequent occur- 
rence in the East, has been used, like R. sceleratus, as a local irritant where vesica- 
tion seemed necessary; its use was often prolonged to ulceration, from which 



f gangrene sometimes resulted 



* 



This was the officinal species of the U. S. Ph., now dismissed. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant while in flower 
in the month of June, is treated as in the preceding species. The resulting tinctun 
has a clear, light yellow color by transmitted light, a slightly sweetish then acrid 
taste, and a strongly acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — So far no analysis has been made of this 
species to determine (should such exist) a specific principle that might differ from 
the general constituents of the acrid Ranunculi as given under R. sceleratus, 3. 



* The general uses of the Ranunculi will be found under R. sceleratus, 3, where special mention is made of the 



various species. 



5-2 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — R. bulbosus has a peculiarly powerful irritant 
action upon the skin, whether applied locally or internally. Murray states* that 
a slice of the fresh root (bulb?) placed in contact with the palmar surface of a 
fino-er brought on pain in two minutes; when taken off, the skin was found with- 



^^. a 



out signs of extra circulation or irritation, and the itching and heat passed away ; 
in two hours it nevertheless returned again, and in ten hours a serous blister had 
formed, followed by a bad ulcer, which proved very difficult to heal. 

Early English practitioners used the bulb to produce vesication when a "last- 
ing blister" was judged necessary, but were very chary of prescribing the drug 
internally, so great was their dread of its properties. 

Four persons who partook of the bulbs, boiled in a chicken-broth, suffered 
from violent burning in the hypogastric region, great anxiety about the region 
of the heart, pressure at the pit of the stomach, with painful soreness of that 
organ when pressed. 

A lady who applied the bruised plant to the chest as a counter-irritant, became 
ill-humored, fretful, cross and disposed to quarrel, and suffered from soreness and 
smarting of the eyelashes some time before its action was felt at the region nearest 



the application. 

Violent attacks of epilepsy are recorded as having been induced by this 
plant ; a sailor who inhaled the fumes of the burning plant was attacked with this 
disease for the first time in his life; it returned again in two weeks, passed into 
cachexia, nodous gout, headache, and terminated in death.i- 

The specific symptoms caused by this drug, so carefully collated by Prof. 
Allen,J show a decided irritant action upon the brain and spinal cord, as well as 
the mucous membranes generally. 



Description of Plate 5. 



1. Whole plant, Salem, Mass., June 25th, 1885 

2. Petal. 

3. Anther. 

4. Fruit. 

5. Achenium. 

6. Longitudinal section of achenium. 

(3, 5 and 6 enlarged.) 



* App. Med., Hi, 87. 



Mat. Met 
Mat. Med. 





HI .ad nat.del.et pinxt 



Ranunculus Acris Linn. 



N. ORD -RANUNCULACE^E. 



t> 



GENUS—RANUNCULUS, LINN 



SEX. SYST.— I'OLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 



RANUNCULUS ACRIS 



TALL BUTTERCUPS. 



SYN.— RANUNCULUS ACRIS, LINN.; RANUNCULUS PRATBNSIS ERBCTUS 

ACRIS, GERARDB. 

COM. NAMES.— TALL BUTTERCUPS OR CROWFOOT, UPRIGHT BUTTER- 
CUPS OR CROWFOOT, ACRID BUTTERCUPS, BLISTERWEED, YE 
LOW PILE- WEED, BUR- WORT, MEADOWBLOOM; (FR.) RENONCULK 
ACRE; (GER.) SCHARFHAHENFUSS. 




A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT, RANUNCULUS ACRIS, LINN. 



Description. — This erect, perennial herb attains a height of from 2 to 3 feet 
Root fibrous, from a slightly tuber-like crown. Stem subcylindrical, hollow, hairy, 
and branching above. Leaves 3-divided, the divisions all sessile, 3-parted, and 
clothed with more or less rigid hairs ; segments of the lower leaves cut into lan- 
ceolate, closely-crowded lobes ; of the upper linear, and sometimes entire ; petioles 
of the radicle and lower stem leaves long and hairy, upper cauline leaves some- 
times sessile. Lnflorescence axillary and terminal ; flowers nearly as large as those 
of R. bulbosus (5), but not so deep a yellow. Calyx spreading, villous, much 
shorter than the corolla. Petals obovate, bright yellow. Filaments short ; anthers 
incurved. Fruit a globular head ; carpels numerous, lenticular and smooth ; beak 
short and recurved. Read description of the genus, under Ranunculus scelera- 



3 



d the natural order, under Pulsatilla N 



History and Habitat.— This species of the genus has become quite widely 
distributed in this country since its introduction from Europe. It flowers from 
June until August. This plant, when past its flowering season, is often mistaken 
for Geranium maculatum, 32 * both on account of its vulgar name, crowfoot, and 

from a similarity in the foliage. 

The medical and general history, and the chemistry and action, of the d.ffer- 
ent species of Ranunculus are generic rather than specific. I give a digest under 
R. sceleratus, 3. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh herb, gathered in 
October, should be chopped and pounded to a pulp and pressed out in a piece 



Med. 



6-2 

of new linen. The juice is then, by rapid succussion, mixed with an equal part 
by weight of alcohol, and allowed to stand eight days, in a well-stoppered bottle, 
in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated by filtration, has a brownish-orange color by trans- 
mitted light, a biting, then astringent taste, and an acid r< iction. 



Description of Plate 6. 



i. a, b, and c. Whole plant, Ithaca, N. Y., June 2d, 18S0 




7 




(fm. 



ad nat.del.et pinxt 



CALTHA PALUSTRIS, Linn 



N. ORD.-RANUNCULACE^. 

GENUS. — C ALT HA, * LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 



7 



CALTHA 



MARSH MARIGOLD, 



SYN.-CALTHA PALUSTRIS,f LINN. ; CALTHA ARTICA, R. BR. 

COM. NAMES— MARSH MARIGOLD,* COWSLIPS,? COW'S LIPS, MEADOW- 
BOUTS, WATERBOUTS T COLT'S POOT.lt MARE-BLEBS OR -BLOBS.1J 
AMERICAN COWSLIPS,** PALSY-WORT, WATER DRAGON; (GER.) 
SUMPP RINGELBLUME. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FLOWERING PLANT CALTHA PALUSTRIS, LINN. 



Description. — This glabrous, perennial herb, grows to a height of from 6 to 
12 inches. Root a bundle of coarse and closely fasciculated fibers. Stem erect, 
somewhat quadrilateral, furrowed, hollow, thick, and juicy, branched above. Leaves 
alternate, large, orbicular, cordate, or reniform, finely crenate or entire ; petioles of 
the radical leaves long, those of the cauline about equal in length to the width of 
the leaf; stipules quite large, withering after the expansion of the leaf, which they 
cover in the bud. Inflorescence corymbose ; flowers large and regular. Sepals 5 6, 
petaloid, broadly ovate, imbricate in aestivation. Petals wanting. Stamens numerous ; 
filaments about the length of the anthers ; anthers large, innate, and extrorse. 



Pistils 5-10 ; styles nearly or quite absent ; stigmas forming blunt, recurved, mucro- 
nations to the ovaries. Fruit a spreading whorl ; follicles latterly compressed ; 
seeds numerous, oblong, purplish, furnished with a prominent raphe, and arranged 
in a double series. Read description of the Order under Pulsatilla Nuttalliana, 1. 



History and Habitat. — The marsh-marigold is indigenous to the northern 
portions of Europe, Asia, and America; growing on low, wet meadows, bogs, and 
the banks of spring-fed rivulets ; flowering in the United States from April to May. 



* Ka\a$9;, kalathos, a chalice, the golden calyx resembling that utensil. 

f Care should be taken not to confound this plant with Calla pahtstris, I.inn , on account of the similarity in the 
names; it bears no resemblance whatever to Calla; the habitats are the same. 

\ I have known American physicians who claimed that they made their tincture of Calendula from flowers gathered in 
their own neighborhoods (Caltha); this error arose from the common mime of calendula being marigold. Calendula 
officinalis, Linn., belongs to the Composite, and does not grow wild in this country. The corn-marigold belongs to the 

enus Chrysanthemum (Compositae) ; the fig-mirigold to Mtiembryanthemum ( Mesembryantheme*) ; the French ami 

African marigolds to Tagetes (Composite), and the bur-marigold to Bidens (Composite). 



(T 

to 



\ Cowslips are property species of the primrose family ( Primulacea. 4 ). 

|| Coifs foot is only applicable to Tussilago Farfara, Linn. (Composite). 

\ Marc, marsh ; blebs, bladders, more properly blisters. 

** The true American cowslip is Dodecatheon Meadia, Linn. (Primulaceae). 



7-2 



The plant is extensively gathered in early spring, and cooked for " greens," 
making one of our most excellent pot-herbs ; the pickled flower-buds are mentioned 
as a fine substitute for capers. The fresh plant is very acrid, so much so that cattle 
will not eat of it. Rafinesque asserts that cattle browsing upon it the in conse- 
quence of an inflammation of the stomach. 

The medical history of this herb is 1 very sparse, and of no consequence; it 
has been used in cough syrups, which would, without doubt, have been fully as 
efficacious without it. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh herb, gathered when flower- 
ing, is chopped and pounded to a pulp, enclosed in a piece of new linen, and 
pressed. The expressed juice is then, by brisk succussion, mingled with an equal 
part by weight of alcohol. This mixture is allowed to stand eight days in a dark, 
cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the above mass by filtration, has a clear, orange- 
brown color by transmitted light, a sweet, then somewhat acrid taste, and a neutral 
reaction. 




CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— The acridity so noticeable in the fresh herb 
entirely disappears on the application of heat; this property is considered 
Lloyd to resemble, or be identical with, acrid oil of ranunculus,* though his attempt 
to extract this oil and anemonin, from a distillate of the fresh plant, was unsuccessful. 

Tannin is present in appreciable quantity, the tincture responding quickly to 
the tests with acetate of lead and chloride of iron. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— We have a scanty proving of this drug detailed 
in the Encyclopedia of Pure Materia Medica; insufficient, however, to afford an 
insight to its real action. 



Description of Plate 7. 

1. End of branch, from Binghamton, N. Y., May nth, 1884 

2. Section of flower. 

3. Stamen (enlarged). 

4. Achenium (enlarged). 

5. Section of ovary (enlarged). 

6. Section of stem. 



* See under Ranunculus sceleratus, 3. 
















I 



i 




.TO. . sd nat del. et pinxt 



tf£LjM)RUS VlRIDIS, Linn 






N. ORD -RANUNCULACEyE. 

Tribe-HELLEBORINE/E. 

OKNUS.— HELLEBORUS,* LINN- 
SEX. SYST.— POLYGAMIA POI.VGNIA. 



8 



HELLEBORUS VIRIDIS 



GREEN HELLEBORE. 



SYN.— HELLEBORUS VIRIDIS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES. — GREEN HELLEBORE; (FR.) ELLEBORE VERT; (GER.) 
GRUNE NIESSWURZ. 



A TINCTURE OF THE ROOT OF HELLEBORUS VIRIDIS, LINN. 



% 



Description. — This perennial herb usually attains a growth of from i to 2 
feet. Rhizome thick and woody. Stem smooth, usually a little inclined to 
branch above. Leaves alternate, compound, the leaflets sharply serrate; those 
of the stem nearly sessile and palmately parted ; those of the root glabrous, 
long petioled and pedately divided into from 7 to 15 lanceolate, acute lobes. 
Inflorescence on axillary, solitary, nodding, sometimes geminate peduncles; flowers 

an inch or more in diameter. Calyx persistent; sepals 5, roundish- 
iny, petaloid, imbricated in the bud. Petals 8 to 10, very small, cyathi- 
form, irregularly 2-lipped, all shorter than the stamens. Stamens indefinite. 
Pistils 3 to 10, sessile; stigmas orbicular. Fruit a cluster of sessile, coriaceous 
pods, all cohering at their bases; seeds numerous. 

■ 

History and Habitat.— This European immigrant is now pretty thoroughly 
naturalized on Long Island and in a few counties of Eastern Pennsylvania, 
where it grows in the opens, and flowers in April. 

On account of its general rarity, this species has had but little use in 
medicine, its place being supplied by either H.niger or H. fetidus ; it is, how- 
ever, much more active than either of these species, and ranks next in energx 
to H. orientalis, which is considered the most highly poisonous species of the 

Green Hellebore has, however, been somewhat used as a drastic and 
hydragogue cathartic in dropsies; an emmenagogue in 



g 



cea : a vermi- 



fuge in children afflicted with lumbricoids ; as a nervine in mania and melan- 



d an anti-spasmodic in epilepsy. Its principal field, however, has 1) 



dication, for animals afflicted with lice or lumbrici For 
son aiven above, the root is no longer officinal in the pharmacopce 



r<\'i- 



E\eiv, helein, to injure ; 0*>p<*. bora, food. 



8-2 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root, gathered when the 
leaves are about to fall, but before the first frost, is treated as directed under 
Hydrastis.* The resulting tincture has a deep brownish-orange color by trans- 
mitted light; an odor somewhat resembling that of Bourbon whisky; an acrid, 
bitter taste, prickling the tongue and causing salivation ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — The chemistry of the Hellebores is generic 
rather than specific, the species differing, so far as known, only in the quantity 
of the principles contained. 



i 



Helleborin,f C. H 42 O G . — This glucoside was isolated by Marine and A. 
Husemann (1864) from the green, fatty matter extracted by boiling alcohol 
from an aqueous extract of the root. It resulted as shining, colorless, concen- 
tric needles, tasteless when dry, but acrid and burning in alcoholic solution. 
Helleborin proves a highly narcotic, powerful poison, more abundant in viridis 
than in niger ; it is insoluble in water, soluble in hot alcohol, and fuses and 
carbonizes above 250 (482°F.). When boiled with zinc chloride, Helleborin 
breaks down into sugar and Helleboresin as follows : 



Helleborin. Water. Glucose. Helleboresin. 

C M H„0, + (H.p) 4 = C 6 H 12 6 + C^O, 

1 Helleborein, C 26 H w 15 . — This slightly acid glucoside was also isolated by 
Marme and Husemann, as translucent, warty masses of microscopic needles, 
which quickly defloresce and are very hygroscopic ; they are of a sweetish 
taste, and are readily soluble in water, less so in alcohol, and insoluble in ether. 
Hellebore'in is a narcotic poison, more abundant in niger than viridis; its 
aqueous solution dries to a yellowish resin, which becomes straw-color at 1 60 
(320 F.), and conglutinates ; at 2 20°-230° (428°-446° F.) it becomes brown and 
pasty; and at 280 (536 F.) it chars. 

When boiled with a dilute mineral acid, it breaks down into sugar and Helle- 
boretin, as follows : 

. Helleborein. Glucose. Helleboretin. 

C 20 H 4 4 °15 — ( C 6 H 12 6) 2 + C U H 2(A- 

Helleboretin, C u H 20 O 3 , is strangely wanting in physiological effect, consider- 
ing its source ; it has a violet color and no crystalline form. 

Helleboric Acid. — This body is so far considered, if not identical, at least 
isomeric with aconitic and equisetic acids. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— According to the experiments of Von Schroff, 
with from 2 to 4 grains of the alcoholic extract of the root, this species causes : 
roaring in the ears ; violent sneezing ; burning in the mouth, and profuse sali- 
vation ; gurgling in the abdomen ; profuse liquid stools, accompanied by violent 

* Page 9-2. 

f Bastic (1852) discovered a bitter, crystalline body in the roots of Hellebore, to which he gave this name. It 
proved, however, to be chemically indifferent. 






8-3 



great tenesmus, nausea, and inclination to vomit ; frequent passages of pal 



, decreased 

the whole body. 

The action of the Helleb 
with this species. 



fie cond 



and 



gen 



ho u Id be 



lted 



Description of Plate 8. 



I. Top of plant, from Sellersville, Pa., April 20th, 1884 

2. A mature lower leaf. 



*> 
o 



Petal. 



4. Stamen. 

5. Pistil. 

6. Fruiting carpel. 

(4-6 enlarged.) 




9 




* 




<jk. 



ad nat del.et pinxt. 



Hydrastis 



Canadensis. Linn. 



N. ORD-RANUNCULACE^E. 

Tribe-CIMIOIFUGE/E. 

GENUS.— HYDRASTIS,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— rOLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 



9 



HYD 









GOLDENSEAL, 



SYN. -HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS, LINN.; WARNERIA CANADENSIS, 



MILL. 



COM. NAMES 



YELLOW-ROOT. YELLOW 



PUCCOON, GROUND-RASPBERRY, WILD CURCUMA, TURMERIC- 
ROOT, INDIAN DYE, INDIAN TURMERIC ; (PR.) HYDRASTIS ; (GER.) 
CANADISCHE, GELBWURZEL. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS, LINN. 



Description.— This low perennial herb, now becoming quite rare in this State 
(N. Y.), grows from 6 to 10 inches high, its leaves and fruit much resembling those of 
the raspberry. Rhizome thick, sarcous, oblong, irregular and knotted, having a 
yellowish-brown, thin bark, and a bright-yellow interior; rootlets numerous, scat- 
tered, coriaceous fibres. Stem simple, subcylindrical, thick, erect and very hairy, 
surrounded, at its point of issuance from the rootstalk, by several oblong, sheathing, 
scaphoid, greenish-yellow, leafy bracts. Leaves 2, alternate, near the summit of the 
plant, orbicular-cordate at the base, palmately five- to seven-lobed, the lobes doubly 
serrate, acute, veiny ; attaining, when full grown during the fruiting season, a width of 
from 4'to 10 inches. The root sometimes puts off an accessory or root-leaf which 
answers to the characteristics of the stem-leaves, with the one exception, that it is 
petiolate while they are sessile. Peduncle about 1 inch long ; inflorescence— when 
fully expanded— a single, greenish-white, apetalous, asepalous flower. Sepals 3, 
pale-rose color, caducous. Petals none. Stamens numerous ; filaments " 



patulate ; anthers 



Pistils numerous, twelve or more in a d 



head ; ovary 1 -celled, one- to two-ovuled ; styles short ; stigma flattened and dilated, 
one- to two-lipped. Fruit a succulent, globose berry, compounded of many minia- 
ture one- to two-seeded drupes ; appearing like an enlarged red- raspberry. Seeas 
inversely egg-shaped, nearly black and glossy ; embryo basal, very small ; albumen 
sarcoid and oily. A description of the natural order may be found under Pulsa- 



N 



* Derivation not positive, (?) Map, vattr; b ? ™, to act; iti juice being very active. 



9-2 

History and Habitat.— Hydrastis is indigenous to Canada and the United 
States, east of the Mississippi, and but quite rare east of the Alleghany Mountains ; 
in the southeastern portion of the country it grows only upon the mountains. It 
seeks the rich soil of shady woods, and moist places at the e( je of wooded lands, 
flowering from April to May, and fruiting in July. The American aborigines 



valued the root highly as a tonic, stomachic, and application to sore eyes and 
general ulcerations, as well as a yellow dye for their clothing and implements 
of warfare. 

The officinal preparations in the U. S. Ph. are : Extraction Hydrastis Fluidum 
and Tinctura Hydrastis. The Eclectic : Decoctum Hydrastis, Extractum Hydras- 
tis Hydro-alcoholicum, Tinctura Hydrastis Composita, Lotio Hydrastis Composita 
Tinctura Hydrastis and Vinum Hydrastis Compositum. 



& 



PARTS USED AND PREPARATION.-The fresh root, gathered as the plant 
is budding to blossom, or in the fall, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and 
weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly 
mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After stirrin 
the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to remai 
eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then poured off, strained and 
filtered, and presents the following physical properties : a reddish-orange color, by 
transmitted light, staining everything with which it comes in contact, a deep yellow 

• ; a persistent bitter, then burning taste ; no distinguishing odor, and a slightly 



acid 



Berberinum.— The pure alkaloid Berberina, one part to ten, or ninety-nine 



sugar of milk, and triturated. 



^ CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-Berberina {vide Berberis, 15). Dr. Mahla of 
Chicago proved this alkaloid identical with that obtained from Berberis (Am. Jour. 
Phar., Vol. xxxv., p. 433). 

Hydrastia, C,,H 23 N0 6 , an alkaloid discovered by A. B. Durand (Am. jour. 
Phar., Vol. xxiii., p. 13), has been referred to by many writers upon Phv 



try, as pure-white crystals, but J. U. Lloyd (Am. Jour. Phar., Vol. li., p. 16) 



determines that it cannot be extracted pure, but is always so intimately associated 
with a yellow substance that when viewed in quantity it shows easily the impurity. 
He decides that this yellowishness is not due to berberina. The crystals when 
viewed separately are in the form of brilliant, yellowish-white, glossy, quadran- 
gular prisms, becoming opaque when dry. Hydrastia fuses at 135 (275 F.), and 
decomposes at higher temperatures ; it is slightly soluble in cold alcohol, readily in 
hot, from which it is deposited on cooling in the crystalline form above described ; 
the taste is not bitter, but somewhat nauseous and acrid. 

Xanthopuccina, a third alkaloid, was determined by Herm. Lerchen (Am. 
Jour. Phar., Vol. L, p. 470) in the menstruum, after the extraction of berberina 
and hydrastia ; a yellow color is the only property given. 

Hydrastis contains, beside the above-mentioned bodies, a green fixed oil of a 
disagreeable odor and taste ; a little volatile oil, to which the odor of the root is 



9-3 

due; a black, resinous substance (Lloyd); albumen, sugar, starch, a fatty resin 
and 10 per cent, of mineral matters (Herm. Lerchen). 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.-When taken in large doses hydrastis causes a 
train of symptoms due to a hyper-secretion of the mucous membranes. If per- 
sisted in, it causes severe ulceration of any surface it may touch ; and a catarrhal 
inflammation of mucous surfaces, followed by extreme dryness and fission. It 
causes also a catarrhal inflammation of the mucous linings of the hepatic ducts 
and gall-bladder — showing in an icteric hue of the skin — and a similar condition 
of the bladder, catarrhal cystitis. 



o 



Description of Plate 9. 

1. Sepal (somewhat enlarged). 

2. Stamen " " 

3. Fruit. 

4. Pistil (somewhat enlarged). 
6. Seed. 



7. Whole plant from Newfield, N. Y., May 20, 1880. 



■ 




* 



u 




10. 



) 



J 





















\ 



* 






Y' 



1 






























r> 



7 



6 



(pm 



ad nai.del.el pinxt 



ACT&A SPICATA Linn. 



N. ORD.-RANUNCULACE^E. 

Tribe.-GIMIGIFUGEIE. 

GENUS.— ACT >E A,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



10 



ACT^EA ALBA. 



WHITE BANEBERR Y, 



SYN.— ACTJEA ALBA, BIGBL ; ACMJA SPICATA, VAR. ALBA, MICHX. ; 

ACT^EA PACHYPODA, ELL.; ACT^A AMERICANA, VAR. a, PURSH.; 

ACTJEA BRACHYPETALA, VAR. a, DC. 
COM. NAMES.— WHITE BANEBERR Y, WHITE COHOSH, AMERICAN HERB 

CHRISTOPHER, TOAD ROOT,' (PR.) HERBE DE STE. CHRISTOPHE 

BLANC ; (GER.) WEISSES CHRISTOPHSKRAUT. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF ACT^A ALBA, BIGEL. 



Description. — This delicate-flowered perennial grows to a height of 2 feet 
and sometimes slightly over. Root somewhat similar to that of cimicifuga, but 
neither as odorous, dark in color, nor as large. Stem erect, nearly smooth. Leaves 



Stamens 



large, 2-3-ternately decompound ; leaflets ovate, acutely cleft, and dentate or in- 
cisely serrate. Inflorescence a short, terminal ovate-oblong, simple raceme ; flowers 
creamy-white, sometimes by abortion declinous ; pedicles becoming pink, and thick- 
ened in fruit, until they are equal in size to the common peduncle. Sepals 4 to 5 
petaloid, early deciduous. Petals 3 to 9, small, slender and spatulate, their tips either 
truncate or emarginate, their bases converted into short claws.^ The petals of " 
species appear like metamorphosed stamens (slamiuidia). 
filaments white, slender; anthers innate, introrse. Pistil simple, solitary, with a 
sulcus at the insertion of the parietal placenta ; stigma sessile, 2-lobed. Fruit a 
cluster of bluish-white, many-seeded berries or carpels ; seeds smooth, compressed, 

and horizontal. 

History and Habitat.— The white cohosh is a common herb in our rocky 
woods, especially southward and westward. It flowers in May and ripens its 
pretty china-like fruit in October. This species, together with Actcea rubra (red 
cohosh), has received the attention of many writers upon medical botany. I he 
two species vary principally in the color of the berries and thickness of the 
pedicles ; probably slightly only in their properties and action. They are how- 
ever, widely different from Actcea racemosa, our Cimicifuga, and should under no 
circumstances be confounded with that drug. Just how much our species of Actaea 
differ from the European Actcea spicata, Linn., still remains to be proven. In. 
much we know, that the American species are much milder in their properties. 



* A/rrif, akte, elder, from a resemblance in the foliage. 



10-2 



The white cohosh hardly deserves a plac 



European baneberry 



thout doubt cover its entire action and more beside ; it will, however, ofter 
be found useful in many forms of reflex uterine headache, some types of chroni< 
fleetine rheumatism, congestion, in the female especially, and reflex uterine gas 
tralgia. 



Rafinesque says the 



are 



pellant, nervine, and used for debility 



Canada 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant, while 



fruit 



is ripening, should be chopped and pounded 
parts by weight of alcohol a 
sixth part of it, and the rest 



be tak 



i a pulp and weighed, 
pulp thoroughly mixed 



Th 



of the alcohol added. After mixing well, pour the 



whole 



ppered bottl 



allow it to stand eight da> 



a 



dark 



place. 

The tincture is then separated by decanting, straining and filtering 



Description of Plate io. 

ACT/EA SPIGATA, var. ALBA. 

i. Flower, showing calyx. 

2. Expanded flower of Actcza rubra. 

3. Stamen (enlarged). 

4. Pistil (enlarged). 

5. Horizontal section of ovary (enlarged). 

6. Top of plant, Ithaca, N. Y., May 10th, 1880 



* The Plate is wrongly titled Actaa spicata. 




N. ORD.-RANUNCULACE/E. 

Tribe.-CIMICIFUGE/E. 

GENUS.- CIMICIFUGA,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA 



11 



CIMICIFUGA 



BLACK COHOSH. 



SYN.-CIMICIFUGA RACEMOSA, ELL.; C. SERPENTARIA, PURSH.; AC- 

T^IA RACEMOSA, LINN. ; A. ORTHOSTACHYA, AND GYROSTACHYA 
WEND. ; A. MONOGYNIA, WALT. ; MACROTRYS ACT^EOIDES, RAP : 
M. SERPENTARIA, AND RACEMOSA, EATON; BOTROPHIS SERPEN- 
TARIA, RAP. ; B. ACT^IOIDES, PISCH AND MEY. ; CHRYSTOPHOR- 
IANA CAN A DENSE RACEMOSA, PLUCK. 

COM. NAMES.-BLACK COHOSH, BLACK SNAKE-ROOT.f RICH WEED.t 

SQUAW-ROOT,? RATTLE-WEED, RATTLE-ROOT, RATTLESNAKE 



ROOT, 

TRAUBENPORMIGES CHRISTOPHSKRAUT 



SWARZE 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF CIMICIFUGA RACEMOSA, LINN 



Description. — This tall, graceful, and showy perennial grows to a height ot 
from 3 to 8 feet. Rootstock thick, blackish, successively knotted and fringe- ringed, 
whitish-yellow internally, with a ring of cuneiform wood-hundles pointing inward ; 
rootlets long, simple, and uniform, a section under a lens shows the cuneiform- 
bundles arranged like a cross. Stem smooth, angular, or furrowed. Leaves alter- 
nate, tri-ternately divided, the lowermost almost radical, very large and ample, the 
petiole at its base almost as large as the stem ; leaflets various on the same petiole, 
simple, bifid, and trifid, all ovate-oblong, cut serrate. Inflorescence of very long, 
simple, or compound, virgate, inclined, upper-axillary or terminal racemes ; flowers 
scattered, foetid, creamy-white. Sepals '4-5, petal-like, scaphoid, early deciduous. 
Petals [Staminodia) 1-8, very small, long clawed, and 2-horned or forked ; apices 
antherose. Stamens numerous; filaments slender, club-shaped, creamy-white; 
anthers innate, introrse, yellow. Pistil solitary, simple ; ovary ovoid, sessile ; styl 
short ; stigma simple, inclined to be lateral, the centre somewhat cylindrically de- 
pressed, fruit numerous, dry, ovoid or globose, dehiscent carpels, arranged upon 
a raceme from 1 to 3 feet in length, and retaining each its stigma in the form of 
an oblique beak ; seeds semi-discoid, smooth, horizontal, and compressed. 



History and Habitat. — This indigenous plant is comparatively common all 

Cimexj a bug, //^ I drive away. A Siberian ecies being used as a vermifuge, 
t The black snake-root is Sanicula Canadensis (Umbellifer ). If written black-snake root the name might be 
applied, but does not apply. 

% Two other plants are known by this name, viz. : Collinsonia Canadensis (Labiate), and Pilea pumila (I'rticacex). 
I The true squaw root is Conopkolis (Orobanche) Americana (Orobanchaceae). 
|| This name properly belongs to many species of Nabalus (Composite). 



11-2 



the eastern half of the United States and in Canada, growing in rich, open 



oods, and along- the edges of fields, but especially noticeable on newly cleared 



des. When woods in its favorite localities are at all dense, the pi 
be found only in the borders. Black cohosh was a favorite remedy among all 
tribes of the aborigines, being largely used by them in rheumatism, disorders of 



s ' & 



menstruation, and slow parturition. It was also used as a remedy against the bites 
of venomous snakes, with what success history does not relate, but we can easily 

judge. 

The plant was first made known by Pluckenet in 1696; Colden recommended 

its use in 1743, and Dr. S. Garden in 1S23. In England its use began in i860.* 

Its uses at this time were confined to chorea, rheumatism, dropsy, hysteria, and 

affections of the lun^s. In regard to chorea, Dr. G. B. Wood statesf that he ad- 



ministered the drug in a case, which rapidly recovered under its use after the 
failure of purgatives and metallic tonics. In convulsions occurring periodically, 
connected with uterine disorder, Dr. Wood also derived the happiest effects from 
its use. In inflammatory rheumatism Dr. N. F. Johnson used the remedy with 
"the best results, the disease disappearing in from 2 to 10 days"; he says, "the 
more acute the disease the more prompt and decided will be the action of the 
drug." J Dr. A. Clapp§ used the drug in " chronic facial erysipelas, with satisfac- 
tory results." Dr. Williams says :|| " Indians and quacks recommend its use in 
rheumatism," etc. ; he then recommends it himself! The statement of Dr. Whee- 
ler^J that some eminent physicians thought it to be a good substitute for Secale 
cornutum in parturition, relaxing the parts and thereby rendering labor short and 
easy, is one that. should have received much attention. 

In all the above uses except mayhap those concerning the lungs, we have 

proven its application trustworthy. Its usefulness in phthisis when given in proper 

dosage is simply to palliate the cough through its action upon the nerve centres. 

It will be found in most cases to act with far more constant success in females than 

in males, as its action upon the female economy is marked and distinctive. 

The officinal preparations in the U. S. Ph. are : Extraction Cimicifugce Flu- 
idurn, and Tinctura Cimicifuga?. In the Eclectic Materia Medica: Decoctum Cimi- 
cifuga ; Extractum Cimicifiigce Alcoholicum and Fluidum ; Resina Cimicifugce ; 
Tinctura Cimicifugce ; Tinctura Cimicifugce Composita ;** Tinctura Colchici Com- 
posita,f\- and Enema Cimicifugce Composita.il 






PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root should be treated as in 
the preceding species. The resulting tincture is almost opaque ; in thin layers it 
has a deep olive-green color by transmitted light ; it retains the peculiar odor of 
the root ; its taste is at first peculiar, soon becoming very acrid and bitter, and its 
reaction acid. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Cimicifugin or Macrotin, theso-caWedresmoid, 



* Fluck. & Man., Pharmacographia, p. 16. ■}■ Dunglison's New Rem., p. 145- 

% Clapp, Cat., Am. Med. Ass'n, 1852, p. 725. \ Op. et loc. cit. 

1| Kept. Indig. Med Bot. Mass., Am. Med. Ass'n, 1849, P- 9M- f Bost. Med. and Surg. Jour., Sept., 1839, p. 65 

** Cimicifuga, Sanguinaria, and Phytolacca. ff Colchicum and Cimicifuga. 

XX Cimicifuga and Geranium maculatum. 



bee 



t strictly speaking a chemical derivative, being simply a precipitate of 

principles in the root are not soluble in water. An alkaloid has ho 

determined by T. E. Conard,* and corroborated by M S Falck f to 

bove name might be, but has not been, applied. This alkaloid is a r 



11-3 



hich 






crystalline body, having an intensely acrid taste, and is solubl 

form, and ether, slightly also in water. It has been determined "also 7n ~thc 
" resinoid." 

A resin soluble in alcohol and ether, another soluble in alcohol only; fatty 
and waxy matters, volatile oil having the odor of the root, green and brown color- 
ing matters, gum, uncrystallizable sugar, tannic acid, extractive, and other plant 
constituents have also been determined.^ 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— CimiciiW 

general, and causes through its action upon 



bral, cerebro-spinal and pelvic congestion, followed by inflammatory action, espe- 
cially upon the nerves themselves. The chorea-like spasmodic action followinj 

the exhibition of the drug is of two types, one having apparently a rheumati< 

basis, the other uterine ; the latter is most common, as the choreas curable by this 
drug will be found aggravated or originating at the age of puberty or during men- 
struation. It causes rheumatic pains resembling those of torticollis, lumbago, and 
especially pleurodynia, sympathetic angina pectoris, and rheumatoid gout. The 
drug seems also to cause irritation of the uterus directly, especially when this irri- 
tation is rheumatoid in its character, and in consequence the individual under the 
effects of the drug will present symptoms of epileptiform or hysteri< il spasms 
restlessness and jactitation of muscles, dysmenorrhea or amenorrhea, cephalalgia 
infra-mammary pain, etc., as the case may be. In pregnancy it often causes abor- 
tion, and in labor will stimulate the uterus and cause rapid, painless expansion of 
the parts. According to Dr. Chapman it produces free nausea, with abundant 
expectoration, followed by nervous trembling, vertigo, and remarkable slowness of 
the pulse. 



Description of Plate ii. 



i. Part of the summit of a plant showing one of th 



July 



2. Luwer portion of stem, with a part of the root showing the remains of the growth of the two pre- 



vious seasons. 






3. Portion of one of the smaller leaves. 

4. Section of the root. 

5. A sepal (somewhat enlarged). 

6. A staminodium (enlarged). 

7. Stamen (enlarged). 

8. Pollen x 300. 

9. Pistil (enlarged). 

10. Section of pistil (enlarged). 

11. Fruit. 

12. Section of capsule showing seeds. 



* Am. Jour. Phar., 187 1, \\ 1 5 1. 



f Pen / cit.y 1^84, |>. 4 >. 



% Tilghman, Jour. Phil. Coll. Phar., 1834, P- 20; ). S. Jon- . Am. i u, I \ar. f 1*43* P- U ", 1 

period, cit., 1861, p. 391 ; E. C Jones, Proc. Am. Phar. Assn, 1S65, p. 186; T. E. I m arcl, ** at. sup. ; M. S. Falck 

*rt m cit. sup. 









12 




























4 














3 



$m 



id nit del. et pint 



Magnolia GLAOcA,Linn. 



N. ORD. MAGNOLIACE/E. 

GENUS.— MAGNOLIA,* LINN 

SEX. SYST .— POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 



12 



MAGNOLIA GLAUCA 



SWEET BAY. 



SYN.— MAGNOLIA GLAUCA, LINN; M. VIRGINICA, a GLAUCA, LINN.; M 
FRAGRANS, SALISB.; M. LONGIPOLIA, SWEET. 

COM. NAMES. — SMALL, LAUREL, OR SWEET MAGNOLIA: SWEET. OI 



"WHITE BAY 



WOOD ; ELK OR INDIAN BARK 



SWAMP SASSAFRAS, OR LAUREL; BEAVER TREE, BREWSTER 
LE MAGNOLIER GLAUQUE: (GER.) MAGNOLIE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH FLOWERS OF MAGNOLIA GLAUCA, LINN. 



Description. — This beautiful swamp shrub usually grows to a height of from 
4 to 20 feet.f Bark smooth, whitish. Buds conical, silky ; leaves all scattered, 
oblong, oval, or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, thickish, shining green above and bluish- 
white beneath, evergreen southward, deciduous northward. Inflorescence solitary 
and terminal ; flowers globular, white, very fragrant. Sepals 3, oblong, scaphoid. 
Petals 6 to 9, erect, broadly ovate, and narrowed at the base. Stamens numerous, 
imbricated; filaments short ; anthers long, adnate, introrse. Pistils coherent in a 
mass aggregated upon the elongated torus. Fruit oblong, conical, small, and 
rather ligneous; carpels many, dehiscing by a longitudinal dorsal suture; seeds 
1 to 2 in each carpel, baccate, vermilion, hanging from the bursted carpels by an 
extenuate thread composed of spiral vessels ; endocarp bony. 

Magnoliacese. — This small but magnificent family of trees and shrubs, repre- 
sented in North America by 4 genera and 1 1 species, is characterized by having : 
the buds covered by membranous stipules ; leaves alternate, coriaceous, pinnately 
veined, entire, and punctate with minute pellucid dots. Flowers single, large, 
polypetalous, the calyx and corolla colored alike, in aestivation generally imbricate 
in 3 or more rows of 3, all deciduous. Stamens numerous, hypogynous ; filaments 
short; anthers long, adnate, introrse. Pistils many, coherent, generally closely 
packed together over the prolonged receptacle; styles short or none; stigmas 
simple. Fruit a fleshy, or dry cone, composed of many coherent carpels. Seeds 



1 



each carpel, anatropous; albumen fleshy; embryo minute, basal 



* In honor of Professor Magnol, a botanist of the 17th century, at Montpellier. 

t Mr. Britton observed, in Manahauken Swamp, Ocean Co., N. J., an individual with a diameter of trunk of 32.25 .nche 

whose rings showed a growth of 150 years. 



-12-2 



The only other proven drug of this order is the Asiatic Star-anise (Illicium 
ituni Linn.V an aromatic and carminative, often substituted in general practice 



for the true Aniseed, the fruit of an umbelliferous plant. The South A 



Winter's Bark, from Winter a aromatica, Murr., is used in Brazil as an aromatic 



pecially though 



The North American Illicium floridanum, Ell 



is reputed to have an action similar to that of aromatic tonics in general ; and the 
Tulip Tree (Liriodendron Tulipifera, Linn.) yields a bark that is at once bitter and 
aromatic, much valued as a stimulating tonic and diaphoretic in intermittents and 
chronic rheumatism ; it should be proven. The Javanese Aromadendron elegans 
has a native reputation as a carminative, stomachic, and antihystenc ; and the 
wood of Manglietia glauca is supposed to be antiputrefactive, therefore it is used 
by the inhabitants of the island for the manufacture of coffins. Several other 
genera furnish aromatic and bitter tonic barks, many of which are used by the 
natives of the countries in which they grow. 



History and Habitat. — The Sweet Magnolia is indigenous to North America, 
from Cape Ann and Long Island southward. At first it keeps to the seaboard, 
but gradually extends inland the farther south it is found. It grows in swamps, 
and expands its fragrant flowers from May (southward) to June and August. 

The use of the fresh bark, cones, and seeds of this species, together with 
those of M. grandiflora, acuminata, tripetala, and macrophylla, has descended to 
the laity and general practitioner from the Aborigines, who employed a warm 
decoction of the bark and cones extensively against rheumatism, and a cold infu- 
sion as an antiperiodic. The fresh bark has long been considered as a bitter, 
aromatic tonic, febrifuge, diaphoretic, antiperiodic and gentle laxative, in acute 
coryzas, bronchial catarrhs, chronic rheumatism, dyspepsia, remittent and inter- 
mittent fevers and typhoid states, being deemed contraindicated, however, if 
inflammation be present. The odor of the cut flowers, especially at night in a 
close room, is very penetrating, unpleasant, and to some insupportable, causing, 
in susceptible persons, a great oppression of the chest and vertigo. Dr. Wm. 
Barton " imputed to the odor the power of increasing the pain of inflammatory 
gout, and occasioning an exacerbation of a diurnal fever."* It is thoroughly 
believed in the South that a growth of magnolias in stagnant waters renders them 
pure and prevents the generation of malarial poisons. 

The bark is still officinal in the U. S. Ph. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh flowers are chopped and 
pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, 
the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol 
added. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered vial and 
allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture thus prepared 
should, after filtration, have a deep brownish-red color by transmitted light, a per- 
fume much like the wilted flowers, an acrid and bitter taste, and an acid reaction. 



* W. P. C. Barton, Med. Bot. loc. cit. 



•12-3 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-The flowers have not been examined; they 
probably, however, contain a volatile oil at least. The bark of M. grandiflora was 
examined by Dr. Procter * who found a volatile oil, resin, and a crystalline principle 
resembling liriodendrine. 

Magnolin. — This bitter principle was extracted from the fruit of M. umbrella 
by Wallace Procter, 1872, as acicular crystals, having a bitter taste. They are 
insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and chloroform, melt at 8o°-S2° (176 - 
179.6 F.), and emit white vapors at 125 (257 F.), which condense in oily drops, 
consisting partly of the original principle and of resin. (Wittstein.) 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The effects of the odor of the flowers, as 
reported by Drs. Barton. S. A. Jones.f and T. F. Allen.J are : Great uneasiness 
and oppression of the chest, with an inability to expand the lungs, a feeling as 
if having swallowed a large bolus of unmasticated food which distrei ed the 
stomach, and a tendency to fainting. Showing thus a dilation of the vascular 
system so commonly following the insufflation of strongly odorous flowers in 
susceptible persons. Magnolia certainly deserves a careful proving of the fresh 
bark and flowers; the flowers alone can hardly add to our medicaments while we 
have Cactus grandiflorus. 



Description of Plate 12. 



1. End of a flowering branch, Landisville, N. J., July 3d, 1 85. 

2. Stamen. 

3. Section of a carpel. 

4. Fruit. 

(2 and 3 enlarged.) 



* Am. Jour. Phar., 1842, p. 89. f Am - Hom - °*'- )^> »«75- X Smtye. P*rt M A vi.. 142. 





13. 






/ 









• « 






4 



3 







































<Sm 



id nat del et pinxt 



Asimina Triloba, Dunai. 



N. ORD.-ANONACE^. 



13 



GENUS.— AS I M I N A ,* ADANS 



SEX. SYST.— POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 



ASIMINA TRILOBA 



PA WPA W. 



SYN.— ASIMINA TRILOBA, DUNAL. ; ASIMINA CAMPANIFLORA, SPACH. ; 

ANNONA TRILOBA, LINN. ; ORCHIDOCARPUM ARIBTINUM, MICHX. ; 
PORCBLIA TRILOBA, PERS. ; UVARIA TRILOBA, TORR. AND GRAY. 

COM. NAMES.— PAWPAW, PAPAW,t AMERICAN CUSTARD-APPLE; (PR.) 

ASIMINIER ; (GER.) DREILAPPIGE ASIMINE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE RIPE SEEDS OF ASIMINA TRILOBA, DUNAL. 



Description. — This curious-fruited tree attains a height of from 10 to 30 feet, 
with about the same diameter of foliage. Bark smooth, grayish. Leaves long, 
thin, and membraneous, entire, oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, and are 
covered with a rusty-hairiness upon the nether surface when first expanding, but 
soon become entirely glabrous. Inflorescence solitary in the axils of the previous 
year's leaves ; flowers dull purple, appearing with, or just before, the leaves. Sepals 
3, ovate, much shorter than the petals. Petals 6, spreading, veiny, rounded-ovate, 
their upper third more or less recurved ; they are arranged in two rows, the outer 
larger, all enlarging after anthesis. Stamens indefinite, arranged in a globular 
head, thus concealing the ovaries and styles. Pistils few, their stigmas projecting 
beyond the stamens than which they are longer. Fruits 1-4, developed from each 
flower, they are oblong, rounded, pulpy, several-seeded, and resemble in shape 
the shorter red bananas. Seeds oval, horizontal, flattish-compressed, and sur- 
rounded by a fleshy aril. 

Anonacese.— This chiefly tropical order consists of trees or shrubs having 
naked buds and aromatic or fetid bark. Leaves alternate, entire, pinnate-veined, 
and usually punctate ; stipules wanting. ^Estivation valvular ; flowers large, dull 
colored. Sepals 3, often connected at the base. Petals 6, thick, arranged in two 
rows. Torus rounded, hypogynous ; stamens numerous or indefinite ; filaments 
very short, sometimes just perceptible; anthers adnate, extrorse ; connectivum 
fleshy, somewhat quadrangular, often nectariferous. Pistils numerous, crowded, 
and sometimes coherent, especially in fruit; styles short or wanting ; stigmas sim- 
ple, capitellate. Fruit fleshy or pulpy ; seeds anatropous, one or more in each 
ovary; testa brittle ; embryo basal, minute; albumen hard, ruminated. 



* Asiminier, the name applied by the French Colonists. 

f This name more properly applies to the West Indian Carua Papaya (I apayacea,) 



13-2 

The plants of this family are not generally considered medicinal, but Blume 
states that many species of the genera Uvaria, Unona, and Zylopia are employed 
in Java, but require caution, as they often cause vertigo, hemorrhage, and some- 
times abortion in pregnant states * The South American Frutta de Burro (Xylopia 
longifolia) is termed by Humboldt a valuable fruit, for use as a febrifuge, along the 
river Orinoco. Piper ALthiopicum is the seed of HabzcliasJithiopica ; another 
species of the same genus (//. aromalica) being used by the natives of Guiana as 
a spice. The Jamaica nutmeg (Monodora myristica) is said to be similar to, but 
not so pungent asi the nutmeg of commerce (Myristica moschaia). Jamaica bit- 
terwood (Xylopia glabra) is considered tonic and stimulant.f To the arts this 
order furnishes Jamaica Lancewood {Guatteria virgata), useful on account of its 
lightness and elasticity, in the manufacture of coaches, fishing-rods, and bows. 
Succulent fruits are yielded by Anncna Cherimolia (Cherimoyer), and Anona squa- 
mosa (Custard-apple). 



History and Habitat. — The common pawpaw is indigenous to the central 
belt of the United States from Western New York to the Mississippi and south- 
ward. It locates along streams where the soil is rich and frosts late. This small 
tree is a native, especially of the Ohio valley, where it flowers from March to May, 
according to the season. It is grown in a protected place in Central Park, New 
York City, but is not hardy north of Cincinnati. The fruit, when ripe, is soft, 
sweet, and insipid, having a taste somewhat between that of the May-apple and 
the banana, tending to the former. It was greatly prized by the aborigines, — who 
eagerly sought anything edible in the vegetable world — and now is occasionally 
exposed for sale in city markets. When green they have a very unpleasant odor, 
and are only fit to eat after having been touched by frost, when they turn from 
yellowish-green to black, and become internally of the color and consistence of 
custard.J It is claimed that they improve greatly in size, taste, and succulency 
upon cultivation. Three other species: A. grandiflora, A. parviflora, and A. 
pygmcea complete the genus north of Mexico. 

The former uses of this plant in medicine are of little or no importance. A 
tincture of the seed proves emetic ; the bark being bitter has been considered 
tonic and stimulant. The chemical properties and physiological action have never 
been — to my knowledge — determined. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The coarsely powdered, fresh, ripe 
seeds are covered with five parts by weight of alcohol, and allowed to remain 
eight days in a well-stoppered bottle in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture thus prepared is filtered off. It has a clear, pale, canary color 
by transmitted light ; an astringent straw-like taste ; an odor somewhat like that 
of the red raspberry, and a slight acidity. 

All that is known of the medicinal power of this drug is a proving by Dr. 



* Lindley, Flor. Med., p. 29. f Idem, pp. 27-8. % Whence the name "American Custard-apple." 






13-3 



Eisenboeg.* A preparation from the seeds, bark, and green fruit might prove of 
more utility, and possess greater power of action. 






Description of Plate 13. 

1. End of a flowering branch (several blossoms missing) from North Bend, Ohio, May 15th, 1884 

2. Calyx and torus, after removal of the stamens. 

3. A stamen (enlarged). 

4. Pollen x 250. 

5. Fruit and full-grown leaf. 

6. Seed and opened aril. 



Drawn from living specimens received from Ohio through the kindness of Mr. R. PI. Warder, n of the late In 
John A. Warder, President of the American Forestry Association, 1881. 



* Allen, Ency. Pure Mat. Med., Vol. I, p. 498-9. 








••• 



\ 



^ 



* • • -m* 



""*♦.-. 



* « 



•-•, 



■ 


















•■• ». ##••* 



I 



i 



/ 










TO. .ad nat.dei.et pinxt. 



MENISPeRMUM CANADfcNSE.Linn 



N. ORD.-MENISPERMACE^E. 

GENUS.— MEN IS PERM U M ,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— DKECIA POLYANDRIA. 



14 



MENISPERMUM 



YELLOW PA RILL A. 



MENISPERMUM CANADENSE, LINN. ; M. ANGULATUM, MCEN. ; M. 
SMILACINUM, D. C. ; CISSAMPELOS SMILACINA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— YELLOW PARILLA, CANADIAN MOONSEED, TEXAS OR 
YELLOW SARSAPARILLA, MAPLE VINE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF MENISPERMUM CANADENSE, L. 



F 



Description. — This perennial climber reaches a length of from 8 to 15 feet. 
Root cylindrical, long, yellow ; stem slender. Leaves ample, peltate, with the inser- 
tion of the petiole near the base, 3 to 7 lobed or angled ; lobes obtuse or more or 
less acute ; venation palmate, the veins pubescent below; petioles about the length 
of the leaves. Inflorescence in long, supra-axillary compound racemes or panicles. 
Sepals 4 to 8, obovate-oblong, arranged in a double series. Petals 6 to 8, small, 
somewhat cuneate, fleshy, with a thickened free margin. Stamens 12 to 20 (in the 
sterile flowers), as long as the petals; filaments hardly thickened at the summit; 
anthers innate, 4-celled. Pistils 2 to 4 (in the fertile flowers), raised upon a 
short, common torus, usually perfecting but two drupes ; stigmas flattened, 
a globose-reniform, black, and stipitate drupe, furnished with a bloom, and retain- 
ing the mark of the stigma ; nutlet more or less lunate, wrinkled and grooved, 
laterally flattened ; embryo slender, horseshoe-shaped ; cotyledons filiform. 

Menispermacese.— This goodly-sized family of tropical or sub-tropical, woody 
climbers, is represented in North America by but 3 genera and 6 species. Leaves 
alternate, palmate or peltate ; stipules none. Inflorescence in axillary racemes or 
panicles ; flowers small, monoecious, dioecious or polygamous ; estivation imbricate. 
Sepals arranged in two or more rows, deciduous. Petals usually equal in number 
to the sepals, hypogynous. Stamens monadelphous or separate, equal in number to 
the petals and opposite them, or from 2 to 4 times as many, adnate or innate, com- 
posed of 4 horizontal ovoid lobes arranged tip to base, and opening longitudinally 
(apparently horizontal. See Fig. 6). Pistils 3 to 6; ovaries several, united or 
separate, nearly straight; stigmas apical but looking downward in fruit on account 
of the incurving of the ripening ovaries. Fruit a i-celled drupe ; seeds . in each 
cell ; embryo large, long and curved, surrounded by the albumen ; albumen scanty. 

Our only proven plant of this order, beside Menispermum, is the Indian 
Cocculus Indicus (Anamirta paniculata, Cole), a narcoti co-pois o n, used by th, 

'„ « cAfirtua seed- the seed being lunate in shape. 
* Mrjpri, mene, moon ; <nrzpiia, sperma, seeu , mc w & 



14-2 



stupefy fish, and supposedly in this country and Europe to give bitt 



malt hq 



pon 



Many other species are used in medicine, of which the following hold a mc 
ss permanent place: The Brazilian Pareira brava, the; roots of Chonodrodendt 
ttosum, R. et P., a tonic and diuretic, considered almost specific in its acti 
the mucous membranes of the genito-urinary tract; the Indian Gulanc 



{Tinospora cordifolia, Miers.), a valuable tonic, antiperiodic and diuretic; the 
African Columbo {Jateorhiza Columba, Miers.). a bitter stomachic and mild tonic, 
often used with good effect in vomiting of pregnancy and atonic dyspepsia ; the 
West-Indian False Pareira brava (Cissampclos Pareira, Linn.), more often used 
than the true article for the purposes mentioned. The root of the Crayor and 
Senegal Cocculus Bakis, Guill., is used by the natives in the treatment of their 
intermittents and in urethral discharges; the root of the Cochin-China C. Jibraurea, 
I ). C, is used like the former, and also in various liver affections ; C. cincrascens 
and A. platyphyllus, St. Hil., command the same attention by the Brazilians; 
while the Javanese use C. crispus, D. C , which is powerfully bitter, in like troubles. 
Cocculus acumiuatus, D. C, is considered alexiteric in Brazil. The Malabar and 
Ceylon Clypea Burmanni, \V. and A., is employed, according to Lindley, in inter- 
mittents and hepatic disturbances, as well as a remedy against dysentery and 
hemorrhoids. Cissampelos ovalifolia, D. C, in Brazil, and Abuta rufescens, Aubl., 
in Guayana are used, like most of the members of this order, as a remedy in 
intermittents and obstruction of the liver. 



History and Habitat. — The Canadian Moonseed is indigenous to North 
America, where it is quite common on the banks of streams from Canada south- 
ward to the Carolinas and westward to the Mississippi. 

Our first knowledge of this plant as a remedy was undoubtedly handed down 
from the Aborigines, who are said by Rafinesque to have used the root in scrofu- 
losis ; the early settlers also found it useful as a diuretic in strangury in horses. 
Its employment generally by early practitioners has been very similar to that 
of Sarsaparilla, i. e., in mercurial, syphilitic, scrofulous and rheumatic diatheses ; 
also as a laxative and tonic in general debility, atonic dyspepsia and kindred dis- 
orders ; and as a remedy in pleural adhesions and inflammation of the alimentative 
mucous membranes. 

Menispermum was admitted to the U. S. Ph. at the last revision, the rhizome 
and rootlets being now officinal. In the Eclectic Materia Medica its preparations 
are : Decoctum Menispermi, Menispermin, and as a component of Syrupus Rumecis 
Compositus ;* 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root is chopped and pounded 
to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp 
thoroughly mixed with one sixth part of it and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After stirring the whole well, pour it into a well-stoppered bottle and let it star 



d 



days in a dark, cool pi 



* Vellowdock root ; False-bittersweet, root bark ; American ivy bark ; Figwort ; and Moonseed root. 



14-3 






The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, is opaque ; in thin layers 
it has a deep madder-lake color by transmitted light; a bitterish odor; an acid, 
bitter and astringent taste ; and acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Berberina. 



Prof. 




M. Maisch, who first 



investigated this root,* found a small quantity of this alkaloid, the nature of which 
is detailed in the next drug, page 15-2. He also found a second alkaloid, which 
was afterward named 



Menispermine.f — A white, amorphous, tasteless alkaloid, insoluble in water, 
slightly soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform. 

Menispine.t — This second specific alkaloid, determined by Barber in his 
analysis, differs in solubility and tests from both oxycanthine\ and m mispermine . 
It resulted as a whitish, amorphous, very bitter powder, slightly soluble in water 
ether and chloroform, and very soluble in absolute alcohol. Tincture of iodim 
gives a dark-red precipitate with this body, and with mcuispermiuc, a yellow- 
precipitate. 

— This specific tannin gives a dark-green color 



Menispermo-tannic Acid, 
with ferric chloride. 

Two yellowish resins, one soluble in ether, and the general constituent oi 

plants, were also determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Prof. E. M. Hale's experiments with from 35 
drops upward of a tincture of the root, and various doses of the "resinoid" menis- 

permhie, resulted as follows: Temporal and occipital headache, with stretching and 



yawning, and fullness of the head; swollen tongue; salivation; dryness of th< 
buccal mucous membranes and of the throat; nausea; thirst; colic; rectal ten. 
mus; scanty, high-colored urine; aching of the extremities; itching of the skin 

restlessness and troubled sleep. 

Excessive doses cause an increase in the rate and volume of the pulse, and 

The action of the drug is that of an irritant to 
the alimentary tract, resulting in increased seer tions from 



excessive vomiting - and 
the nerves eovernino" 



purging 



the mucous membranes. 



Description of Plate 14 



J 



2. End of stem 



6 



Staminate flower. 



4. Sepal. 

5. Petal. 

6. Stamen. 

y. Female flower. 

I Carpel. 

Outline of a leaf. 
(3-8 enlarged.) 



9 



Am. Jour. P/iar., 1863,303. 

% Name proposed by Prof. Maisch, Ibid. 



f If. L. Barber, Am. Jour, Phar. % 188 \o\ 



I See page 15 2 



j| Harber, /■ 




*» 



<jk. 











adnatdel.etpir.xt. 



Berberis 



Vulgaris, Linn 



N. ORD -BERBERIDACEiE. 

GENUS.— BERBERIS,* LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— IIEXANDRIA MONOGYN1A. 



"15 











BARB ERR Y. 



SYN— BERBERIS VULGARIS, LINN.; BERBERIS VULGARIS, VAR. CAN- 
ADENSIS, TORR., SPINA ACIDA ; BERBERIS DUMETORUM, RAIL 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON BARBERRY, BERBERRY; (FR.) EPINE-VINETTE ; 

(GER.) SAURDORN. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT BARK OF BERBERIS VULGARIS, LINN. 



Description— This attractive bushy shrub grows to a height of from 3 to 8 
feet ; the stem-wood, inner-bark and pith are yellow. Leaves inversely egg-shap< d, 
short-petioled, closely serrate, and bristly-toothed. Occurring either singly or in a 
dense fascicle above the spines, they are of a cold-green color and very acid; 
spines triple, branched or sometimes simple, minutely maculate and surrounded 
by the rosette of leaves. Inflorescence long, drooping, many-flowered racenv 5, of 
pale yellow flowers. Bractlets 2 to 6, situate about the base of the calyx. Sepals 
6, deciduous, rounded, the outer three smaller. Petals 6, entire, obovate, concave, 
with two minute, oblong, deeper-colored glandular spots at the base, inside and 
above the short claw. Stamens 6, their filaments ligulate, blunt, opposite the 
petals, but shorter and attached to their bases; anthers adnate. Pistil about the 
length of the stamens ; ovary more or less inflated-cylindrical ; style rarely p 
very short; stigma short, flattened 



Fruit a one- to nine-seeded 



obloncr, scarlet, sour berry, evenly depressed in the median diameter ; seeds erect 

' short stalk risine from the base of the cell, oblong, with a crust-like 



on a M „„ _.. ..~... to 



tegum 



Berberidacese.-Shrubs or herbs with alternate leaves and perfect flowers. 
Sepals 3 to 9, deciduous, often colored and furnished with a calyculus of petal-like 
scales, all together with the petals imbricate in two or more rows in aestivation 
(Jeffersonia with a single row). Petals as many as the sepals Stamens hypogy- 

mber to the petals and opposite them (Podophyllum tw.ee as 



eq 



many) ; filaments short ; anther dextrorse, opening (except Podophyllum) by 
valves or hinged lids at the top. Pistil only one, ovary simple solitary; style 
short or wanting ; stigma flattened. Fruit a capsule or berry with either a few 
seeds at the top or bottom of the cell, or many, situated along the whole extent of 
the ventral ridge ; all anatropous, and furnished with albumen ; embryo small 
(Berberis excepted) 



* From Amyrberis, Arabic for the fruit. 



15-2 



food 



History and Habitat -Be rberis was well known to the ancients as a medi 
a dietetic for the sick, and a dye. As a drug it was steeped in beer and j 
to patients suffering from jaundice, as well as to check hemorrhages ; as a 
preparation for the sick, the berries were made into a confection, and used as a 
refrigerant in fevers and burning gastric ailments ; those not sick used the bruised 
leaves in a manner similar to sorrel as a sauce for meats ; as a dye, the roots were 
steeped with strong ash-lye, and used to give the hair a yellow color. The 
same preparation is now sometimes used to dye wool, while by using alum, in place 
of the ash-lye, it makes a good as well as a beautiful dye for linen fabrics. A jelly 
made of the berries is still used in lieu of tamarinds as a pleasant refrigerant, as 
so also is a confection. Its popular use as a remedy — barberry bark and cic 
was held in all forms of abdominal inflammation, but especially those accompanied 
with hepatic derangement and jaundice. 

Berberis vulgaris is indigenous to Great Britain and other parts of Europe, 



t> — " * & 



and is becoming quite thoroughly naturalized here, especially in the Eastern States, 
blossoming from May to June. It is cultivated in many parts of the country 
as an ornamental bush, on account of its beautiful berries. Our own species, B. 
Canadensis, Pursh., is a shrub about three feet high, with less bristly teeth to the 
leaves, a few-flowered raceme, petals notched at the apex, and oval berries. In 
Berberis proper, upon the summer shoots may be seen a perfect instance of 
gradation, in all forms, from the leaf as described above, to a fully-developed 
spine, a fine instance of vegetable morphology. The leaves of the barberry 
are at times, especially in Europe, infested with a peculiar blight; Aecidium Ber- 
beridis (Microspheria Berberidis ; Lysiphe Berberides) a member of the coniomy- 
cetous fungi; order, uredinei. It consists in its full-grown condition of little cups 
filled with a reddish or brownish powder (spores), formed by a bulging upward 
and bursting of the epidermis of the leaf, by the parasite developed within. This 
blight caused much fear at one time in Europe, upon the supposition that it was 
communicated to grain, which however was very probably false. 

Berberis, like many other excellent remedies, has been dismissed this year 
(1882) from the U. S. Ph. In the Eclectic Materica Medica it is still retained, 
though not in an officinal preparation. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark of the root. This is 
coarsely powdered and weighed. Then after adding two parts by weight of alcohol 
the whole is put into a well-stoppered bottle and allowed to stand eight days in a 
dark, cool place, shaking the contents twice a day ; the tincture is then strained and 
filtered. Thus prepared, it has a deep orange-brown color by transmitted light ; 
and stains the neck of the' bottle yellow. It has an extremely bitter taste, and a 
slight acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Berberin, C^ H 17 NO,. This alkaloid was 
first discovered in 1824, in the bark of Geoffroya inermis* two years afterward in 
the bark of Xanthoxylum lava Herculis,f in 185 1 in the root of Hydrastis 
Canadensis, J and in 1835 m the bark of Berberis vulgaris ;§ yet, it is only lately 

*Jamaicin. f Xar.thropicrit. + Ilydrastin. | Berbtnn. 



15-3 



that its true properties were recognized. It exists in a number of other plants, 
among which of particular interest to us are Coptis trifoliata, Caulophyllum, and 
Xanthorrhiza. Berberin crystallizes in fine yellow needles of a strong and per- 
sistent bitter taste, losing water at ioo° (21 1° F.), and fusing at 120 (248°?.) to 
a reddish-brown resinoid, decomposing at higher heat. Berberin is soluble in 
water and alcohol. 

Oxyacanthin,* C, 2 H 4G N 2 O n (Berbina, Vinetina). This bitter alkaloid exists 
together with the berberin in the root. It is a non-crystallizable, white, electric 
powder, but will form in needles upon the addition of ether or alcohol; it turns yellow 
by exposure in sunlight, has an alkaline reaction, loses 2,^3 per cent, weight upon 
exposure to ioo° (2i2°F.), fuses at 139 (282°.2 F.), and like berberin decomposes 
upon subjection to higher temperatures. It is soluble in both water and alcohol, 
though not freely. (Et supra Wittstein.) 

The acidity of the leaves and fruit is due to the presence of oxalic acid. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Berberis in moderate doses produces fe\< r- 
ishness, inflammation of the mucous membranes from the throat to the intes- 
tines, and dysentery. It causes also a high degree of inflammation of the 
kidneys with hematuria. It seems to act with much force upon the venous 



ystem, causing pelvic engorgements and hemo 



ly med 



purely symptomatic. The action as above given refers t<> man ; upon animal 
uch effects appear to follow, even though experiments were made with the 



alkaloid Berbe 



Description of Plate 15. 



1. End of branch in flower, with old leaves, Salem, Mass., June 4, 1880. 

2. Flower (enlarged). 

3. Fruit. 

4. Stamen (enlarged). 

5. Petal (enlarged, showing glands). 



* Crate«us oxyacmiiha contains an alkaloid by this name 



16 




<jfm. 



ad nat.del.et pinxt. 



Caulophyllum 



THALICTROiDES, Michx. 



N. ORD -BERBERIDACE^. 



16 



GENUS.— CAULOPHYLLUM,* MICHX 



SEX. SYST.— HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



CAULOPHYLLUM 



BLUE COHOSH. 



SYN.— CAULOPHYLLUM THALICTROIDES, MICHX. ; LEONTICB 1 

ROIDBS, LINN. ; LBONTOPETALON THALICTROIDES, HILL. 

COM. NAMES.— BLUE COHOSH, PAPPOOSE-ROOT, SQUAW-ROO r 

BERRY4 BLUE GINSENG, YELLOW GINSENG; (FR.) COHOCE 
(GEIU BLAU COHOSCH. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF CAULOPHYLLUM THALICTROIDES, 

MICHX. 



Description. — This erect, perennial herb, attains a growth of fro 



i 




feet. Root horizontal or contorted, wrinkled and branched, showing many up- 
right nodules, bearing at their summits the scars of previous stems, and giving 
off numerous cylindrical, branching rootlets from the older portions. Stem sim- 




glaucous when young, smooth when old, arising from several imb 
membraneous scales. Leaves large, triternately decompound, the upper much 
smaller and biternate (pi. 16, fig. i) ; leaflets 2 to 3 lobed, obtusely wedge-shape at 
the base ; petioles blending with the stem in such a manner as to render their 
junction almost obscure. Inflorescence a loose raceme or panicle ; peduncle aris- 
ing from the base of the upper leaf; flowers purplish or yellowish-green. Sepals 
6, oval-oblong, with 3 small bractlets at the base. Petals 6, gland-like, with a 
short claw and a somewhat reniform or hooded body, the whole much smaller 
than the sepals, at the base of which they are inserted. Stamens 6, overlaying, 
and about the same length as the petals ; anthers oblong, 2-celled, the cells open- 
ing by uplifting valves. Pistils gibbous; ovary resembling the anthers in form, 
ZJL o„„\— -—, stigma minute, unilateral. Fruit a 2-seeded pod; 
picarp thin, papyraceous, bursting and withering before fertilization is complete, 
eavingthe naked seeds to farther develop upon their erect, thick funiculi 1; /-- 



d ; style short, ap 



'p fleshy, deep blue ; albumen corneous ; e 
n of the natural order, under Berberis, 15 



bryo minute, apical. Read descrip- • 



History and Habitat.-The Blue Cohosh is indigenous to the United States, 

growing abundantly in moist, rich woods, from Canada southward to Kentucky 

^T^^^ -e-bling the petiole of a large leaf. 



f The true squaw 



m ; r ;,;r m ;r;;; y woV » — *-« - »-*- (—-> 



16-2 

and the Carolinas. It blossoms from April to May, before the full development 
of the leaves. The berries are mawkish, insipid, and without special flavor. The 
seeds are said to resemble coffee when roasted. 

The aborigines found in Caulophyllum their most valuable parturient; an 
infusion of the root, drank as tea, for a week or two preceding confinement, ren- 
dering delivery rapid and comparatively painless. They also used the root as a 
remedy for rheumatism, dropsy, uterine inflammation, and colic (Raf). These 
uses have been proven reliable by all methods of practice since. 

The root is officinal in the U. S. Ph. The preparations in the Eclectic Ma- 
teria Medica are : Extraction Caulophylli Alcoholicum, Resina Caulophylli, and 
Tinctura Caulophylli Composita* 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root, gathered in early spring, 
should be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight 
of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the 
rest of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, and pouring it into a 
well-stoppered bottle, allow it to stand at least eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, obtained from the above mass by filtration, should have a deep 
orange-red color, by transmitted light, a taste at first sharp and penetrating, then 
sweetish, an acid reaction, and should foam largely on succussion. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Saponin. This body was discovered in the 
roots of Caulophyllum by Prof. Mayer. A. E. Ebertf corroborates the discovery, 
and adds the presence of two resins, one soluble in alcohol and ether, the other 
not soluble in ether. 



Caulophyllin.— The mass sold under this name is a mixture of the resins, 
extracted by simply pouring the partly-evaporated alcoholic tincture into water. 

Ebert determined also gum, starch, and a greenish-yellow coloring 
beside the general plant constituents. 



matte 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The dust of the powdered root is extremely 
irritating to the mucous membranes with which it comes in contact, so much so 
that the Lloyds say.J « workmen dislike to handle it, some even preferring capsi- 
cum." This irritation follows the administration of the drug throughout the body, 



but especially upon the fern 



organs. It also exhibits the power of 



causing contractions of both voluntary and involuntary muscular fib 
showing in the gravid uterus especially ; here it does not cause th 



mou. 



of ergot, but intermittent and more successful ones. Its spasmod 



action on general muscles is somew 



ke. Caulophyllum also causes 



many forms of constant pains in the small joints, as well as fleeting rheumatic 
pains in the extremities. There is hardly an American remedy in our Materia 



Caulophyllum, Secale, Polygonum, and Oil of Sabi 
t Am. Jour. Phar., 1864, p. 203. 
\ " Berberidacea," C. G. and J. U. Lloyd, 187S. 



11 a 



16-3 

Medica that needs, and probably merits, a more thorough proving, upon lemal< 
especially, than Caulophyllum ; and the sooner it is don the better able will we 
be to cope with many of our most obstinate uterine cases. 



Description of Plate j6. 



i. Summit of flowering plant, Ithaca, N. Y., April 18th, i to 

2. Root, rootlet, sheathing scales, and item* 

3. Flower (enlarged). 

4. An enlarged sepal, showing the gland-like petal | aUrg I 

5. Under surface of sepal, showing bract (enlarged . 

6. Pistil (enlarged). 

7. Stamen (enlarged), showing open anther-c ell. 

8. Pollen x 200 (3 views). 

9. Section of the root. 




17. 








$m. 



ad Mi dcl.et piaxt 



Podophyllum Peltatum, Linn 






N. ORD.-BERBERIDACE^:. 



GENUS.— PODOPHYLLUM,* LINN 



17 



SEX. SYST.— POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 






PODOPHYLLUM. 



MA Y-APPLE. 



SYN.— PODOPHYLLUM PELTATUM, LINN.; ANAPODOPHYLLUM O ANA- 
DENSE, CATESBY; ACONITIFOLIUS HUMILIS, Etc., MENTZ. 

COM. NAMES.— MAY-APPLE, INDIAN-APPLE, HOG-APPLE, WILD LEMON, 

DUCK'S FOOT, WILD JALAP, PECA, RACCOON -BERRY, MAN- 
DRAKE;! (PR.) PODOPHYLLE; (GER.) FUSSBLATT, SCHILDBLATT- 
IGER ENTENFUSS. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF PODOPHYLLUM PELTATUM, LINN 



Description.— This well-known plant grows to a height of from 8 to 18 inche 
Root perennial, horizontal, extending several feet; the annual growths ar<- fro 



i to 3 inches in length, distinguishable by the scars of previous stems ; they 



& 



ylindrical, from % to % inches in diameter, and give off a fe 



fibrous rootlets. Stems single, simple, erect, and rounded, the flowerless one 
surmounted by a single 7 to 9 lobed leaf, round in its general outline, peltate in 
the centre, and somewhat resembling an umbrella ; the flowering stems generally 



bifurcated at the summit, thus bearing two leaves, with a flower, at the bifurcation. 
Leaves of the flowering stems 2, somewhat one-sided and deeply lobed, the lobes 
variously incised and toothed ; drooping at the edges, and strongly marked by the 
prominent roundish ribs below. Inflorescence a single, drooping, pedunculated 
flower, generally in the fork of the stem, but sometimes varying grea " 
location. J Calyx during the prefloral stage, with three fugacious gn n 
at its base; sepals 6, breaking off from the peduncle as the bud expands, never 
appearing upon the flower except when, by accident, one of them clings to and 
deforms a petal. Petals either 6 or 9, obovate, creamy-white, and fleshy. Stamens 
generally 12 to 18, twice as many as the petals; filaments short; anthers large, 
flattened, opening extrorsely by a single longitudinal line, thus forming what 



b 



Pistil 



■ °P 
might be termed two lateral valves, hinged upon the inner surface; pollen shap 

like grains of rice, and furnished with three comparatively deep sulci, 
pie ; ovary more or less ovoid, 1 -celled ; ovules many, situated in many rows upon 
a broad, lateral placenta, extending the whole length of the cell ; style not mani- 
fest ; stigma more or less peltate-globose, composed of a number o f fleshy lobe s 

Tju^ ^ a foot . * w tkylloH, a leaf. P-bably from a supposed l«ke*e» of the leaf to the webbed fool of 

ome aquatic bird. , 

f The true mandrake is Atropa mandragora ; habitat, south of Europe. 

% See article by Foerste, Bull. Torr. Club, 1884, p. 63. 



17-2 



exp 



closely set, each resembling a half meat of the hickory-nut. Fruit an egg-shaped, 
yellow edible berry, I to 2 inches long, irregularly blotched, and retaining the 
withered stigma, or is marked by its scar; seeds enclosed within a copious, pulpy 
arillus ; embryo minute, situated at the base of the fleshy albumen. 

History and Habitat.— The May-apple is indigenous throughout the United 
States, growing profusely upon wet meadows and in damp, open woods ; it flowers 
in May, and fruits in August The apples, when fully ripe, are gathered, especially 
by children, who seem to relish their sweet, mawkish taste. I have also seen them 

)sed for sale in markets, though catharsis often follows indulgence in them, 
and, to susceptible persons, it is often quite severe. The fruit tastes somewhat 
like that of the paw-paw (Asimina triloba), and is much esteemed by the abo- 
rigines. The odor of the flowers is nauseous ; I am always forcibly reminded 
of a bad case of ozaena when inhaling their perfume (?). The foliage and stems, 
when appearing in spring, have been used for a potherb, and in some cases with 
fatal results. Only one species of Podophyllum is recognized in this country, 
although Rafinesque has mentioned two others, together with ten named varieties. 
There is, however, one other species of this genus growing in the mountains of 
Nepaii 1, the Podophyllum hex and rum. 

This plant constitutes one of the principal remedies used by the American 
aborigines, by whom it is especially valued on account of its cathartic action. 
Their use of the drug as an anthelmintic seems to be successful only as far as 
purging is concerned ; specifically, it has no anthelmintic power. The use of podo- 
phyllum as a component of cathartic pills is very general. 

The officinal preparations of the U, S. Ph. are : Absiractum Podophylli, Ex- 
tr actum Podophylli, Extractum Podophylli Fluidttm, and Resin a Podophylli ; the 
Eclectic : Decoctum Podophylli, Tinctura Podophylli and Podophyllin, and as a 
component of Emplastrum Picis Compositum, Pi lute Aloes Composite?, Tinctura 
Corydalis Com p., Pilulcz Baptiste Composite, Pi lute Copaibe? Composite?, Pilules 
Ferri Composite?, Pilule? Leptandrini Composite, Pilute Podophyllini Composite?, 
Pulvis Leptandrini Co?npositus\ and Pulvis Podophyllini Compost tus. 

■ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. -The fresh root should be procured 
after the fruiting season, and chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. 
Then take two parts by weight of alcohol, mix the pulp thoroughly with one- 
sixth part of it, and add the rest. After stirring the whole well pour it into a 
well-stoppered bottle, and allow it to stand at least eight days in a dark, cool 
place. The tincture, separated by straining and filtering, should have a brownish- 
orange color by transmitted light, a bitter, acrid taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— From many careful examinations and assays 
of the root of this plant, F. B. Power* and Prof. Maischf claim the absence of any 
alkaloid, their observations in this respect being corroborated by Podwissotzki, 
whose exhaustive analyses of the resin % are largely drawn from here. 






1877. 

f Am. your. Phar., 1879, P- 5^0. 

% Archiv. fur experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmacognosies v. xiii, I and 2, 1880; and Pharm. Zeitschrift fur 
Russland, Nos. 44-50. 1881. F. B. Power, in Am. Jour. Phar., 1882, p. 102. 



I 



17-3 



cr 



Podophyllin.— A resin mass, first observed and used by Prof. John Kir w 
(1835). This resin is prepared substantially as follows : The root is exhausted 
with alcohol by percolation, and the alcohol evaporated from the percolate until 
it is of a syrupy consistence ; this is warmed, and poured into many times its bulk 
of cold water constantly agitated, and allowed to stand for twenty-four hours, when 
the resin will be precipitated ; this precipitate should be washed by decantation, 

d pressing, and dried at a temperature of about 8o° F. ; greater heat 



ders it darker, and the addition of alum to the water gives it a deep 



> 



color. Podophyllin prepared as above is of a blanched yellowish-gray coloi 
slightly soluble in water, partly in ether, and boils at 124 (255 F.). The yield 
of the resin is about eighty-four pounds to the ton; highest in the month of April, 



July 



* 



Podophyllin contains, according to Podwissotzk 



Picropodophyllin, C n H 8 2 + H 2 0. — This body purifies into colorless, silk) 
delicate crystals, soluble in strong alcohol, choloroform, and ether, insoluble in 
water, and low-per cent, alcohol, and melts at from 200 to 210 (392 to 410 F.). 
Picropodophyllin, when in solution, possesses a very bitter taste, and the action 
of podophyllin intensified. 

Podophyllotoxin, C.H.XL — A bitter amorphous substance, soluble in dilut- 



alcohol and hot water, precipitating from the latter, on cooling, in fine flakes. It 
medical properties are very similar to picropodophyllin, and its availability greatei 

as it is more soluble. 



Picropodophyllinic Acid.— This resinous acid is notable from the fact that it 
holds in solution the active principle of podophyllin, crystalline picropodophyllin. 
In its pure form, or as nearly pure as traces of picropodophyllin will allow, it is in 
the form of hornlike oranules, readily soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether. 



C'HO . This body, having none of the emetic or 



10" X 8 W 4 



cathartic properties of podophyllin, is soluble in alcohol and 



ther: from 



h needles, hav 



By exposu 



podophy 



takes on a greenish color. It melts at 247 to 250 (476.6 to 4S2 F.). It 
body that the investigator claims is due the griping pains produced by 



> 

>phyllinic Acid.-This principle results as a brown amorphous resinous 
body, soluble in alcohol and ether, insoluble in water, and having no action upon 
the animal organism. 

Fatty oils and extractive matters were also determined. The claims ai to 

the presence of berberin and saponin have been entirely refuted, as before nv-n- 



tioncd 



be 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.-The force of podophyllum seems to 
irely expended upon the 1 i mngjnembran^o f rtealm e n ta r y canal. Wha te 

* Biddle, Am. Jour. J'har., 1879, p. 544- 






17-4 



• 

ted upon those organs, and the glands in connection with this 



far as known, reflex and sympathetic. 

On Animals —Among other experiments with this drug upon animals, those 
of Dr. Anstie seem to be the most characteristic. He found, resulting from his 
many applications of an alcoholic solution to the peritoneal cavity direct, that no 
local inflammation arose, although an intense hyperemia occurred in the duo- 
denum especially, and the whole of the small intestine, even going so far as to 



breaking down of the tissues and 



discharge 



of glairy mucus streaked with blood ; this hyperemia ceased usually at the ileo- 
cecal valve. Post mortem the mucous-membranes were found inflamed and cov- 
ered with bloody mucus. Other observers noted that retching, salivation, and 
emesis, followed by purging, colic, and intense tenesmus, with low pulse, and rapid 
exhaustion followed the administration of the drug. 

On Man— Here the same action takes place, but extends to the rectum with 
sufficient intensity to cause prolapsus and hemhorrhoids. The first effect of the 
drug is an excitation of salivary and biliary secretions, followed by torpor and 
icterus. The symptoms of disturbance caused by the drug in doses varying from 
% to V* g rams °f " podophyllin," and in persons working in the dust of the dried 
root, are substantially as follows : Inflammation of the eyes, soreness and pustula- 
tion of the nose ; salivation and white-coated tongue ; extreme nausea, followed 
by vomiting ; severe pains in the transverse colon and abdomen, followed by an 
urgent call to stool ; thin, offensive, copious stools ; weak pulse, prostration, drowsi- 
ness, and cold extremities. 



Description of Plate 17. 

1. Whole plant, once reduced, Newfield, N. Y., May 20th, 1S80. 

2. Flower. 

3. Bud, showing sepals. 

4. Pistil. 

5. Pistil in section (enlarged). 

6. Pistil in horizontal section (enlarged). 

7. One of the lobes of the stigma (enlarged). 

8. Anther (enlarged). 

9. Pollen ; side and end views x 200. 
10. Fruit. 



18 









ill .ad nat.def.et pinxt. 



NYMPHA.A ODORATA.Ait. 



N. ORD -NYMPHACE.E. 

Tribe.-NYMPHE/E. 



18 



GENUS.— NYMPH /E A,* TOURN 



SEX. SYST.— I'OLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 





MPH^EA. 



SWEET WATER LILY. 



SYN-NYMPHiEA ODORATA, AIT.; NYMPH^IA. ALBA, MICHX.; CAS- 

TALIA PUDICA, SALISB. 

COM. NAMES.— SWEET-SCENTED WATER LILY, WATER NYMPH, WATER 

LILY. LARGE WHITE WATER LILY, WHITE POND LILY. 



NYMPH^A 




Description— This beautiful perennial aquatic herb, grows to the surface 
of the water from a thick submerged horizontal rootstock. The stem is absent, 
the flowers growing on long peduncles, and the leaves on separate petioles, all 
round, smooth, and furnished with four equal, central canals. Stipules ltoid or 

y renniform, emarginate, closely appressed to the rootstalk at the base of 
the petiole; leaves always floating, orbicular, with one deep cuneiform fi 

passing from the circumfere 

petiole, thus making it more or less heart-shaped; smooth and shining dark greei 
above, wine color beneath, plainly marked with the interlacing veins; margi; 
entire. Inflorescence solitary, axillary ; flowers large, white, showy and Ira^ran 
often being nearly six inches in diameter when fully expanded. Sep.is four, elhpti 
cal, scaphoid, nearly free, persistent, bright gre- - th. outer surface, ereemsh 



of the leaf 



h 



lly. Petals numerous, arranged imbricately upon the fie hy 



the outer rows large, the inner smaller, all obtuse. Stamens indefinite, arranged 

like the petals upon the surface of the ovary about the centre of the flower; fila- 
ments of the outer rows petaloid, the inner more or less hgulate : anth rs with 



adnate 



„. ._ _ Ovary large, globular, depressed, eighteen- to twenty-four. 

celled [ovules anatropous, borne upon the sides of the ovary, none be.ng upon th< 

ventral suture ; style none ; stigma compound, peltate, marked by as «««*»*• * 

there are cells to the ovary, these rays projecting beyond the genera su, ce . 
forming a fringe of recurved, sterile, stigmatose appendage. ruU a idepre sed 

globukr, flesh? body, retaining the stigma and marked I*"***" »** 
?.,,„ ' . r.j .1 „ j„,vi n <-: dehiscence none; seeds oblong, supitate 



fallen petals and stamens, decaying 



horter than the enveloping, sac-like false coat; embryo situated 



albumen 



hehlum; radicle very minute ; cotyteHons large and thick, envelopmg 



well-formed plumule. 



* The name is given on account 



— T^^n being similar to the supposed habit <, fable,, water nym,,.. 



























18-2 



Nymphaceee. -This beautiful family of aquatic plants, whose species have 
been themes for poets, and designs for ancient sculptors, is tropical or sub- 
tropical in its most general habitat. Its prominent species are: Victoria regia, a 
native of tropical South America, named in honor of Queen Victoria. Its mag- 
nificent flowers are rose-white, and often measure nearly two feet in diameter, 
while that of its leaves often reaches five feet. NympJuea lotus, a native of 



1 



Egypt and Nubia, with white flowers. The seeds of this plant are eaten by the 
natives, but do not form the lotus of the lotus-eaters* NympJuea alba. This 
European species differs but slightly from our N. odorata. This order contains 
1 the United States the following genera: Braseuia, Cabomba, Neliumbium, Nuphar 
and Nymphcea. 

History and Habitat— This, our most beautiful northern flower, frequents 
ponds and still-flowing streams in the Eastern United States, especially near the 
coast, flowering from June to August. There are many varieties, due mostly to 
color and mode of growth, some being blue, others pink or rose-color ; but the 
true N. odorata is pure white or creamy. The stems of the flowers and leaves 
vary in length according to the depth of the water. The flowers form one of the 
most typical illustrations of plant metamorphosis; the petals are but colored 



pals, the stamens but anther-tipped petals, the stigmas but changed stamen 
and all gradually merging into each other in easily distinguishable stages. After 
ripening, the fruits, now becoming spongy and water-soaked, sink to the mud, 
where they decay and allow the escape of the seeds. 

The flowers open as the sun rises, and are usually fully expanded at about 
eight o'clock ; after that time they again gradually close, being entirely shut during 
the heat of the afternoon and at night. 

In the very centre of the disk-like compound stigma, is a small, glutinous 
protuberance, called by many botanists a nectary or honey-gland. I am inclined 
to term this the true stigma, on account of the well-known fact that pollen grains 
need moisture to enable them to burst their outer coat and allow the escape of 
the fertilizing tubes. This glandular body is always moist, while the stigmatose 
disk is dry, and rejects water as freely as does the upper surface of the leaves. 

Our species are often said to be much inferior to the European in beauty; 
but, as their purity of color and exquisite fragrance far excel that of Nymphcsa alba, 
it fully deserves to rank as superior in all respects. 

Rafinesque states that in Canada the fresh leaves are boiled and eaten as 
"greens," that the fresh roots are used as a part substitute for soap, and that the 
juice of the roots, mingled with that of lemons, is used to remove freckles and 
pimples from the face. 

The roots, in decoction, were much esteemed by Indian squaws as an internal 
remedy, and injection or wash for the worst forms of leucorrhoea, its properties in 
this direction being due to its great astringency. The macerated root was also 
used as an application in the form of a poultice to suppurating glands ; its styptic 
properties were also fully known and utilized. 



* This plant is mentioned under Genista iinctoria, 46. 



18-3 



The roots have been used for dyeing fabrics deep brown, the goods th 
dyed retaining their color admirably. 

Nymphaea has no place in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic Materia Medica it 
officinal as Cataplasma Nymphce and Infusum Nymphce. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root, gathered in the fall, is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight oi 
alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the 
rest of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well- 
stoppered bottle and allowed to stand for eight days in a dark, cool place. The 
tincture, separated by straining and filtering, presents the following physical 
properties: A deep wine-red color by transmitted light, a sherry-like odor, a 
slightly bitter, astringent taste, and a very strong acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— The bitter acrid principle of Nymph, a odoi 
ata has not been isolated. According to Bigelow, the roots contain tannin, gallic 



and mucilage. It is quite likely that the 



it 



those of the European species, N. alba, the roots of which, according to 
Griming,* contain: Tanno-nymphmn, CJrl b2 0. % \ Nympforo-phlobapinne, C„H a < > : 

and Nymphaa-iannic acid, C 5f H 58 O w a brown-red, transparent mass, yielding « ; .l\ 

a pale yellow powder. This is the true special tannin, to which the great astrtn- 
gency of the root is due. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.-I can find no accounts of poisonings with this 
plant, nor experiments in this direction. In the pro vers who took large doses of 
the tincture, a marked dryness of the fauces was experienced, followed by — - 
ful deglutition ; pain in the hypogastric region, with loose evacuations ; 
excitement, and involuntary passage of the urine. 

Description of Plate 18. . 
x. A small flower, from a pond near New Milford, Pa., July « 7 th, «88 3 . 

2. A medium-size leaf. # 

3. Section of a peduncle, showing air cavities or canals. 

4. Root. 



venereal 



* Arc!, <L Pka,, 3, xvii., p. 73*; **■ >"' «"■ ^ P ' * 



I 




19. 




i 




XU.ad nat.del.et pinxt. 



Sarracenia Purpurea, Linn 



N. ORD -SARRACENIACE.E. 



GENUS.— S ARRACENIA,* TOURN. 



19 



SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



SARRACENIA 



PITCHER-PLANT. 



SYN.-SARRACENIA PURPUREA, LINN. ; SARAZINA GIBBOSA, RAP. 

COM. NAMES.-PITCHER-PLANT, HUNTSMAN'S CUP, WATER-CUP 

CUPS, SIDE-SADDLE FLOWER. FLY-CATCHER. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF SARRACENIA PURPUREA, LINN. 




Description. — This peculiar bog perennial is characterized as follows : Root 
somewhat ligneous, yellowish, furnished with numerous yellowish-brown fibrous 
rootlets; stem none; leaves (asa'dia) all radical, pitcher-shaped, and composed of four 
parts : the petiole about one-third the whole length, slender, dilated at the base and 
somewhat equitant ; tube ovate, narrowing to the petiole, and longitudinally marked 
with reddish veins ; hood auriculate-cordate, wavy, covered in the throat with nu- 
merous stiff, sharp, curved bristles pointing downward ; wing broad, laterally undu- 
late, passing along the median line of the upper surface of the tube, from the base 
of the hood to the petiole. These ascidia, usually six in number, lie dorsally pros- 
trate upon the sphagnum in which the plant usually grows, the open mouths of 
the tubes looking upward toward the nodding flower and forming about the scape a 
rosette of gaping wells half filled with water, and having a path represented 
the free margin of the wings leading to each.f Inflorescence a single large reddish 
purple flower, terminal and nodding upon a long smooth and naked scape. Sepals 
5, colored, persistent, 3-bracted at their base. Petals 5, obovate or somewhat 
fiddle-shaped, caducous, incurved over the style. Stamens numerous, hypogynous. 
Ovary globose, 5-celled ; style greenish-yellow, composed of a short erect shaft, and 
an umbrella-like expanded extremity consisting of 5 petaloid segments rayed at 
their approximations, each ray ending in a short nipple-like projection, which con- 
stitutes the stigma. Fruit a granular 5-celled and valved capsule ; placenta axial, 
many seeded ; seeds anatropous ; embryo small, basal ; albumen fleshy. 

Sarraceniacege.— This family of bog plants is characterized as follows : Root 
perennial; leaves all radical, purplish or yellowish-green, more or less inflated 
tubular, the true blade represented by a hood or lamina surrounding the throat of 
the tube. Flowers single (Exc. Heliamphord) nodding at the summit of a long, 



In honor of Dr. Sarrazin of Quebec, who sent the plant to Tournefort. 
t In the plate most of the leaves have been cut off, and those remaining have been constra.ned to take such posi- 
tions as would best show their various characters within the small scope of the paper. 









i 9-2 

naked, (Exc. same) cylindrical scape ; floral envelope consisting of from 4 to 1 o 
leaflets, the external more or less sepaloid and bracted at the base. Stamens nu- 
merous hypogynous; anthers versatile, introse, 2-celled, opening by longitudinal 
fissures. Style single, truncate, with a minute stigma (or as above described), per- 
sistent. Fruit a 3 to 5-celled capsule, opening loculicidally ; placentae projecting 
from the axis into the cells. Seeds obovoid, numerous ; embryo cylindrical ; albumen 
copious. This limited family is represented by three genera, viz. : Daidingtonia, 
with one species, having two free honeyed wings projecting laterally from the 
inner edge of the small mouth of the tube ; Sar?-acenia, with eight species and 
two varieties ; and Heliamplwra, of Guiana and Venezuela. The leaves of this 
family are all apparently formed with the intent of capturing insects and digesting 
their remains through the agency of the water they hold, which becomes acid and 
causes decomposition of the captured insects. It certainly seems intentional adap- 
tation to the necessities of the plant that insects are caught and macerated, from 
the structure, for which no other reason would account. Mr. W. K. Higley, in his 
interesting paper on " The Northern Pitcher-Plant," * says : " Inside these pitchers 
are found hairs, which cover more or less of the inner surface. Those which cover 
the hood continue to or a little beyond the junction with the tube. Following this 
area is a smooth surface which extends to near the point where the leaf begins to 
contract, when a patch of less stiff hairs are met with. This time they extend into 
the narrow portion of the tube. All the hairs point downward. 

"The position and form of these hairs, especially those on the hood and upper 
part of the tube, and in fact, any that may be above the fluid, in the lower part of 
the leaf, would show that their function, in part, at least, is to prevent the escape 
of any insect that may have entered the tube. The hairs in the lower part of the 
tube probably act, to some extent, as absorbents of the nitrogenous matter decay- 
ing within the leaf. Some acute observers claim that at the end of each hair there 
is a minute opening, thus allowing the nitrogenous fluid to pass directly into the 
apical cell of the hair. This does not seem to be the case, but instead, the wall 
surrounding the entire cell is very thin. These hairs are simple trichomes, that is, 
they are rather cells than organs. Unlike the tentacles of the sundew, in no case 
do the spiral bundles enter their tissue. I am inclined to believe that these cellu- 
lar hairs serve more than one purpose in the economy of the plant. 

"A study of the structure and physiology of the whole family shows that all 
the forms need a great deal of absorbing surface, for there seems to be a lack of 
stomata. The tissue of the leaf is almost constantly gorged with a large supply 
of nourishment, consisting, evidently, of absorbed nitrogenous matter, and needs 



a great extent of surface exposed to the air for the purpose of absorption in car- 
rying on the functions of assimilation and metastasis. In support of this there is 
considerable evidence, the most important of which is the fact that many of these 
hairs, especially those on the hood, contain chlorophyl. From a study of marked 
leaves through the whole season I am led to believe that some of these hairs are 



* Bulletin Chicago Academy of Sciences, Vol. I, No. 5, p. 41 



19-3 



absorbed as the leaves grow old. This would indicate that as the functions of the 
leaf are lessened the extent of absorbing surface is reduced. 

"When the leaf has apparently nearly stopped absorbing the moisture from 
the tube, it may still be an active insect trap. At this time an especially strong 
odor is given off from the decaying mass of insects. It would seem that the insects 

ht now could be of no use except as a fertilizer, when by the decay of the 
leaves, all this mass of decomposing nitrogenous matter is deposited around the 
roots of the plant, the decaying material, moreover, seems to hasten the decay of 
the leaf, as its vitality is lessened by the advance of the season." 

The acidity of the water, after it has stood a time in the leaf, is found to be 
due to malic and citric acids. 



& 



History and Habitat. — The Northern Pitcher-plant grows in sphagnum 
swamps from Pennsylvania northward and westward, and southward east of the 
Alleghanies. It flowers northward in June, and ripens its fruit in August. The 
previous use of this plant by the Indians in small-pox, for which it has been held 
by them as specific, is corroborated by homoeopathic practice, but has in almost all 
instances been an absolute failure in the hands of the "old school." They judged that 
the use of the root not only greatly shortened the run of the disease and checked 
maturation, but prevented deep pitting in convalescence. At the last meeting of 
the Epidemiological Society,* a communication was read from Mr. Herbert M 
Assistant Surgeon to the Royal Artillery, respecting a plant that was stated u 
a specific for small-pox. The remedy is given in the form of a strong infusion of 
the rhizome, and Mr. Miles had, after very considerable difficulty, succeeded in 
obtaining a small supply of the plant, which he forwarded to the Society. Mr. 
Miles is quartered in Canada, where an epidemic of small-pox having broken out 
among the Indians, the disease had proved virulent in the extreme among the 
unprotected, because unvaccinated, natives. However, the alarm had greatly 
diminished on an old squaw going amongst them, and treating the cases with the 
infusion. This treatment, it is said, was so successful as to cure every case. Dr. 
Hooker pronounced the specimens received to be Sa 



be 



At 



of the Medical Society of Nova Scotia, held at Halifax, a resolution was passe 



concerning the use of Sarracen 



data upon which to ground any opinion in favor of its value as a remedial agent." f 

Across the face^of an article on the use of this drug in small-pox, appearing 
the volume I have cited above, a former owner of the book has written : " This 
dicine was thoroughly tested by Mr. John Thomas Lane in the spring of 1864 
the Small-pox Hospital at Claremont, in Alexandria, Va., for the period of 



eeks, in the presence of the medical officers of the Third 



D 



pital ; and proved to be without any curative powers in this d 

a humbug. He lost more than fifty per cent, of the cases of variola committed 

to him, more than were lost by any other treatment." Mr. P. H. Bignell says,! 



Med. 



f Mtd. and Surg. Reporter, it, ., 507. 



\ A paper read before the Quebec Geog. Soc'y. 









Variola— that there was not "any reliable 






19-4 

in regard to the use of the drug in this disease : " On the Mistassini side my atten- 
tion was particularly attracted to the Sarracenia purpurea, of which the root fur- 
nishes the greatest remedy known for that dreadful scourge, small-pox. I may 
mention that, to my personal knowledge, this precious root not only saved my 
brother's life, but its use also appears to wholly obviate the unsightly pitting com- 
mon to the disease ; if it is extracted and dried at die proper season. Indeed, I 
have known many cases which were considered hopeless by medical men, but were 
cured by the Sarracenia purpurea ; even Indians, with whom the dread malady so 
often proves fatal, finding it an absolute specific." 

The root is also recommended in cases where there is a torpidity of the organs 

of the alimentary tract, and of the kidneys. 

There are no officinal preparations outside of the Homoeopathic tincture. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root gathered after the fruit- 
ing season, or the whole fresh plant when budding to blossom and before the 
leaves are fully expanded, should be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. 
Then two parts by weight of alcohol taken, the mass mixed thoroughly with one- 
sixth part of it and the rest of the alcohol added. After thorough stirring, the 
whole should be poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight 

days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture separated from the above by filtration, has a deep reddish-brown 
color by transmitted light; its taste is at first somewhat sourish, then bitter and 
slightly astringent, and its reaction strongly acid. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Sarracenin. This bitter alkaloidal body was 
discovered by Martin. Hetet* isolated it as white handsome prisms and octahe- 
dra, soluble in water and alcohol. Its salts with acids are soluble, and that with 
sulphuric forms beautiful bitter needles. Hetet claims that this alkaloid is identi- 
cal with ver atria, both in its properties and reactions. 

Acrylic Acid. — C 3 H 4 2 . This volatile body was discovered in the plant by 
Bjorklund and Dragendorf. It is a limpid liquid, possessing a sour pungent 
smell and boiling at 142 (287°.6 F.). Its vapor is irritating, attacking the mucous 
membranes of the nose and eyes violently, and causing severe inflammation. 

Sarracenic Acid. — This body constitutes the yellow coloring matter predomi- 
nant in the older plants. Its characteristics are uninvestigated. 

Besides these, the plant contains a pulverizable tanno resin, and a bitter, aro- 
matic extractive, soluble in water and alcohol. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Dr. Porcher found in his experiments with 180 
grains of the root, that it caused diuresis, moderate catharsis, and gastric excita- 
tion, as well as an increased and irregular heart's action, and congestion of the 
head ; and remarks as follows : " These symptoms distinctly point to the parts of 



* Rep. de Phar., 879, p. 109. 



19-5 



the system influenced by the drug— the gastric filaments of the ganglionic or 

mic system of nerves. This produced an increased action of the circulating 

ystem, and drove the blood to the head ; it also increased the peristaltic action of 



."*-> 



imentary canal, and promoted the renal and 
without any apparent effect upon the nerves of animal life/' °Dr. Cigliano* in his 
experiments, says the drug produces "eruptions similar to crusta lac tea; on the 
forehead and hands papular eruptions, changing to vesicular with the depression, 
as in small-pox, lasting from seven to eight days." This last again corroborates 
the aborigine's use of the drug, and adds one more proof to the many that are 
tending to reveal the fact that our American native practice was essentially correct. 



Description of Plate 19. 



1 and 2. Whole plant, with a number of the leaves removed, and those remaining brought int 
constrained positions to better show their characters within the limit of the sheet. From Spruce 

Pond, Smithsfields, N. Y., June 18th, 1884. 

2. Scape and flower. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Stigma. 

5. Stamens. 

6. A portion of the hood, showing hairs. 

7. Section of the root. 

(4-6 enlarged.) 



* II Dinamico, 1871; translated in Am. Observer, 1871, p. 467* !>• Lilientha!, 



I 




























20 







•TCLadnatdeUtpinxt. 



ARGEMONE MEXICANA,Linn 






N. ORD.-PAPAVERACEiG. 

GENUS.— ARGEMONEj* LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



20 



ARGEMONE 



PRICKL Y POPP Y. 



SYN.— ARGEMONE MEXICANA, LINN. 
COM. NAMES 



MEXICAN 



APPLE,! YELLOW THISTLE,* THORN POPPY ; (MEX 
ARGEMONE: (GER.) STACHELMOHN. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT ARGEMONE MEXICANA, L. 



Description. — This annual weedy herb, grows to a height of from i to 3 feet. 
Root long, subcylindrical ; stem erect, branching, prickly-bristled, and furnished, as 
the rest of the plant, with a gamboge-yellow milky juice. Leaves sessile, broadly 
lanceolate in general outline, sinuate lobed, spiny toothed, and blotched or striped 
with white along the principal veins. Inflorescence solitary in the axils of the upper 
leaves, and terminal ; buds erect, pedunculate ; flowers large, yellow, or rarely white. 
Sepals 2 to 3, roundish, acuminate, often prickly, very fugacious. Petals 4 to 6, 
*'. *., twice as many as the sepals, roundish, more or less crumpled in the bud. 
Stamens indefinitely numerous ; filaments filiform, greatly attenuated at the apex ; 
anthers large, innate. Ovary strictly 1 -celled; style almost none; stigmas 3 to 6, 
stellate-radiate, purple, velvety on the receptive surface ; lobes reflexed. Fruit an 
oblong-ovate, prickly pod, opening by 3 to 6 valves at the apex, leaving a skele- 
ton of from 3 to 6 filiform placente in the shape of the original pod ; seeds globular, 
crested, and pitted. 



Papaveracese.— This principally European family of herbs, noted for their 
milky, and generally colored, narcotic or acrid juice, is represented in North 
America by 15 genera, 23 species, and 7 recognized varieties. The order is fur- 
ther characterized as follows: Leaves alternate, exstipulate. Peduncles 1 -flowered ; 
flowers regular, the parts in twos or muliples of two. Sepals 2, very rarely 3, 
fugacious Petals 4 to 12, early deciduous, rarely absent, imbricated in the bud. 
Stamens numerous, rarely as few as 16, distinct, hypogynous ; anthers 2-celled, 
innate, introrse. Ovary 1 -celled, with two or more parietal placentae. Fruit a 
dry, 1- rarely few or many-celled pod. Seeds numerous, anatropous ; embryo 
minute, basal ; albumen fleshy or oily. 



* 'Apyina, argema, cataract; as the juice was supposed to cure that disei e. 

f Applicable only to Datura Stramonium (SoUnao !.) 

\ The true Yellow Thistle is Cirsium horriJuium (Composite.) 



20-2 

The only remedy in our Materia Medica derived from this order, beside the 
three here represented, is Opium, the inspissated juice obtained by incising the 
unripe capsules of the South European and Asiatic White Poppy {Papaver somni- 
ferum, Linn.) ; our other remedies, Papaverinum and Morphinum, being also 
derived from the same substance ; the only other remedy used in general med- 
icine being the petals of the Red Poppy {Papaver Rhasas, Linn.) ; they have a 
slightly narcotic action, but are as yet principally used as a coloring-matter lor 
pharmaceutical preparations. 

History and Habitat. — The Prickly Poppy is indigenous to tropical and sub- 
tropical America, from whence it has become scattered even as far north as Vir- 
ginia, and escaped from cultivation in many places still further north. It grows 
with us in waste places and blossoms from April to July. 

The use of the oil of the seeds, the leaves, and the petals of this species has 
been quite prominent among the natives of all tropical countries in which the 
plant grows. Among the ancient Greeks the juice was supposed curative of 
cataract and of opacities of the cornea. The oil of the seeds is spoken of as 
being as active as that of Croton tiglium.* Lindley says that in India the juice 
is employed in chronic ophthalmia and in primary syphilis ; and the infusion in 
strangury from blisters (of cantharis?); he also states that the seeds are narcotic, 
and are smoked with tobacco. In Mexico the plant is still held in the pharma- 
copoeia, the juice being recommended, mixed with water, for skin diseases, and for 
incipient opacities, the flowers as a pectoral and narcotic.f In Java the juice is 
said to be employed as a caustic in chancres. In the West Indies the plant 
is administered as a substitute for Ipecacuanha. The juice when inspissated 
resembles, in its physical properties, gamboge. As a whole the plant has gen- 
erally been conceded to be anodyne, detersive, resolutive, hypnotic, diuretic, 
diaphoretic, ophthalmic, anti-icteric, and a hydragogue cathartic ; and, according to 
Rafinesque, appearing to unite the properties of Opium, Gamboge, and Celandine. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant, gathered while 
in blossom, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by 



■s 



f alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed 



f 



and the rest of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, it is poured i 
a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the above mass by pressure and filtration, ha 
brownish yellow color by transmitted light, no distinguishing odor or taste, and 



d 



The plant, from its history, deserves at our hands a most thorough proving. 
and should by all means receive it; for a new proving the tincture should be made 
while the plant is in fruit, and just before the capsules are ripe. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-Morphia, C 1T H 19 N0 3 .— There is considerable 
doubt that this alkaloid exists in this species, although Charbonnier J reports its 
presence from his analysis of the carpels and leaves. 



* your, de Pharm., xiv. 73. f Maisch, in Am. Jour. Pharm., 1885, 506. % Jour, de Pharm., 1S68 



20-3 



Oil of Argemone.— This fat oil, obtained by pressure from the seeds, is 
reported by Wittstein, but upon whose authority we are unable to ascertain. He 
describes it as, light yellow, still liquid at 5 (41 ° R), of a slightly nauseous odor 
and raw taste, drying, dissolves in 5 to 6 times its volume of alcohol, and is easily 
saponified. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— This is as yet unknown, but certainly deserves 
prolonged experimentation. 



Description of Plate 20. 



1. Upper part of plant, Salem, Mass., July 31, 1885 

2. Root. 

3. Stamens. 

4. Pistil. 

5. Horizontal section of ovary. 

6. Fruit. 

(3-5 enlarged.) 




21 




bn 




3TU.adnat.del.et pi rod. 



ChEUOONIUM MAJUS.Linn. 



N. ORD -PA PAVER ACE^E. 

GENUS.— C H E LI DO N I U M ,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— POLYANDRIA MONOGYMA. 



21 



CHELIDONIUM 



CULAJVDIJVK 



SYN.— CHELIDONIUM MAJUS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES. -COMMON CELANDINE, TETTERWORT; (FR.) HERBE A 



L'HIRONDELLE ; (GER.) SCHOLLKRAUT. 



A J US 



a 



1 



Description— This upright, widely branching, perennial herb, grows to 
height of from i to 2 feet from a fusiform root. Stem upright, cylindrical and 
branching, somewhat hairy and very brittle. Leaves alternate, petiolatc, large, 
pale-green and glaucous, lyrate pinnatifid, with a crenately cut or lobed border, 
the terminal lobe obovate-cuneate. Inflorescence, pedunculated, somewhat umbel- 
late, axillary clusters, with nodding buds and medium-sized flowers, the sepals, 
petals and stamens of which are early deciduous. Peduncles 2 to 4 inches long, 
bearing from 3 to 8 pedicels 1 inch in length, and involucrate at their base. Sepals 
2. Corolla cruciform ; petals 4. Stamens 16 to 24. Style merely present; stigma 
2-lobed. Fruit a linear, slender pod, about 1 inch in length, somewhat swelled at 
intervals, the two valves opening upward from the base to the apex ; seeds rounded 
reniform, with a glandular ridge at the hilum, and a crustaceous, blackish-brown 
testa, marked with more or less regular, hexagonal reticulations. A description 
of the Papaveracese will be found under Argemone Mexicana, 20. 



History and Habitat.— Celandine grows all over Germany and France, in 
waste places, on old walls, along roadways, and about dwellings ; it is pretty well 
naturalized in the United States, but so far it is not found at any great distance 
trom dwellings, flowering from early in May until October. A fine gamboge-yel- 
low, acrid juice, pervades the plant, root, stem and leaves; this fact led those who 
practised upon the doctrine of signatures, to employ the drug in hepatic disorders, 
from its resemblance to bile in color. It proved one of the hits of that practice. 
The U. S. Ph. still mentions Chelidonium, but not ofncinally ; it will probably be 
thrown aside at the next revision as worthless, totidem verbis. In the Eclectic 
Materia Medica it is officinal as Decoctum Chelidonii. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh plant, gathered in Spring, is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp, enclosed in a piece of new linen and subjected 

* xeliSiv, swallow. Its flowers appearing with the arrival of that bird ; or, it was sai>! that when the eyes of young 
swallows became, through injury or otherwise, affected with a white Mm, the parents gathered an 1 applied the juice of 
this plant, rapidly curing the trouble. 



21-2 

to pressure, the fresh juice is then by brisk succussion mingled with an equal part 
by weight of alcohol. This mixture is allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool 
place, then filtered. The tincture thus formed is of a brownish-orange color by 
transmitted light, having an odor quite like that of tincture of apis mellifica, an 



d, bitter taste, and strong acid 






CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.- Chelerythrin, C 19 H 17 N0 4 . This alkaloid is 
identical with Sanguinarina, vide 22. 

Chelidonin, C 19 H 17 N 3 3 + Aq. This alkaloid exists particularly in the root. 
When pure it has the following properties: colorless, glassy, tabular, bitter crys- 
tals, losing water at ioo° (212 F.), fusing at 130 (266 F.), and decomposing at 
higher heats ; it is insoluble in water, slowly soluble in alcohol, and forms color- 
less salts. 

Chelidoxanthin. A bitter principle existing in all parts of the plant, crystal- 
lizing in short, friable, yellow needles, which are very slowly soluble in both water 
and alcohol. 

Chelidonic Acid.— C 4 H (CO, OH) 3 . A tribasic acid occurring together with 
the other acids in all parts of the plant. It crystallizes in small colorless needles, 
which carbonize by heat, and are soluble both in water and alcohol. 

Malic Acid.— Is also present in the plant, vide Pyrus Americana, 56. 

Citric Acid.— Herr Haitinger determines (Monatsch., Ch. ii., p. 485) that 
notable quantities are contained in this plant. Vide ut supra. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.-The principal action of Chelidonium seems to 
be that of causing congestion of the lungs and liver, especially the latter; it is also an 
excessive irritant, and has a narcotic action upon the nervous system. The lungs of 
animals poisoned by this drug have been found, post-mortem, to be highly engorged, 
and in some cases hepatized. The liver under its action becomes the seat of 
much pain, soreness and tenderness ; the bowels move rapidly and freely, with thin, 
bright-yellow, pasty evacuations ; the urine becomes bright-yellow, and even stains 
the linen dark-yellow. It irritates the respiratory nerves, causing a tickling, like 
dust, in the trachea and bronchi, with violent spasmodic coughing, followed by 
dyspnoea and oppression of the chest. Sensations of indolence, sleepiness and 
languor are persistent. Its action upon the skin is that of vesication. 



Description of Plate 21. 

1. A portion of the upper part of a blossoming plant from Ithaca, N. Y., May 10th, 1880 

2. Pistil (enlarged). 

3. Section of the ovary (enlarged). 

4. Fruit. 

5. Pollen x 380 






22 






8 




5 







\ / 



. 















6 






7 



* 




• ad nat. del. ef pinxt 



Sanguinaria Canadensis. Linn. 



N. ORD.-PAPAVERACE^. 

GENUS.— S ANGUINARIA,* DILI 

SEX. SYST.— POr.YANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



22 



SANGUINARIA. 



BLOODROOT. 



SYN.-SANGUINARIA CANADENSIS, L. SAN( 
COM. NAMES.-BLOODROOT, RED PUCCOON, 



MINOR 



TETTERWORT 



REDROOT, PAUSON, TURMERIC, INDIAN PAINT, (FR.) SANGUIN- 



BLUTWURZEL 



TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF SANGUINARIA CANADENSIS, L. 



Description. — This low, erect, perennial plant, dots with its creamy white 
flowers our open woods and bottom lands in early spring, the most beautiful 
harbinger of its season. It arises by a naked scape enveloped by its leaf, to a 
height of from 3 to 6 inches. Root horizontal, extending from 2 to 4 inches, with 
a diameter of from one-quarter to three-quarters of an inch, slightly branched, 
cylindrical, giving off, especially from the under side, numerous tender rootlets, 
and somewhat annulate by the scars of previous membraneous sheathing scales 
which enveloped the scape and petiole. When fresh it is brownish red externally, 
and, upon breaking or cutting, it shows minute points of bright red juice, which 
rapidly coalesce and cover the entire wounded surface. When dry similar 
red dots appear upon the fracture, the root becomes longitudinally wrinkled, the 
section showing a bark of about one-twelfth the whole diameter, a very slight 
cambium line and a granular white centre. The stem is a simple, smooth, naked 
scape, terminated by a single flower, from one to one and a half inches in dia- 
meter. The leaf, which does not reach its full expansion until the flower lias 
fallen, is palmately seven- to nine-lobed, with an equal number of reddish ribs, from 
which (especially noticeable upon the under surface) extend a perfect network of 
veins; it has a heart-shaped base, and obtuse lobes; the upper surface is light green, 
the under whitish, glaucous. Sepals 2, caducous, forming the ephemeral calyx. 
Petals 8-12, spatulate, not crumpled. The stamens, generally 24, unequal and 
about one-half the length of the petals, arranged more or less distinctly in two 
rows. Anthers innate, introrse, dehiscent Pollen grains globular, more or less 
six-sided by compression, of a beautiful golden-yellow color. Ovary 1 -celled, 
with 2 parietal placentae Style short, thick, rounded. Stigma thick, glandularly 
pubescent, 2-grooved. Pod oblong, sharp-pointed, turgid, opening by two up- 
lifting valves, allowing the escape of the numerous anatropous, sometimes crested 
seeds. Embryo minute, situated at the base of the sarcous, oily albumen. 



* Sanguis, blood. From the color of the juice. 



22-2 

History and Habitat.— This is the only species of the genus, although Rafi- 
nesque has described six varieties. It is found, as the specific name denotes, 
in Canada, and in all parts of the United States except southward to Florida, 
and westward to Mexico and Oregon, the sea-coasts, and high mountains. It 



grows in rich open woods, or on bottom lands along shaded streams, flowering 
from March, in early springs, until May, fruiting in June. 

For many years it his been used by the aborigines of this country for paint- 
ing their faces, clothing and implements of warfare, and by the laity as a domestic 
remedy in gastric troubles, compounded with podophyllum and kali tartaricum. 
Applied to a denuded surface it is quite a powerful escharotic. 

The root is still officinal in the U. S. Ph. as .Acetum Sanguinaria, Tinctura 
Sanguinaria, Radix Sanguinaria, and Extractum Sanguinaria. In the Eclectic 
materia medica this drug and its derivatives have a prominent place, especially in 
compounds with Lobelia ; sanguinaria not having emetic properties. It takes a 
part in the following preparations: Pilula Taraxaci Composites; Pidvis Ipeca- 
ctianha Compositus ; Puhis Lobelia Compositus ; Pulvis Myrica Compositus ; 
Tinctura Lobelia Composita ; Tinctura Viburnii Composita ; and Sanguinariu, a 
so-called alka-resinoid principle, which is often confused by both prescriber and 
pharmacist with the true alkaloid sanguinarina. 



PART USED, AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root, gathered when the 
seeds are ripe, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts 
by weight of alcohol are taken, and after thoroughly mixing the pulp with one- 
sixth part of it the rest of the alcohol is added. After having stirred the whole, 
pour it into a well-stoppered bottle and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool 
place. The tincture is then separated by decanting, straining, and filtering. 

Thus prepared it is, by transmitted light, of a deep orange-red color, slightly 
bitter and acid, and has a strong acid reaction to litmus. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-Sanguinarina * C 19 H„ N0 4 . This alkaloid 
crystallizes from alcohol in warty or needle-like masses, very acrid to the taste, 
toxic, and when pulverized and insufflated causes violent sneezing; these masses 
are soluble in ether or alcohol, insoluble or nearly so in water. The various 
salts of this body are of a red color, and give orange-colored aqueous solutions. 

Puccina has been claimed to be another alkaloid principle of this plant, 
remaining in the menstruum after the precipitation of sanguinarina by sulphuric 
acid ; but Hopp determined this body to be a sulphatic salt of sanguinarina. 

Porphyroxin has been determined as a third alkaloid, so named from its 
supposed identity with Merck's opium principle porphyroxin, a mixture which 
owes its color reaction to Hesse's rhceadine. (Maisch.) It exists as tabular or 
liaear, white and tasteless crystals. 

Acid. The acid of sanguinaria is not fully determined, though it would prove 
doubtless to be chelidonic acid (vide Chelidonium). 



* This alkaloid is identical with Chelerythrine, from Chelidonium majus, vide, 21. 









22-3 



Gum, Lignin, an Orange-colored R 
have also been determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL AOTION.-Sang 



Albumen 



sympto 



be 



doses causes a train 



f 



irritant ; it causes nausea, vomiting, sensations of 



burning in the mucous membranes whenever it comes in contact with them fa 



ness, 



rtig 



d 



bil 



It reduces the h 



s action 



d 



gth, and depresses the nerve force, central and peripheral. D 



mus 



scul 



r 



from overdoses, after the following seq 



^ 



f 



followed by terrible thirst and great burning 
accompanied by soreness over 



ympt 



th 



violent vomiting, 



stomach and intestine 



PP 



chest with diffic 



the region of those 



f the 



prostrat 



fa 



ho 



rga n s 
pupil 



heaviness of 






from cardiac paral) 



lit breathing; dilation ( 
id coldness of the surfa 

(Allen, Ency. Pure Mat Med., viii., p. 481, et sea 



I 



th 



great muscular 
t death follows 



1. 



Description of Plate 22. 

Whole plant, Chemung, N. Y., May 3d, 1880 

2. Expanded leaf. 

3. Expanded flower. 

4. Pistil (enlarged). 

5. Bud, showing sepals. 

6. Seed (enlarged ). 

7. Pod. 

8. Stamen (enlarged 
0. Pollen grains x 380. 





V 













t 




4 






nat.del.et pioxt. 



SINAPIS ALBA,Linn 



N. ORD.-CRUCIFEF^E. 

Tribe.-BRASSICE/E. 

GENUS.— SIN A PIS, TOURN 

SEX. SYST.— TETRADYNAMIA SILIQUOSA. 



23 



SINAPIS ALBA. 



WHITE MUSTARD. 



SYN.-BRASSICA ALBA, HOOK, f. ; SINAPIS ALBA, LINN. ; LBUCOSINAPIS 
ALBA, SPACH. 

COM. NAMES.— WHITE OR YELLOW MUSTARD ;* (PR.) MOUTARDE BLANC ; 
(GER.) WEISSER SENP. 



A TINCTURE OF THE RIPE SEEDS OF SINAPIS ALBA, LINN. 



Description. — This coarse, hairy annual, usually grows to a height of about 
2 feet. Stem erect ; branches few, ascending, all parts covered with bristling re- 
flexed hairs. Leaves all petioled and pinnatifid, the lowest having a large termi- 
nal lobe and the divisions cutting down to the midrib. Flowers about twice as 
large as those of S. nigra; sepals 4, narrowly oblong, spreading; petals 4, spread- 
ing, alternate with the sepals, and consisting of a narrow claw and an orbiculate 
blade. Stamens 6, hypogynous, tetradynamous, the two having shorter filaments 



being lateral and inserted lower do 



four with longer fila 



5 



ments situated in pairs from before backward and accompanied by a quite large 
gland to each pair. Pistil slightly exceeding the stamens; ovary hairy; style 
nearly terete, persistent; stigma bi-labiate. Fruit a linear, bristly, ascendii 
silique ; valves short, furnished with 3 prominent veins ; pedicels spreading ; beak 
sword-shaped, i-seeded, about half the length of the pod. Seeds globular, pale- 
yellowish, i to 6 in each pod ; cotyledons incumbent, conduplicate, narrow, and 

plane. 



Cruciferge. — This large family of pungent and often acrid herbs is represented 
in North America by 42 genera, containing in all 275 species and 50 recognized 
varieties. The order is characterized as follows : Leaves alternate ; stipules none. 
Inflorescence in terminal racemes or corymbs ; flowers cruciform, tetradynamous. 
Sepals 4, deciduous ; petals 4, hypogynous, regular, placed opposite each other in 
pairs. Stamens 6, rarely 4 or 2, when 6, then two are inserted lower down than 
the rest and furnished with shorter filaments. Fruit a 2-celled silicle, loment, 
silique or necument. Seeds campylotropous ; embryo large ; albumen none; coly 
ledons incumbent o ||, acumbent o==, or conduplicate o)), being straight in one 
genus only. 

* The name mustard is modernized from mustum an/ens, hot must; -must is often mixed with the s I- 

meal in the manufacture of table mustard. 




23-2 

Only three other plants of this order are proven and find place in our Mate 
Medica, viz. « The seeds of the European bitter Candytuft {Iberis amara, Lin 
extolled as a remedy for cardiac hypertrophy, but needing further corroborat 



proving-; the Buenos Ayres Pepperwort (Lcpidium Bonariense, D. C), used in 
Brazil much as arnica is among the laity here ; and the British Rape or Cole Seed 
(Brassica napus, Linn.). 

Many species, however, find a place in domestic practice, principal among 
which are: The South European Scurvy Grass (Cochlearia officinalis, Linn.), long 
known and used as an anti-scorbutic; C. armor acia y Linn., our common horse- 
radish, is much used as a counter-irritant, diuretic, diaphoretic, and stimulant ; the 
dried flowers of the Cuckoo Flower (Cardamine pratensis, Linn.) have been recom- 
mended for the cure of epilepsy in children ; and the seeds of the Oriental Arabis 
Chinensis are considered by the natives stomachic, and are said to cause abortion 
in pregnant women. 

Many species afford vegetables of value as foods, or, more properly, relishes, 
notably the Cresses, of which the following European species are most used: The 
Common Water Cress {Nasturtium officinale, R. Br.) ; Winter Cress (Barbarea 
vulgaris, R. Br.) ; Belleisle Cress (£. prcecox, R. Br.) ; and the Common Cress 
(Lepidium sativum, Linn.). The edible Pepperwort of New Zealand (Z. olera- 
ceum) is greatly valued, as also are the Chinese Mustard (Sinapis Chinensis, Linn.), 
and the British Sea Kale (Crambe maritiima, Linn.). The most useful species, 
however, for relishes, and nourishment as well, are the Turnip (Brassica Rapa, 
Linn.), and the Cabbage (B. oleracea, Linn.), with its numerous varieties by culti- 
vation, prominent among which stands the Cauliflower as var. Botrytis, Dec. 

History and Habitat.— White Mustard has as yet hardly become naturalized 
in this country from its European and Oriental haunts, but has escaped from cul- 
tivation here in many places, and grows the life of what is commonly known as a 
roadside weed. 

The previous uses of the seeds of this plant are intimately connected with those 
of 5. nigra, as they are usually mixed in the preparation of Sinapis or mustard 
flour, which is used as an emetic, diuretic, stomachic, and gastro-intestinal stimu- 
lant ; and externally applied, wet with vinegar, as a rubefacient and vesicant. The 
power of vesication resides in the oil to a high degree. The unground seeds of 
this species have held a high place in former practice as a remedy ih atonic dys- 
pepsia, and various kindred complaints where there appeared to be a torpid state 
of the alimentary tract, as they were known to increase peristaltic activity ; but 
the exhibition of the seeds proved dangerous, as they are liable to become im- 
pacted in the bowel and set up a fatal inflammation. 

The seeds, though mentioned, have no officinal preparation in the U. S. Ph. ; 
in the Eclectic Materia Medica their use is as Cataplasma Sinapis. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The ripe seeds, prepared as noted 
under the next (Sinapis Nigra, p. 24-2), yield a tincture having a light, clear orange 
color by transmitted light; a sinapic odor and taste, biting and burning the tongue; 
and an acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS 



Sinalbin, CXX^O 



23-3 



30 "44^2^2^16- ° r Sulp/lO-sbiap 



This peculiar compound body, determined by Hill nTay be ZZ&ZZZZ 
cake, after removal of the fat oil, by boiling the cake in alcohol 



as 



d 



& 



htly 



ted, acicular crystals, fusina 

o 



In 



130 



Sinalb 
(266 F.), solubl 



breaks down into its components as foil 



the presence of water and myrosin, this body 



Sinalbin 



^30^44^2^2^10 



Sulpho-cyanate Acrinol + Sulphate of Sinapine + Sugar. 



C 8 HNSO + CH.NSO 



The first of 



1G X *2 



resultants 



9 



C,H O 



seed, though it does not pre-exist in them while dry 



proven to be the vesicating principle of the 



Sinapine, C lc H 2:} NO 



Th 



isolated exc 
down as foil 



Pt 



a 



lpho-cyanide ; when heated 



lkaloid too readily decomposes to be 



th bary 



breaks 



Sinapine. 



Water. 



C 16 H 23 NQ 5 + (H 2 0) 



Sinapic Acid 



■line * 



C n H 12 0, + CH 



Oil of Mustard (mixed) 



15 



NO 



d-meal, has a sp. gr. of .917 



This yellow, fixed, fat oil, obtainable by 



1' 



d contains gly 



12 (104 1 



from the 
dryi 

This oil is used largely to adulterate olive oil, as it has a great power of resisting 

ranciditv. to 



f Erucic,f SinapoleicJ and Behenic Acid 



by 



Myr 



This emulsion-lik 



them 



w 



ith 



syrup, and precipitating with alcoh 
as impure myrosin, which has no 



2 body is obtained from the seeds of this spec 
porating the menstruum at 40 (104 F.) 



to a 



The precipitate, dried by gentle heat 



b 



lated from the alb 



ly mixed with it. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The essential oil of mustard (Sinalbin 

in ingested, severe burning, followed 



virulent, irritant poison, causing, wh 



a 



creased h 




d, if pushed to 



f sensibility, paral 



coated 



rigors, and death. When applied to the skin it causes almost immed 
ion, followed by deep ulceration hard to heal. The symptoms caused 
epeated doses of the ground seeds are, in abstract: Salivation, with yell 

tongue; burning and scraping in the throat, followed by a sense of c 




in the rectum 



inclination to sweat. 



jsea and vomiting; painful flatulence; b 
copious pasty stools; dark-colored urine; 



<s 



ping chills. 



d 



Description of Plate 23. 



1. End of flowering branch, Salem, Mass., Jul) 28th, 1885 

2. Essential organs. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Anthers. 

5. Silique. 

6. Seed. 

7. Longitudinal section of seed. 

(2-7 enlarged 



dm. Jour. P/iar. y 1883,551. 



f Or Bra>sic Jl ''■> 



+ ( H < > 



■«H,/V 



24 





TU.adnatdel.etpinxt 



SlNAPIS NiGRA,L 



N. ORD -CRUCIFER^E. 

Tribe-BRASSICE/E. 

GENUS.— S I N A P I S ,* TOURN. 

SEX. SYST.— TETRADYNAMIA SILIQUOSA. 



24 



SINAPIS NIGRA 



BLACK MUSTARD. 



SYN.-SINAPIS NIGRA, LINN.; BRASSICA NIGRA, BOISS: BRASSICA 

SINAPIOIDES, ROTH, 

COM. NAMES,— BLACK MUSTARD, BROWN OR RED MUSTARD- (FR ) 

MOUTARDE NOIRE : (GER.) SCHWARZ SENP. 



SEEDS 



Description. — This useful plant has become a troublesome weed in 



y 



parts of North America, growing- from 3 to 6 feet high. The root is fusifon 
thin and branching. The stem generally erect, smooth and numerously branched ; 
the lower leaves are either lyrate or lobed, the terminal lobe large, rough, and 
harsh to the touch, with two or more small lateral divisions or lobes at its base 



the stem 



d smooth. The inflorescence is a d 



head at first, extending as the fruits form into an elongated raceme, which con- 
tinues flowering at its top until frost checks the growth. The pods are smooth, 
about one-quarter inch long, upon appressed pedicels, and closely set to the 
elongated axis of the inflorescence, they are 4-angled, erect, and surmounted by 
the 4-angled, stout, persistent style. Valves 2, each 1 -nerved. Seeds 4 to 6 in each 
cell, they are spherical, or somewhat oval, of a dark reddish-brown color, 25 of 
them in line would about equal an inch, and 50 would generally weigh 1 grain. 
The pitted reticulation of the outer coat is coarser, while the seeds themselves 
are smaller and more pungent than S. alba. 

A description of the order and genus is incorporated in the description of 
Sinapis alba, 23. 



History and Habitat.— Black Mustard is found wild over the whole extent 
of Europe, excepting its most northern latitudes, as well as the central part of 
Asia and in Northern Africa. It is quite extensively cultivated in Italy, Germany, 
and England, and fully naturalized in both North and South America, flowering 
in temperate regions from June to September. It was well known to the ancients 
as a medicinal a^ent. but not as a condiment until somewhat more modern times. 



The seeds, when ground, form a greenish-yellow powder, inodorous when dry 



* 2/cairi, sina/i, turnip. Brassica or Sinapis cnmpestris. 



24-2 



penetrating when moist, with at first a bitter, then extremely pungent taste, blister- 
ing the tongue. The seeds should be of a bright reddish-brown color, free from 
gray coating, this ashy film being the effect of dampness during the ripening, and 
a great detriment to the value and properties of the seed. 

The fresh plants, soon after their appearance, while the leaves are yet youno- 
and tender, are used by the laity in many parts of this country as a pot-herb 
("greens"). This relish is termed at that stage of its growth, scurvy-grass, 
though the true Scurvy-grass is Sinapis arvensis (Brassica Sinapis /rum) . The 
use of Sinapis nigra in the U. S. Ph. is simply as Charta Sinapis. In the 
Eclectic Materia Medica the use is the same, and both employ the volatile oil 
in Linimentum Sinapis Compositum. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The ripe seeds are coarsely powdered 
and covered with five parts by weight of alcohol, poured into a well-stoppered 
bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, being shaken twice a 
day. 



The tincture is separated by decanting, straining and filtering. 
Thus prepared, it has a clear, greenish-yellow color by transmitted 



or 



reflected light, a sweetish, biting taste, afterward somewhat bu 



» 



neutral to litmus paper. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-Sinap 



rning, and is 



th 



aponifiable fat, in the seeds of black mustard, from 



body exists (Simon 



an 



ti 



by percolating the 
percolate, treating 



may be obtained 



po 
th 



wc 



e 



d seeds with alcohol of 94 per cent., evaporating 
idue with ether, 



again 



f 90 per cent, and filtering through 



evaporating, treating 



th 



The impure cry 



thus gained are to be dissolved in ether, from which they deposit on evaporati 
snowy scales, soluble in alcohol, ether and oils. 



(W 



Sinigrin, 



to this 
soluble 



C 10 H M KNS 2 O 10 , or potasso-myronic acid, is the principle pe 



pecies 



1 



fro 



which it may be obtained as 



in 



ohol 



d water. When acted 



y 



eedle-like 



cry 



forming mustard oil, glucose, and KHS0 4 



po 



by my rosin it breaks d 



An analysis of 



d E. Everhart, reported in the J 



pies of black mustard farina, made by A. R. Leed 



o 



f 



e 



Am 



Chemi 



i88i,p 
from th 



Society 



following averages, each sample differing but very slightly 



Moisture, 

Myronate of potash (sinigrin), 
Sulphocyanide of sinapine (sinalbin), 
Myrosin, 

Mustard oil, . ... 

Ash, ...... 

Cellulose (by difference), 



6.833 
.646 

11. 123 

28.483 

29.208 

3-757 
19.950 



100. 



For a full description of crude acid, sinapoleic acid, myrosin, and fai-oil, 
alike in both S. alba and S. nigra, see 23. 



24-3 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.-So far as I can determine, no specific toxic 

symptoms have been noted; under S. alba I have given the general action of 
mustard without differentiation. 



•^ — "- 



» 



Description of Plate 24. 

1. End of a branch in fruit and flower, Bingham too, N. Y. f July 5, 883 

2. Outline of one of the lower leaves. 

3. Fruit (enlarged). 

4. Pollen grains x 380. 
















25. 




/ 



r 



6 






TO. . id nat del et pinxt 




7 



Capsella bursa-pastgris 



} 



N. ORD.-CRUCIFER^E. 



Tribe -LEPIDINEA AND THLASPIDEA. 

GENUS.— C APSE LL A,* VENT 



25 



SEX. SYST.— TETRADYNAMIA. 



BURSA-PASTORIS. 



SHEPHERD'S PURSE. 



SYN.— CAPSELLA BURSA-PASTORIS, MCEN. ; THLASPI BURSA-PASTORIS, 
LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— SHEPHERD'S PURSE; (PR.) BOURSE DE PASTEUR; (GER.) 



HIRTENTASCHLEIN. 



M<1 \ 



Description. — This intrusive little annual grows to a height of from 6 to 18 
inches. Root tap-shaped. Stem erect, simple, or branching at the summit, smooth 
or sometimes pubescent. Leaves mostly rosulate at the root, pinnatifid or pinna- 
tifid ly toothed ; stem leaves sessile and partly clasping, more or less sagittate, 
toothed or in some cases entire, especially those at the base of the racemes. 
Inflorescence apparently a dense cluster at the summit of the stem, but as fruiting 
advances showing a racemose arrangement; flowers minute, white; pedicels long, 
especially in fruit. Sepals ovate, long-pointed, and having inserted about their 
middle a filamentous appendage. Petals spatulate. Anthers sagittate. Style short ; 
stigma capitate. Silicle obcordate triangular, flattened contrary to the septum ; 
valves 2, scaphoid, wingless. Seeds numerous ; cotyledons plane, incumbent. Read 
description of Cruciferse under Sinapis alba, 23. 

History and Habitat. — This European immigrant has become too thoroughly 
a nuisance as a weed about the cultivated lands of this country from Florida north- 
ward and westward, where it flowers from earliest spring to September. 

This plant was formerly classed with the genus Thlaspi, from which it was 
removed on account of its wingless valves. 

The Shepherd's Purse has been used in English domestic practice from earh 
times, as an astringent in diarrhoea ; it was much used in decoction with milk to 
check active purgings in calves. Later its value here was much doubted, and 
other properties accorded it, especially those of a stimulating astringent and 
diuretic. It has been employed in fresh decoction in hematuria, hemorrhoids 
diarrhoea and dysentery, and locally as a vulnerary in ecchymosis and as an appli- 
cation in rheumatic affections. The juice on cotton, inserted in the nostrils, was 
often used to check hemorrhage in epistaxis. 



* From capsula, a pod. 

t I use the specific name, which should always distinguish this plant in medicine, to avoid confusion in synonym-. 



25-2 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh plant, gathered when the 
flowering season is about half completed and the fruits rapidly forming, is chopped 
and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two-thirds by weight of alcohol is 
taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with the spirit and the whole pressed out in a 
piece of new linen. The tincture thus prepared has, after filtration, an orange- 



brown color by transmitted light, a peculiar odor, resembling decayed vegetation, 
a pungent taste, too like its odor, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Several partial analyses have been made of 
this plant, but none have resulted in the separation and determination of a pecu- 
liar principle. The general constituents of plants, and a volatile oil said to be 
identical with oil of mustard, as well as a fixed oil, have been determined. 

Clinical Uses. — In the absence of provings of this drug, it has been found 
curative in various uterine hemorrhages, especially those with which uterine cramp 
and colic are associated; also in various passive hemorrhages from mucous sur- 
faces.* A thorough proving is greatly to be desired. 



Description of Plate 25. 

1. Whole of young plant above the radicle leaves, Binghamton, N. Y., May 24th, 1885 

2, 3, 4. Forms of radicle leaves, 

5. Flower. 

6. Petal. 

7. Pistil. 

8. Stamen. 

9. Silicle. 

10. Open silicle, showing seeds. 



* See Hale, New Rem., p. 625. 



45m. 




26 



ad nat.de! et pinxt. 



RAPHANUS RAPHANISTRUM,Linn. 



N. ORD.-CRUCIFER;E. 

Tribe.-RAPHANE/E. 

GENUS.— RAPH AN US,* LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— TETRADYNAMIA SILIQUOSA. 



26 



RAPHANUS 



RADISH. 



SYN.— RAPHANUS RAPHANISTRUM, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— WILD RADISH, JOINTED CHARLOCK, CHARLOCK; (PR.) 
RAIFOOT, COMMUNE; (GER.) WILDE RETTIG. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF RAPHANUS RHAl'HANISTRUM, I. INN 




Description. — This rapid-growing annual or biennial herb usually attains 
height of from i to 2 feet. Root tap-shaped; stem erect, glaucous, sparing 
bristly, and much branched below. Leaves lyrate, petiolate or sessile, dentate, and 
rough, the terminal lobe oval or obovate. Calyx erect, somewhat 2 -saccate at the 
base. Petals at first yellow and veiny, becoming purplish or whitish with age, 
obovate and unguiculate. Stamens distinct toothless. Style long; stigma capitate 
Pod linear-oblong, terete upward, longer than the style, 2-jointed, indehiscent, and 
valveless ; the upper joint markedly necklace-form by strong contractions between 
the seeds; the lower joint often seedless and stalk-like. Seeds 3 to 8, large and 
spherical ; cotyledons conduplicate and incumbent. 

History and Habitat.— The Wild Radish grows profusely over the fields of 
Great Britain and Europe, and has become a troublesome weed in New England, 
New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, from whence it is spreading westward. 

It blossoms in July and fruits in September. 

The cultivated forms, R. sativus, Linn., and its varieties, niger (Black Spanish), 
oblongus (Long Radish), and rotundus (Globose Radish), supposed to be of Chi- 



nese origin, are w 



known salad roots ; all of them have contributed 



provings. Very little and unpronounced use has been made in medicine of 
these forms, or of the wild plant. The seeds have proved emetic, and the root 
diuretic and laxative. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh, perfect roots, gathered 
when full formed, at about the time of flowering, are chopped and pounds 1 to a 
pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken the pulp 
thoroughly mixed with one sixth part of it. and the rest of the alcohol a dded. 



* PA, ra, quickly; «'™, phaino, to appear; from its rapid germination. 



26-2 

After thoroughly stirring the whole, it is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and 
allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, shaking twice a day. The tinc- 
ture, after straining and filtering, has a clear yellow color by transmitted light; an 
offensive odor, something like that of boiling cabbage ; a similar miserable taste ; 
and an acid reaction. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The effects noted in people who have eaten 
too freely of radishes, and in others who took large quantities of the tincture, were 
substantially as follows : Mental excitement, followed by depression and anxiety ; 
confusion and vertigo with cephallagia ; stuffiness of the nostrils ; paleness of the 
face ; bitter taste in the mouth ; constriction of the oesophagus ; violent thirst ; 
nausea with violent pressure in the stomach ; great distention of the abdomen, 
which became hard and tense, though painless, and no flatulence escaped ; numer- 
ous liquid diarrhoeic stools ; great desire to urinate, with greatly augmented quan- 
tity; great sexual excitement in women, coming on in paroxysms of great violence ; 
lancinating pains in the chest; violent palpitation of the heart; attacks of hysteria ; 
emaciation ; itching of the skin ; restlessness; and chilliness followed by inclination 
to sweat. 



Description of Plate 26. 



r. Whole plant, Jamaica, L. 1., July 29th, 1886. 

2. A sepal and stamen. 

3. Petal. 

4. Pistil. 

5. A ripe pod. 

6. A section of a pod. 
(2-4 and 6 enlarged.) 






27 








2 



3 




4 




$m. 



ad naidel.et pmxt 



VIOLA 



Tricolor , Linn 



N. ORD.-VIOLACE^E. 



27 



GENUS.— V I O L A,* LINN. 



SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



VIOLA TRICOLOR (JACEA 



4- 

T 




WILD PANSY. 



SYN.— VIOLA TRICOLOR, LINN. ; VIOLA BICOLOR, PURSH ; VIOLA TEN- 
ELLA, MUflL. ; VIOLA ARVENSIS, ELL. ; JACEA TRICOLOR, SIVE 
TRINITATIS, ETC., J. BAUH. 

COM. NAMES.-PANSY, PANSIE r PANSEY, HEART'S-EASE, THREE COL- 
ORED VIOLET, TRINITY VIOLET, FIELD PANSY, WILD PANSY; 
(FR.) PENSEE ; (GER.) STIEFMUTTERCHEN-KRAUT, FREISAMKRAUT.' 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT VIOLA TRICOLOR, LINN. 



Description. — This beautiful little plant, belonging to the leafy-stemmed violets, 
springs from an annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial, fusiform root. Stem 3 to 8 
inches high, angled, at first creeping, then erect, simple or branched, and leafy 
throughout; stipules very large, herbaceous, lyrate-pinnatifid. Inflorescence several 
smallish flowers on a terminal and axillary peduncle. Calyx with short auricles. 
Corolla with art obtuse, thick spur ; petals short clawed. Ovary partly concealed 
in the concave receptacle ; style somewhat conical, narrowing toward the ovary ; 
stigma cup-shaped. Capsule smooth ; seeds oblong. 

Description. — Violaceae and Viola. — The plants under this natural order and 
genus are low, caulescent or acaulescent, those with stems springing from annual or 
perennial roots, those without stems from scaly root-stocks. The leaves are alter- 
nate and petiolate, with leaf-like persistent stipules. In the stemless violets the 
scapes are axillary, solitary, and furnished with two bracts at the base. I nflorcscena 
a single, more or less irregular flower upon the incurved summit of the scape or 
peduncle; many species having also radical apetalous or cryptopetalous, fertile 
summer flowers. Calyx herbaceous, persistent \ sepals 5, often auriculate at the 
base, the odd one superior. Corolla irregular ; petals 5, somewhat unequal, 

hypogynous, alternate with the sepals, the superior one — which becomes inferior 
by the inversion of the scape — is saccate or spurred at the base, the two lower 
petals with an appendage at the base concealed in the spur. Stamens 5, hypogy- 
nous upon a ring-like or concave torus, alternate with the petals, clos [y surround- 
ing the ovary, and are sometimes slightly coherent into a ring or tube; filaments 
very short and broad, projecting beyond the anther into a little persistent wing or 
tip, or sometimes obsolete. The two lower filaments, when present, are furnished 



* Derivation Latin, obscure. 



I Herring's Condensed Materia Medica. 



27-2 



projection, concealed in the sac or spur of the lower petal ; anthers 



adnate, 2-celled, the cells somewhat separated at the base, opening by 
dinal introrse slit. Ovary sessile, ovoid, one-celled, with three parietal pi 



tyle terminal, various, usually decl 



d ; stig 



Fruit an ovoid, crusta- 



ceous or papyraceous, 3 valved, loculicidal capsule; seeds many, horizontal, and 
furnished with a distinct wart-like excrescence at the hilum, raphe apparent; albu- 
men fleshy ; embryo straight, situated in the axis. 

This description essentially includes the two genera Ionidum (solea) and Viola 
of the northern United States ; in the tropics many plants of this order are shrubby. 
The genus Ionidum contains the Brazilian Poaya da Praja {Ionidum Ipecacuanha, 
A. de St. H. ; /. Itubu, H B K. ; Viola Itubu, Aubl. ; Pombalia Ilubu, D C.) ; the 
Poaya do campo (Ionidum Poaya.) ; the Chimborazian Cuichunchulli (Ionidum 
microphyllum, H B K.) noted as a supposed specific for the " mal de San Lazaro " 
or Elephantiasis tuberculata ; and the Chilian purgative Maytensillo (Ionidum 
parviflorwn, Linn.), the roots of which are stated by Lindley to bear in appearance 
and properties a great similarity to Ipecacuanha. 



History and Habitat. — The wild pansy has become naturalized in this country 
from Europe, growing here in dry, sandy soils, from New York westward to Illi- 
nois and southward, blossoming northward from April until the summer months. 
The varieties of this plant in cultivation are innumerable, affording some of the 
most beautiful of our garden-plants ; the principal changes in cultivation are in the 
size and colors of the flowers, varying, as they now do, from pure white to silver, 
gold, bronze, and jet-black, with admixtures in immense variety. The use of the 
pansy in medicine dates far back in ancient medication, the first real experimenta- 
tion with the plant is that of Starck in 1 776, who wrote " De crusta lactea infantum 
cjusdemque remedis dissertatio, etc.," in that year; the provings substantiate this 
use of the plant and show it to be useful in other forms of impetigo. Its use in 

forms of burrowing ulcers, tinea capitis and scabies is also sanctioned by 



the p 



.-> 



The plant is mentioned in the U. S. Ph. and the Eclectic Materia Med 



Used 



and Preparation. — The whole plant, gathered while in flower, should 
be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed ; then two parts by weight of 



taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of 
the alcohol added. The whole should be well mixed, poured into a well-stoppered 
bottle, and allowed to stand at least eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated by filtering, should have an orange-brown color by 
transmitted light, a cucumber-like odor, rich, sweet taste, and strong acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Violin;* this acrid, bitter principle, bearing 
in its properties a close resemblance to emetia;\ was extracted by Boullay from 
Viola adorata ; it is found also in Viola tricolor and var. arvensis as well as in 



* Violia, Violine. 



f Alkaloid of Cephalis Ipecacuanha. 



1 









I 



i 



27-3 



****** According to Wittstein it is a pale yellow, bitter powder fusible 

md tnflammable at greater heat; it dissolves slightly in water and" alcohol an is 

nsoluble in ether. -*wuw, dim is 

Violaqueritrin, Q,H,,0.. This cnloring-matter was discovered bv Karl 



Mandelin* in viola tricolor var. arvensis ; it forms a yellow crystalline massf easily 
soluble in alkalies, and hot water, crystallizing from the latter on cooling. 

Salicylic Acid, C 6 H 4 j °" This acid, so far in its history, has been but 



rarely extracted under its own form fro 



plants ; the flowers of Sp 



alone yielding it.f Karl Mandelin, however, who has made careful analyses of 
viola tricolor, extracts the acid pure. He reports in his « Inaugural Dissertation" 
(Dorpat, 1 88 1) a proportion of from .043 per cent, in cultivated plants, to ,07 per 
cent, in var. arvensis. He finds it in all parts of the fresh plant, and principally in 
the roots, stems and leaves. 

Pectin, or vegetable jelly, C^H^ (H,0) 4 . From the fact that a mixture of 
one part of the juice of this plant with ten parts water, will form a jelly-like mass 
the presence of the above body or a very strong mucilage seems proven. This 



property h 

for coughs and bronchial affection 



Viola as an expectorant, emollient, and infus 



Sugar, both crystallizable and uncrystallizable, salts of potassium, tartrate of 
magnesium, and other general constituents of plants have been determine I. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The emetic effect of some of the violets, dm 



the presence of violin, has been noted 



'I 



characteristic symptom of its action is an offensive odor of the urine, like that of 
the cat. The pains caused by this drug are of a stitching character, while its action 
seems spent almost entirely upon the skin, and the male sexual organs. On the 
skin it causes burning, stinging, and itching, followed by breaking down of the 
tissues into either squamous spots, or any grade of incrusted eruptions; the erup- 
tion pours out a thin yellow fluid. Boils, impetigo, especially crustea Iactea, 
morous and burrowing ulcers, and zoster followed the exhibition of generous doses 
f this drug. On the genital organs of the male the prepuce becomes swollen* 

hing and burning pains in the glans and scrotum, the testicle be 



1 



indurated, and venereal ulcers form ; stitchings are frequent in the urethra, followed 
by urging to urinate with profuse discharge. 



Description of Plate 27. 



. Whole plant from Binghamton, N. Y., May 13, 1884. 

2. Bud showing sepals. 

3. Pistil (enlarged). 

4. Discharged anther (enlarged). 

5. Pollen x 380. 



Phar. Zeit.fur Russland, 1883, pp. 329-334- Am. Jour. Phar., 1883, p. 47°- t I**fc 



_\ 










, 



' 




















t 



I 
















/ 








1 














4 



4 



<fm. 







28. 



ad nat.del.et pinxt 



HELIANTHEMUM CANADENSE,Michx 



N. ORD.-CISTACE/E. 



GENUS.-HELIANTHEMUM,* TOURN 



28 



SEX. SYST.— POLYAXDRIA MOXOGYNIA 






TUS. 



ROCK ROSE. 



SY ^-™LIANTHEMUM CANADENSE, MICHX.; H. RAMULIPLORUM, 

CISTn^' '* r* 5?n^T^ OLIUM ' PURSH - H. CORYMBOSUM, PURSH.; 
S?tS? t CANADEN SIS, LINN.; C. RAMULIFLORUM, POIR. • LECHEA 

SpIch.' '* HETERAMERIS CANADENSIS, SPAOH.; H. MICHA™ 

CO w^ ME T ^ T ~ ROCK ROSE ' t F ROST -WORT, FROST -PLANT. FROST- 

^ E ?A T ° LLY ROSB ; ( FR ) HELIANTHEME DU CANADA; (GER ) 
CANADISCHES SONNENROSCHEN. ' 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT HELIANTHEMUM CANADENSE, MICHX. 



Stem at fi 



Description.— This peculiar plant grows to a height of from 6 to 1 2 inches. 

-st simple, erect or ascending, somewhat hairy ; pubescence stellate and 
fasciculate. Leaves sessile or nearly so, oblong lanceolate. Flowers of two sorts, 
both diurnal; Primary form: few or solitary, large, pedunculate; calyx hairy 
pubescent; petals 5, obovate, fugacious, crumpled in the bud, erosely marg 



finitely numerous; pod ovate, shining, many-seeded ; Secondary form : 
numerous, small, sessile, axillary, solitary or few-clustered upon short leafy branches ; 
sepals 5, the outer pair sometimes wanting; petals very small or absent; stamens 
3 to 10; pod minute, hoary, 3- few-seeded. Style columnar or absent; stigma 
capitate, 3-lobed, fimbriolate. Fruit a 1 -celled, 3-valved capsule. Seed somewhat 
triangular; testa rough; embryo incurved in the form of a hook or ring. 

There are two very distinct forms of this species, differentiable as follows : 



Early Flowering Form (Fig. i). 

Stems upright, branching, bright crimson, nearly 

glaucous. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, light green. 
Primary flowers axillary solitary. 
Secondary flower-buds minute. 
Capsule of primary flowers nearly twice as large 

as the later form. 



Later Flowering Form (Fig. 2). 

Stem upright, less branched, purplish, covered 

with a downy pubescen< e. 
Leaves dark green. 
Primary flowers terminal clustered. 
Secondary flowers numerous, larger. 
Capsule of primary flowers smaller. 



CistaceaB. — This small family of low shrubs or herbs is represented in North 
America by 3 genera and 17 species; its members are characterized as follows : 



# 'HAtof, helioSy the sun; avQtr\ov, anthemon, a flower. 

f The true Rock Rose is C. Creticus, Linn., a native of Syria. 



* 






























28-2 

Leaves simple, mostly entire, the lower often opposite, the upper alternate ; stipules 
absent. Flowers regular. Calyx persistent; sepals 5, the two outer often smaller, 
bract-like, or absent, the three inner twisted in the bud. Petals 3 to 5, twisted in 
an opposite direction to the sepals, fugacious. Stamens distinct, mostly indefinite 
hypogynous ; filaments slender; anthers short, innate. Ovules few or many, stipi- 
tate, and furnished with an apical orifice ; style small or wanting. Fruit a 1 -celled 
capsule ; valves 3 to 5, each with a dissepiment attached to its median line and pla- 
cental at the axis. Seeds mostly orthotropous ; embryo long and slender, straightish 
or curved ; albumen mealy. 

The only other plant of this order used in medicine is the European Rock 
Rose (Cistus Crelz'eus, Linn.), from which the natural exudation, a gum resin called 
Ladanum, has been much esteemed as a stimulant, especially to mucous mem- 
branes, and as an emmenagogue. C. Ladaniferous, Linn., C. Led on, Lam., and 
C. Laurifolins, Linn., are said to yield the same substance. 



History and Habitat. — Frost- wort is indigenous to North America, where it 

ranges from Maine to Wisconsin and thence southward ; it habits sandy soils, and 

flowers from April to August. In early winter the bark near the root fissures, 

and spicules of ice project from the rents ; this fact gave the plant its vulgarisms, 
Frost-wort, etc. 

s plant has been long held in repute as a remedy for scrofula and for 
any disorders arising in persons of strumous diatheses, especially, however 
ose diseases in such persons which have seemed to need 



Th 



and the like 



ch as diarrhoea, aphthous ulcerations, ulcers, ophthalmia, syphil 



The preparation of the Eclectic Materia Medica is Decocium Helianthemi 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh flowering plant is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alco- 
hol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of 
the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered 
bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the mass by pressing and filtering, has a beauti- 
ful crimson color by transmitted light ; an odor resembling that of damp clover hay; 
a sourish, bitterish, and astringent taste, and an acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— No analysis of this species has, to our knowl- 
edge, been made; the tincture, however, would indicate a bitter principle, and 
probably tannin. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— When taken in large doses the decoction 
causes nausea and vomiting. Small doses persisted in cause the following train 
of symptoms: Headache; pressure and stitches in the eyes; swelling and dis- 
charge in the internal ear, and of the salivary and cervical glands ; swelling of the 
inner nose, and sneezing; soreness, dryness, and rawness^of the tongue, mouth, 






28-3 



and throat ; abdominal flatulence; diarrhoea; swelling and hardness of the mam- 
mae; pains m the chest; articular drawing and tearing pains; itching vesicular 
eruption ; chilliness, heat and restlessness, with thirst and tremblin 



fever. 



(T 



during th« 



Description of Plate 28. 



1. Early flowering form, with primary flower, June 15th, 1885. 

2. Late flowering form, August ist, 1885, Salem, Mass. 

3. Primary flower-bud. 

4. Pistil and stamen. 

5. Horizontal section of ovary. 

6. Ovule. 

7. Open fruit. 

8. Seeds. 

9. Section of seed. 
10. Secondary bud. 

(3-6 and 8-10 enlarged.) 













£>t 






M 



5 




2 





3 



4 



-XTl . ad natdei.et pinxt 



DROSERA ROTUNDIFOUA,Linn. 



N. ORD.-DROSERACE;E. 

GENUS.— D ROSE R A,* LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA PENTAGYNIA. 



29 



DROSERA. 



S UNDE W. 



SYN.-DROSERA ROTUNDIPOLIA, L.; RORELLA ROTUNDIPOLIA, AND 

ROS SOLIS FOL. ROTUND. RAIL 

COM. NAMES.— ROUND -LEAVED SUNDEW, RED -ROT, MOOR GRASS, 

YOUTH ROOT; (PR.) DROSERE A PEUILLES RONDES, ROSEE DU 
SOLEIL; (GER.) RUNDBLATTRIGER SONNENTHAU. 



WHOLE 



Description. — This low, stemless, perennial herb is characterized as follows : 
Leaves orbicular, tufted, the upper surface covered with red, glandular, setose 
hairs, each bearing a pellucid globule of glutinous fluid at its apex ; petioles long, 
hairy, and spreading ; stipules replaced by a fringy tuft of hairs. Scapes naked, i to 
3 from each root; inflorescence a terminal, unilateral, at first circinate then nodding 
raceme which becomes gradually erect as the buds expand and fruits ripen ; thus 
each flower as it opens appears terminal. Flowers 5 to 10, white, diurnal, opening 
only in sunshine, the parts sometimes in sixes. Petals oblong, styles generally 3, 
deeply forked ; stigmas 6, situated upon the inner face of the club shaped apex of 
each fork. Pod globular, 3-valved ; seeds numerous, fusiform, arranged in 2 to 5 
rows along the placentiferous median line of each valve, testa loose, arilliform 
and chaffy. 

DroseraceeB — The members of this small family of bog plants are known 
mainly by their being mostly clothed with gland-bearing hairs. Leaves clustered 
at the base of the scape, or alternate, petiolate, circinate in the bud. Flowers 
hypogynous ; calyx composed of 5 equal and persistent sepals; corolla of 5 equal 
and regular, marcescent petals, convolute in the bud. Stamens equaling in num- 
ber the petals and alternate with them ; anthers innate, extrorse. Styles 3 to 5 gen- 
erally distinct, undivided, bifurcated or two-lobed, at the apex. Fruit a 1 -celled 
3 to 5-valved, loculicidal capsule ; placenta thick at the base of the pod, or merely a 
line on each valve ; seeds numerous, anatropous ; albume?i sarcous or cartilagi- 
nous ; embryo basal, minute. 

The species under consideration is the only one used in medicine. The North 
Carolinian fly-trap (Dionea muscipula, Ellis) has furnished material for the study 
of carnivority in plants ; the sundew has also been experimented upon in this 



* Jpo<rcp6s, droseros, dewy ; in allusion to the appearance of the leaves 



29-2 

regard, but as yet the results are far from proving it carnivorous per se y though 
the plants allowed insects as "food" appear to flourish better and ripen more 
seeds than those deprived of that nourishment* 

History and Habitat. — The sundew grows in dense sphagnum or sandy 
swamps in England and America. Its range here extends from Florida northward, 
most common north, where it blossoms in June and July. 

The previous uses of this plant in medicine have been but slight ; it was sup- 
posed in the sixteenth century to be curative of consumption ; of this quality, how- 
ever, Gerarde says : " The later physitians have thought this herbe to be a rare 
and singular remedie for all those that be in a consumption of the lungs, and 
especially the distilled water thereof ; for, as the best doth keep and hold fast the 
moisture and the dew, and so fast that the extreme heate of the sun cannot con- 
sume and waste away the same ; so, likewise, men thought that herewith the 
naturale and heate in men's bodies is preserved and cherished. But the use 
thereof doth otherwise teach, and reason showeth the contrarie ; for, seeing it -is 
an extreme biting herbe, and that the distilled water is not altogether without this 
biting qualitie, it cannot be taken with safetie : for it hath also been observed that 
they have sooner perished that used the distilled water hereof, than those that 
abstained from it and have followed the right and ordinary course of diet." 
Geoffroi assertsf that its infusion is a valuable pectoral, useful in pulmonary 
ulceration and in asthma. Rafinesque says % the juice is used " to destroy warts 
and corns ; with milk, for freckles and sunburns. It makes milk solid, but sour 
like bonyclabber, liked in Sweden. Deemed pectoral in South America, a sirup 
used in asthma." Many medical writers, among them Schenck and Valentin, 
recommend its use in " different kinds " of coughs, arising from bronchial attacks, 
phthisis, and other diseases of the lungs. A' fit summary of all this practice may 
be found in Hahnemann's observations. " Drosera is one of the most powerful 
medicinal agents in our country. It was formerly used externally, but without 
success, in cutaneous affections, and it seems to have been taken with greater 
advantage internally. Modern practitioners who, according to custom, have tried 
only large doses, have not ventured upon giving it internally, fearing to kill their 
patients, and have therefore rejected it." 

No preparations of Drosera are officinal either in the U. S. Ph. or Eclectic 
Materia Medica. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The entire fresh plant gathered in 



July should be chopped and pounded to a pulp, enclosed in a piece of new linen 
and pressed out. The juice should then be added to an equal part by weight of 
alcohol, thoroughly mixed and allowed to stand eight days in a well-stoppered 



bottle in a dark, cool place. The tincture separated from the above mass 




* Biisgen, Jour. Chem. Soc, 1884, p. 917. A more extended discussion of this subject will be found under Sar- 



racenia, 19. 



Mer. et de L. Diet, de M. Mc 
Med. Flora. II.. u. 21 7. 






29-3 

« 

filtration should be opaque, and present in thin layers a reddish-brown color, have 
an acrid, astringent taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS — Alizarin, C 14 H 8 4 * (C 10 H 6 O 3 + H 2 or 
C u H 10 O 4 ).f This dioxyanthroquinone coloring matter was first discovered in 
Madder root (Rubia tinctoria), as a glucoside.J It crystallizes from its solution 
in alcohol in long, lustrous, translucent, yellowish-red, neutral and bitter prism 
containing three molecules of water, which it loses at ioo°-i20° (2i2°-248° F.). 
It sublimates at 215 (41 9 F.), in brilliant red needles that are only slighth 
soluble in water, but fully in alcohol and ether. (Wittstein.) 

The plant is acrid and corrosive, but the principle to which this property i 
due has not, as far as I can determine, been investigated. Rafmesque states that 
the glutinous secretion of the leaf hairs is acid ; this may be a similar body to that 
which renders the water in the leaves of the pitcher-plant acid.§ 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Drosera has long been deemed poisonous to 
animals, especially sheep; in the latter its action was mostly supposed to he upon 
the mucous membrane of the intestinal tract. Dr. Curie slowly poisoiu 1 three 



daily doses of the drug;|| the post-mortem 



examination 



scope revealed the pleural surface of both lungs studded with true tubercl In 
one cat the mesenteric glands were much enlarged; in another the ubmaxillar 
glands, with the solitary glands of the colon and Peyer's patch 



W 



man the juice produces shuddering, sense of constriction at the chest, raw- 
ness in the throat, cough, haemoptysis, pain in the bowels, diarrho 1, sweat, and 
diminished secretion of urine. The cough caused by this drug arises from a tick- 
ling in the larynx ; it is spasmodic in its nature and causes vomiting if" the stomach 

contains food. 

Drosera asserts altogether a peculiar action upon the lungs and, in fact, the 
whole respiratory tract, thus leading us to value it deservingly in pertussis, bron- 
chial irritation and even phthisis, where in fact it gives many a patient a r stful 
night and more peaceful day when the disease is too far advano 1 for still greater 

benefit. 



Description of Plats 2 



July 



2. Stamen. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Leaf hair. 
(2-4 enlarged.) 



• Grieb et Lieb. t Schunck. X R-bkrfc-ld. « -accn.a p«rp« 

|| French Acad. Sci., British Jour. Horn., xx., 39. 



30. 




t 




10. .ad nat.del.et pinxt. 



Hypericum Perforatum, Linn. 



N. ORD.-HYPERICACEiE. 

GENUS.- H YPERICUM,* LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— POLYADELPHIA POLYANDRIA. 



30 



HYPERICUM 



ST. JOHN'S WORT. 



SYN.- HYPERICUM PERFORATUM, LINN.; H. VULGARE, BAUH.; H. 
PSEUDOPERFORATUM, BERTOL. 

COM. NAMES. — ST. JOHN'S WORT, GOD'S WONDER PLANT, DEVIL'S 
SCOURGE, WITCHES' HERB ; (FR.) HERBE ST. JEAN, CHASSE DIABLE, 

• MILLE - PERTUIS ; (GER.) JOHANNISKRAUT, HARTHEU, HEXEN- 
KRAUT. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLAN! HYPERICUM PERFORATUM, LINN. 



Description.— This rapidly-spreading perennial grows to a height of a foot or 
more. Stem erect, somewhat two-edged, much branched at the summit and pro- 
ducing many long runners from its base. Leaves elliptical to linear oblong, obtuse, 
and punctate with numerous scattered pellucid dots. Inflorescence in a dense, ter- 
minal, leafy cyme ; flowers numerous, deep yellow. Calyx erect ; sepals lanceolate, 
acute. Petals twice as long as the sepals, black-dotted along the edges, margins 
unequal. Stamens numerous, in 3 to 5 clusters; filaments filiform; anthers black- 
dotted. Styles 3-divergent. Fruit a globose-ovoid capsule, 3-celled by the meeting 
of the placentae in the axis ; seeds pitted. 

Hypericacese. — This family of herbs or shrubs is represented in North America 
by 3 genera, containing in all 39 species and 6 varieties. Leaves opposite, entire, 
dotted ; stipules none. Inflorescence cymose ; flowers regular, hypogynous. Sepals 
5, nearly equal, sometimes united at the base, persistent, and imbricated in the bud. 
Petals 5, alternate with the sepals, deciduous, oblique, convolute or imbricated in the 
bud. Stamens mostly numerous, united or clustered, and not furnished with inter- 
posed glands ; anthers introrse, fixed by the middle. Ovules anatropous ; styles 
2 to 5, persistent ; stigmas hardly evident, capitate. Fruit a 1 - to 5-celled pod ; 
dehiscence septicidal ; valves 2 to 5. Seeds numerous, usually cylindrical ; embryo 

straight ; albmnen none ; tegrnen fleshy. 

The only plants of this order used in general medicine arc: The Isle of 1 "ran< e 



Hypericum lauceolatum, which is considered specific for syphilis by the natives ; 



the Brazilian H. connatum, used 



.-> 



//. laxiuscul 



considered alexiteric ; and some Russian species, which are vaunted as cures 
for hydrophobia. The European AndroscBmum officinale, All., is vulnerary; and 
the Guiana Visnia Guiancnsis, Pers., yields a purgative juice, greatly resembling 
gamboge. 



* The ancient name, of unknown derivatioi 



30-2 

History and Habitat. — This European immigrant has become so thoroughly 
naturalized with us as to become a very troublesome weed upon our farm-lands, 
where its rapid and rank growth render it difficult to exterminate and very ex- 
hausting to the soil. It flowers in July and August, and fruits a little later. 

Hypericum is mentioned by some of the earliest writers upon Materia Medica 
as a febrifuge and anthelmintic. Paul of ^Egina speaks of it as an emmenagogue, 



and as being desiccative and diuretic ; also as a vulnerary. Galen, Dioscorides 
and others recommend its use as above. Gerarde says, in his Herball : " S. John's 
Wort, with his flowers and seed boyled and drunken, provoketh urine, and is right 
good against stone in the bladder, and stoppeth the laske. The leaves, flowers, 
and seeds stamped, and put into a glass with oyle olive, and set in the hot sunne 
for certain weeks together, and then strained from these herbes, and the like quan- 
tity of new put in, and sunned in like manner, doth make an oyle of the colour of 
blood, which is a most precious remedy for deep wounds and those that are thorow 
the body, for sinews that are pricked, or any wound with a venomed weapon." 
The popular and empirical uses of this plant were various, depending in great 
part upon its balsamic odor and property. Among the more superstitious peas- 
antry of Middle Europe the most astonishing virtues were assigned to the herb ; 
it became in fact with them a fuga dcernonum, and was gathered under this idea, 
especially on St. John's Day. It was also supposed to be useful in mania, hys- 
teria, and hypochondriasis. Later on, especially in Eclectic practice, it became 
noted as a diuretic, astringent, nervine, and anti-hemorrhagic, but is thrown aside 
by the so-called " regulars," whose latest author (our contemporary, Dr. Johnson) 
says:* "In scientific medicine it has become obsolete long ago. One author of 
comparatively recent date considers 'the saturated tincture nearly as valuable as 
that of arnica for bruises, etc' As tincture of arnica, however, apart from the alco- 
hol which it contains, is of doubtful efficacy in these cases, the above statement 
does not tend to inspire faith in St. John's Wort." This, my reader, is one of the 
deductions of " scientific medicine." 

The great use of Hypericum in wounds where the nerves are involved to any 
extent is the rightful discovery of the true science of medicine. Dr. Franklin, who 
had ample field to test it during the war, says: "Lacerated wounds of parts rich 
in nerves yield nicely to this drug." Many cases of injury to the cranium and 
spinal column are reported benefited by its use ; and every homoeopathic phy- 
sician of at least three months' practice can attest to its merits. It is to the ner- 
vous system what arnica is to the muscular. 

Hypericum is no longer officinal in the pharmacopoeias. In the Eclectic Materia 
Medica its preparation is Infusum Hypcrici. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh blossoming plant is chopped 
and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are 
taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the 
alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, pour it into a closely-stop- 
pered bottle, and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 



Med, Bet. of North America, Wood's Library, Dec, 1884- 



The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, should have a dee,. 
son color, almost opaque ; an odor resembling that of port wine ; a slightly a 
gent vinous taste ; and an acid reaction ' * 



30-3 



CHEMICAL CONSITUENTS.--aW Hyperici. This body is a product of 
the apparently black dots upon the petals and fruits. It gives a beautiful red 
color to alcohol and essential oils. This oil is doubtless one of the active prin- 
ciples of the plant. A resin, acrid and slightly bitter, however, is one of the mo,. 



f 



The Tilden analysis* yields a '• B 



which does not appear as a result in the analyses of Blairt or B 

Tannin, and the usual plant constituents, have also been determined 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The compiled results of the ingestion of 



vertigo ;\nd 



drug are in substance as follows: M 

confusion of the head with pain, heat, and throbbing; dilation of the pupils! nau- 
sea; profuse urination ; dry, hacking cough ; increased heart's action ; numbne 
weakness, and trembling of the legs ; tearing pa 



remities ; great 



weakness and prostration; fuzzy feeling of the hands; r tl s sleep; shivering 

d coldness of the body followed by dry heat. 



Description of Plate 30. 



1 and 2. Whole plant, Bin^hamton, N. Y., July 7th, 18 -. 

3 and 4. Stamens. 

5. Pistil. 

6. Section of ovary. 

7. Leaf. 

8. Petal. 

(3-6 enlarged.) 



Jour. Mat. Afea., N. >., i, 232. t Am. Jour. Ph , 23 






31. 



ad nat del.et ptnxf 



AGROSTEMMA GlTHAGO,Linn. 



N. ORD.-CARYOPHYLLACE^. 

Tribe-SILENE/E. 

GENUS— LYCHNIS,* TOURN 

SEX. SYST.— DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA. 



31 



AGROSTEMMA GITHAGO. 



COEJV COCKLE. 



SYN 



LAM • AGROSTEMMA 



COM. NAMES— CORN COCKLE, COCKLE 



CAMPION 



(FR.) LA NIELLE DES BLES, LTVRAIE; (GER.) GEMEINE RADE, 



KORN 



A TINCTURE OF THE RIPE SEEDS OF LYCHNIS GITHAGO, LAM. 



Description. — This softly pubescent annual, a pernicious emigrant, grows to a 
height of from i to 3 feet. Stem erect, dichotomous; leaves linear-lanceolate, acute, 
covered with a whitish cottony down ; stipules none ; pubescence consisting of long 
appressed cilia. Inflorescence solitary, axillary and terminal, long-peduncled flowers. 
Calyx cylindrical-campanulate, pubescent, and naked as regards bracts ; lobes 5, 
linear-lanceolate, foliaceous, deciduous. Petals obovate, emarginate, crownless, 
slender-clawed, shorter than the lobes of the calyx. Stamens 10. Ovary stipe- 
less ; styles 5, or rarely 4. Fruit a 1 -celled coriacious capsule, opening by 8 or 10 
teeth ; seeds numerous, velvety black, reniform, muricately roughened in longitu- 
dinal concentric curved lines from the hilum. 



CaryophyllaceaB. — Stems usually enlarged at the nodes ; leaves opposite, 
entire, often united at the base, the upper sometimes alternate. Flowers sym- 
metrical, 4- to 5-merous ; sepals 4 to 5, distinct or cohering, persistent, continuous 
with the peduncle; petals 4 to 5 or none, hypogynous or perigynous, the latter 
clawless, the former unguiculate, inserted upon the peduncle of the ovary, they are 
sometimes deeply notched, sometimes simply emarginate, and in a few species 
split through their whole length. Stamens not more than twice the number of the 
petals, in many species equal in number with the sepals and opposite them ; fila- 
ments subulate, sometimes monadelphous at the base, inserted with the petals upon 
the peduncle of the ovary ; anthers versatile or innate, introrse, 2-celled, opening 
longitudinally. Ovary generally gynophorous, composed of from 2 to 5 confluent 
carpels; styles 2 to 5, rarely one by cohesion, filiform, stigmatic down the inner 



* Aixvos, lychnos, a lamp ; from the use of the cottony substance on the leaves of some spices in lieu of wicks. 

f Git or gith, the name of certain black aromatic grains, which were employed by the Romans in cookery. These 
grains are the seeds of the European fennel flower {Nigtlta sativa, Linn.) ; and bear little resemblance to those of the 
cockle except in size and color. 



31-2 

face. Fruit a coriaceous capsule, 2- to 5-valved and -celled, or more commonly 
1 -celled by the wasting away of the dissepiments; placenta central and generally 
free ; dehiscence loculicidal, or more commonly terminal by the splitting of the apex 
into twice as many teeth as there are styles. Seeds generally indefinite, inserted 
upon, and clustered about, the base of the central placenta, amphitropous or cam- 
pylotropous ; embryo external to the albumen and generally coiled around it, or in 
Dianthus nearly straight ; albumen farinaceous. 

The usefulness of this family of more or less mild plants lies mostly in the 
principle saponin found in many of its species, but especially prominent in two, 
viz.: the European soapwort (Saponaria officinalis, Linn.), and the Spanish fleshy- 
leaved Gypsophila (Gypsophila Strut hium, Linn.). This substance is detergent and 
often used alone and in the composition of soap. The plants in which this prin- 
ciple exists are deemed nearly equal to Sarsaparilla as cleansers of the blood in 
syphilis and similar affections when the skin is involved ; parilltn, the active prin- 
ciple of sarsaparilla, being similar in its properties to saponin. Several species of 
the genus Sileue are considered to be anthelmintics, some measure of success 
having followed the use of the Fire pink {Silene Virginiaca, Linn.).* Many species 
of pinks {Dianthus) were formerly used and esteemed as astringents and sudorifics, 
and one species, Dianthus plumarius, useful in epilepsy, but all have fallen into 
disuse, their petals now only being utilized as a coloring matter for ointments and 
perfumes. 



History and Habitat. — The cockle was introduced into this country with 
grain from Europe, and is very seldom to be found growing elsewhere than in a 
field of wheat. It blossoms and ripens its seed in good season for the harvest, 
thus mixing well with the grain. The seeds are so small that they are only with 
difficulty separated, and when left and ground with the wheat render the resulting 
flour dark-colored, unwholesome, bitter, and in some cases poisonous, as will be 
noted hereafter. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The ripe, dried seeds are broken into a 
coarse powder and weighed. Then five parts by weight of alcohol are poured upon 
the powder, and the whole allowed to stand eight days in a well-stoppered bottle, 
in a dark, cool place, shaking thoroughly twice a day. The tincture separated from 
this mass by filtration should be of a clear, light bistre color by transmitted light ; 
its odor is strangely similar to the taste of the sweet acorn ; its taste like its odor, 
and also somewhat acrid ; and its reaction strongly acid. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Agrostemmin.— I am unable to find the 
authority for this body, which Wittstein says is an " alkaloid alleged to exist in the 
seeds of Lychnis Githago. It is obtained by extracting with alcohol of 40 per cent, 
containing acetic acid, and by precipitating with calcined magnesia. The precipi- 
tate to be treated with alcohol and left to crystallize. It results as yellowish-white, 



* Barton Collections, vol. i, p. 39. 



•' 



31-3 



minute scales, fusible by heat and slowly soluble in water. It has a perceptibh 
alkaline reaction and yields crystallizable salts with acids." ' 

Githagin. — Specific saponin, described under Aesculus Hippocastanum 
page 43-4. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL AOTION.-The seeds of the cockle are said to be frc 
quently allowed to adulterate the cheaper grades of flour in France, beino- inten 
tionally ground with the wheat. Two 500 gram. (i 4 # oz.) lots of wheat flour 
containing respectively 30 and 45 per cent, of these seeds, administered to two 
calves, caused severe cramps in the stomach within an hour, followed by diarrh. a. 
and finally death. Ducks and geese will eat of the seeds, but sufiVr death as abov< 
and show post-mortem severe inflammation of the bowels." In feeding my chic kens' 
wheat screenings " I have often noted that they always carefully avoid the cockle 
seeds ; not even the young chicks will pick up a single seed. 

The following symptoms are noted by Dr. Allen ;f they were observe] from 
eating bread made of flour contaminated by cockle seed : Coma, in some ca 
vertigo; headache with a sensation of heat and burning rising into the \< rt< 
mouth hot and dry; nausea, sour and bitter vomiting; burning, extruding along the 
oesophagus, from the stomach into the throat ; cutting pains in the stomach ; diar 
rhcea, with tenesmus and burning in the bowels and rectum ; pulse at first small 
and rapid, then tense, hard, and slower; hot skin; tearing along the spine with 
impaired locomotion, and difficulty in maintaining an erect position. These symp- 
toms class the seeds among the cerebro-spinal irritants. 



u 



Description of Plate 31. 



1. End of a flowering branch, Ithaca, N. Y., June 13th, 1SS0 

2. Pistil.* 

3. Flower. 

4. Seed, x 25. 

(2 and 3 enlarged.) 



* Am. Jour. Phar., 1879, p. 129; from Arch. d. Pharm., 1879, p. J. 
f Ency. Pure Mat. Med., vol. i, p. 132. 
















32. 



* 




TXt.ad natdel 



Geranium Maculatuw 







N. ORD -GERANIACE^E. 



GENUS —G ERANIUM,* LINN. 



32 



SEX. SYST.— MONADELPHIA DECAXDRIA. 



GERANIUM MACULATUM 



WILD GERANIUM. 



SYN.— GERANIUM MACULATUM, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.-WILD GERANIUM OR CRANESBILL, SPOTTED GERANIUM 

OR CRANESBILL, CROWFOOT,* ALUM-ROOT, TORMENTIL STORK- 
BILL; (PR.) BEC DE GRUE; (GER.) GEFLECKTER STORCHSNABEL 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH AUTUMNAL ROOT OF GERANIUM MACULATUM 



LINN. 



Description. — This erect perennial, hairy herb, grows to a height of from 



d a half feet. Root 



forking. Leaves 



of two kinds; those from the root, long petioled, those of the stem, opposite; all 
generally 5-parted, the cuneate divisions lobed and cut at the end, hairy. The 
leaves when old become somewhat blotched with whitish-green, whence the specific 
name. Stipules lanceolate. Inflorescence a terminal open panicle; pedicels about 
one inch long, from one to two sometimes three flowered ; flowers large and 
showy. Sepals equal, cuspidate, persistent, villous. Petals equal, entire, bearded 
upon the claw. Stamens 10, unequal, the longer 5 alternate with the petals, and 
furnished each with a basal gland ; filaments slightly hairy at the base ; anthers per- 
fect on all the filaments. Style terminal, persistent, smooth inside. (This is notice- 
able in the fruit after their cleavage from the axis.) S:eds minutely reticulate. 



GERANIACE2E. — This order, having a position "between Zygophyllaccce and 
Rutacece, is characterized by generally strong-scented herbs or shrubs, having as- 
tringent roots; leaves palmately veined and usually lobed ; flowers symmetrical. 
(Exc. Impatiens and Tropceolum.) Calyx of 5 persistent sepals, imbricated in the 
bud ; corolla of 5 petals, furnished with claws, mostly convolute in the bud ; sta- 
mens 10, in two rows, the outer often sterile; filaments broad and united at the 
base ; styles 5, connected about an axis ; stigmas 5, separate ; ovary 5-carpeled, 
each carpel containing from 1 to 2 seeds, the carpels opening by the curling back 
of the drying persistent styles; seeds destitute of albumen. (Exc. Oxalis.) Coty- 
ledons convolute, and plicate with each other. 

This is one of those orders that are often broken up into smaller ones then 
recombined, in botanical history. It contains in the more northern United States 
the following genera : Erodium, Floerkca, Geranium, Impatiens, Limnanthes, and 
Oxalis. There are two particularly interesting genera besides the above, viz., 
Pelargonium, to which belong our cultivated geraniums, introduced from the Cape 



* Tipa oi, geranos, a crane; the styles bearing resemblance to a crane's bill. 
f More applicable from usage to the RanuncuLv. 



32-2 

of Good Hope, and Tropceolum, containing the garden nasturtium. Of this order 
our only proven plants are the one under consideration and Oxalis stricta, Linn.* 



History and Habitat. — The wild geranium grows luxuriantly in our open 
woods and new clearings, flowering from April to July. 

The American Aborigines value the root of this plant as an astringent in 
looseness of the bowels, and exhaustive discharges of all kinds ; it was thus 
brought forward by Colden, Coellen, and Shoepf, and recommended as a remedy 
in the second stages of dysentery and cholera infantum, cynanche tonsillaris, oral 
aphthae, passive hemorrhage, leucorrhcea, etc., in fact the uses of a decoction of 



the root have been great wherever an astringent or styptic seemed to be required 

Geranium root is officinal in the U. S. Ph. as Ex tr actum Geranii Fluidum 
and in the Eclectic Materia Medica as Extraction Geranii. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root, gathered in autumn, is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alco- 
hol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of 
the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, it should be poured into 
a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture prepared from this mass by filtration, should have a deep reddish- 
brown color by transmitted light, a sweet and astringent taste, and a strong- acid 



& .._, ~. ^..v^V ~l,^. U.^ t XX.. & 



reaction. This tincture becomes muddy on long standing, but does not deposit 
at least mine has not yet done so, although it has been made over three years.f 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— An analysis by Dr. Bigelow in 1833 corrobo- 
rated Staples' determination of tannin in quite large percentage, and gallic acid. 
The gallic acid in his hands differed somewhat from that body as extracted from galls. 



Messrs. Tilden (1863)! determined beside the abo\ 



ble 



in alcohol, the other in ether; an oleo-resin soluble in ether; gum, pectin, starch 
sugar, and the usual plant constituents. 

Dr. Staples (i82q)§ detected, beside the above, a "peculiar crystalline prin- 
ciple," which does not seem, so far, to have been analysed or even corroborated. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — In moderate doses Geranium causes constipa- 
tion, attended with but fruitless attempts at evacuation ; some pain in the stomach 
and bowels, and tenesmus when a stool is gained ; stool odorless. Its action will 
be seen to so far differ but slightly, if at all, from that of Acidnm Tantricum, which 

should be studied in this rnnnertlnn 



Description of Plate 32. 

1. Whole plant (once reduced), with a portion of the stem removed ; Pamrapo, N. J., May 21st, 1879 

2. Flower. 

3. Pistil and calyx. 

4. Ovary. 

5. Fruit (once reduced). 



N. 



* Author's proving. See Trans. Horn. Med. Soc. State 

t A better method of preparing the tincture, should be by using dilute alcohol. 

% Am. Jour. Phar., 1863, p. 22. § J our . />/„/. C ol. rhar., i, p. 171 




Tti.ad natdeJ.et pinxf. XANTHOXYLUM AMERICANUM, Mill 



N. ORD-RUTACE^E. 

GENUS.— X ANTHOXYLUM,* COLDEN 

SEX. SYST.— DIOECIA PENTANDRIA. 



33 



XANTHOXYLUM 



PRICKL Y ASH. 



SYN. — XANTHOXYLUM AMERICANUM, MILL.; X. CLAVA-HERCULIS, 

LAM. (Not LINN.); X. PRAXINEUM, AND MITE, WILLD. ; X. FRAX- 
INIFOLIUM, MARSH. (Not WALT.); X. RAMIPLORUM, MICHX. ; X. 
TRICARPUM, HOOK. (Not MICHX.); THYLAX PRAXINEUM, RAF. 

COM. NAMES.— NORTHERN PRICKLY ASH,t TOOTHACHE TREE, PELLI- 

TORY,* YELLOW WOOD,? SUTERBERRY, ANGELICA TREE ; || (PR.) 
PRENE EPINEAUX; (GER.) ZAHNWEHOLZ. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK OF XANTHOXYLUM AMERICANUM, MILL. 



Description. — This well-known shrub grows to a height of from 3 to 8 feet, 
with a like spread of banches. Bark grayish, smooth, white maculate, and slightly 
warty; branches alternate, beset with short, triangular, sharp prickles, similar to 
those of the rose bush, and generally arranged in pairs beneath the axils of the 
younger branches ; leaves alternate, pinnately compound ; leaflets 4 to 5 pairs and 
an odd one, ovate-oblong, acute, entire or glandularly serrate, nearly sessile, the 
under surface downy when young; petiole often prickly on the upper side. Inflor- 
escence sessile umbellate clusters axillary to the yet undeveloped branchlets ; 
flowers yellowish-green, polygamo-dioecious, appearing before the leaves ; perfect 
flowers with 3 pistils, sterile flowers with rudimentary, abortive, gland-like ova- 
ries, fertile flowers with 5 fruiting pistils. Calyx none. Petals 5, oblong, blunt, with 
a glandularly fibrillate border and somewhat inflated base. Stamens 5, exserted, 
alternate with the petals and inserted upon the torus; anthers innate, sagittate, 4- 
celled. Pistils 3 or 5 ; styles exserted, slender, somewhat intertwined, connivant, 
or sometimes united at the apex ; stigmas capitate or obtuse. Ovaries distinct 1- 
celled. Fruit reddish-green, short-stalked, fleshy, pitted, 2-valved pods ; seeds oval, 
blackish, one to each pod, suspended. 

Rutaceae. — A large family of herbs, shrubs and trees inhabiting chiefly the 
Southern hemisphere. Leaves simple or compund, pellucid-dotted and rich in a 
pungent or bitter and aromatic oil ; stipules none. Flowers by abortion dioecious 



* ■= 



~.ai>B6 s , xanthos y yellow; (6\ov t xylon, wood. 
f The Southern Prickly Ash is X Carolinianum, Lam. 
% The true Pellitories are the African Anacyclus pyrethrum, D. C. (Composite), and various European and the 

American species of the genus Parietaria (Urticacere). 

\ The true yellow-wood with us is Cladrasttis tinctoria, Raf. (Legumino ;. 

II The true Angelica tree, so often confounded with the prickly ash from its slightly similar effects, is Aralia spi- 

nosa, Linn. (Araliacea 1 ). 





















































33-2 



& 



or polygamous, usually regular and hypogynous; calyx of 3 to 5 sepals, or wanting ; 
petals 3 to 5, convolutely inbricated in the bud. Stamens as many as the sepals 
and alternate with them, twice as many, or rarely numerous ; /laments arising 
from the base of the gynophore. Pistils 2 to 5, separate or combined into a corn^ 
pound ovary of as many cells, gynophorus or raised on a glandular torus; styles 
erally united or cohering, even when the ovaries are separate. Fruit mostly 



capsular, sometimes drupaceous, and baccate ; seeds few, anatropous and pend 



th, shiny, or crustaceous ; embry 
generally enclosing the embryo ; cotyledons oval, flat 



albumen 



This large order now contains, beside the typical Rutacece, the formerly sepa- 
rate families Xanthoxy laces and Aurantiaceae, including thus many valuable med- 
icinal plants and pleasant fruits, among them are the following more or less 
prominent: The Central American Carony or Angustura bark (Galipca Cusfarea, 
St. Hil., Angustura vera), of which we have an excellent proving ; the European 
Rue (Ruta graveolens, Linn.), also prominent in our Materia Medica; the famed 
Buchu of the Cape of Good Hope (Barosma crenulata, Hook.), and the lesser 
species B. betulina, B. & W., and B. serratifolia, Willd., of the same country; the 
powerful diaphoretic Jaborandi (Pilocarpus pennatif alius, Lam. ; the following febri- 
fuges: the Brazilian Evodia febrifuga, Ticorea jasmin ifolia, and T. febrifuga, all of 
St. Hil. ; and the European Bastard Dittany (Dictamnus fraxinella, Linn.j. Next 
our attention is brought to the Auranticea, the latest addition to the order, where 
we find the following well-known fruits: the Bitter or Saville Orange (Citrus Vul- 







of th 



Risso.), supposed to be the original of the Sweet or China Orange (Cit. _ 
Aurantium, Linn.), which cannot be said to be ever found in a really wild state; 
the source of the Oil of Bergamot (Citrus Bergamina, Risso.), supposed to be 
? . . " ' orange, or lemon, or a hybrid; the Citron (Citrus Medica, 

Risso.), its wild state growing in the mountainous northern district of India; the 
Limes {Citrus acida, Roxb., C Lumina, and C. Limetta, Risso.) ; and finally the 
Indian astringent Bael (Aegle Marmelos, Correa, Cratava Marmelos, Linn.) the 
ripe fruit of which is known as the Bengal Quince, and said to be made into 
a laxative preserve, or a pleasant refrigerant drink. Lastly, the former Xan- 
tkoxylacecB yield us beside Ptelea and Xanthoxylum treated of here, the following 
stimulants : the Chinese Xanthoxylum Avicenne, D. C, supposed to be a general 
antidote for all poisons by the natives ; the West Indian X. Clava- Her cutis, Linn. ; 
the Bengalese X. Alatum, Roxb.; and the Japanese X. piperita, D. C. ; the 
astringent tonics Brucea Sumatrana, Roxb., and the Abyssinian B. antidysenterica, 
Mill., the Indian Toddalia aculeata, Pers., and the African sub-astringent Lopez- 



T. lanceolata. Lam 



History and Habitat.— The northern prickly ash is common in localities only, 
throughout the northern portion of the Eastern United States, where it flowers 
in April and May, before the appearance of the leaves. Three other species are 
found in the South United States, viz. : X. Clava-Herculis, Linn. (X. Carolinianum, 
Lam.) ; X. Canbceum, Lam. (X. Floridanum, Nutt.) ; and X. Pterota, H.B.K. 

Xanthoxylum was an article of American aboriginal medicine called Hantola; 






33-3 



Western tribes used principally the bark of the root in decoction fo 



gonorrhoea, and rheumatism ; chewed for aching teeth ; and made into a poultice with 
bears grease and applied to ulcers and sores.* From personal experience one day 
in the woods while botanizing, I found that, upon chewing the bark for relief of 
toothache, speedy mitigation of the pain followed, though the sensation of the 
acrid bark was nearly or fully as unpleasant as the ache, and so painful finally in 
itself that I abandoned its use, only to have the toothache return when the irrita- 
tion of the bark had left the mucous membranes. A decoction of the bark is dia- 
phoretic and excites secretion generally. Its action upon the salivary glands 
causes in time almost as full ptyalism as mercury. Its speedy relief of rheumatism 
is said to occur only when it causes free perspiration; for this disease a pint a day 
is taken of a decoction of one ounce of the bark boiled in a quart of water. It is 
a powerful stimulant to healing wounds or indolent ulcerations. I )r. 



King 




introduced the use of this drug in Cincinnati in 1X49, both in the tr itment of 
tympanitis, distention of the bowels during peritonitis, and in Asiatic cholera, 

"In tympanitis one half to one drachm of the tincture may 1»< -iven per 
oris, in a little sweetened water, and repeated hourly, and the im iniouni Bed 

as an enema. The action is usually prompt and permanent. In Asiatic cholera, 

during 1849 and 1850, it was much employed by our (Eclectic) ph) icians in Cin- 
cinnati, and with great success; it acted like electricity, so sudden and diffusive 
was its influence over the system. In typhus fever, typhoid pneumonia, and 
typhoid conditions generally. I am compelled to say that I 1 onsider the tincture of 



prickly-ash berries superior to any other form of 
of typhoid pneumonia in which the patients we: 



ve known < 
prospect of 



covery was despaired of, to be so immediately benefited that the patients who, a 
few minutes before, were unable to notice anything around them, would reply to 
questions, and manifest considerable attention, and ultimately recover." 

Prickly ash is officinal in the U. S. Ph., as Extr actum Xanthoxyli Ftuidum ; 
and in the Eclectic Materia Medica its preparations ar« : Enema Xanthoxyli 
Extraction Xanthoxyli Fluid um ; Oleoresina Xanthoxyli; Tine turn Xanthoxyli ; 
Tinctura Laricis Composita.% 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh bark, together with that of the 



& 



t> 



d to a pulp, covered in a well-stoppered bottl with two parts 




weight of alcohol, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, being 

shaken twice a day. 

The tincture separated from this mass by filtration has a clear, yellowish- 
green color by transmitted light ; it retains the peculiar odor and taste of the bark, 
and exhibits an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Xanthoxylin. This body, 1 xtracted by Dr. 
Staples from the bark, and so named, has been determined to be berberin 



Med. 



f College Jour., March, 1856; quoted by Miller in The Jour. 0/ Mat. Med Vol. Ill f. S., 1 >. 

\ Tamarac bark, Juniper berries, Prickly Ash bark, Wild I lurry bark. Seneca ke-root, Til Whiskey, 
Molasses, and Hydro-alcoholic Extract Podophyllum. \ See under Bcrberis, p. 16-2. 



33-4 



Oil of Xanthoxylum — probably also containing resin and extractive — is a dark 
brown, aromatic, warm, pungent, turbid body, found in about 25 per cent, in the 
berries by W. S. Merrell. An etherial oil of the bark is obtainable, answering 
to the above ; it is, though, simply an extract containing all the principles in the 
bark. Volatile oil and resin have also been determined. 

This plant has not been carefully analyzed. Some idea of its probable con- 
stituents other than the above might be gained from those of Xanthoxylum piperi- 
hcm, which contains : 

Xanthoxylen or Xanthoxylene, C 10 H 16 , is the colorless watery liquid part of the 
volatile oil. It has a pleasant aromatic odor, and great refracting power ; it boils 
at T62 (324 R). 

XantJwxylin, C 20 H 24 8 . This crystallizable product of the volatile oil which 
may be extracted after the oil is freed from Xanthoxylene by distillation at 130 
(2 66° F.). It crystallizes in large, colorless, silky, neutral, aromatic, klinorhombic 
forms, soluble in alcohol and ether. The crystals fuse at 8o° (176 F.), and vola- 
tilize at higher temperatures undecomposed [et supra, Wittstein.) 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Although we have a quite full proving of this 
drug by Dr. C. Cullis,* it is hardly sufficient to determine its physiological sphere 
of action. The drug proves, however, at least a stimulant of mucous surfaces and 
attendant secretory glands by an irritant action upon the nerves. Its action, taken 
all in all, appears quite like that of Mezereum. 



o 



Description of Plate 33. 



1. End of a flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., May 8th, 1884. 

2. End of fruiting branch. 

3. Sterile flower. 

4-5. Fertile flowers. 

5. Longitudinal section of a tri-pistillate flower. 

(2-5 enlarged.) 



* Allen, Ency. Pure. Mat. Med. f X, p. 169. 






TO. .ad nat.dd.ct pinxt. 



PTELEA TRIFOUATA.Li 



nn. 



N. ORD -RUTACEiE. 

GENUS— PTELEA,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



34 




TELEA. 



WAFER ASH. 



SYN.— PTELEA TRIPOLIATA, LINN.; P. VITICIFOLIA, SALISB.; AMYRIS 
ELEMIFOLIA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— WAFER ASH, SHRUBBY TREFOIL, TREE TREFOIL, HOP 
TREE, STINKING ASH, WINGSEED, SWAMP DOGWOOD, PICKAWAY . 
(FR.) ORME DE SAM AIRE A TROIS FEUILLES; (GER.) DRIBLATTRIGE 
LEDERBAUM. 



A TINCTURE OF THE BARK OF PTELEA TRIFOLIATA, LINN. 



Description. — This peculiar shrub attains a growth of from 6 to 8 feet. Leaves 
trifoliate, long petioled ; leaflets sessile or very slightly petiolulate, ovate, pointed, dark 
shining green above, pale and somewhat downy beneath, the terminal more or less 
wedge-shaped and contracted at the base, all more or less crenulate. Inflorescence 
in compound lateral and terminal cymes; flowers numerous, greenish-white, polyga- 
mous, their odor disagreeable. Sepals 3 to 5, usually 4, somewhat deltoid, much 
shorter than the petals. Petals 3 to 5, usually 4, spreading, imbricated in the bud. 
Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them ; filaments in the sterile 
flowers long, dilated, and hairy at the base ; shorter than the ovary in the fertile ; 
anthers larger, present in both kinds of flowers, but sterile in the female. Ovary 
2-celled ; style short or wanting ; stigma capitate, 2-lobed. Fruit a large, dense, 
globular cluster of nearly orbicular, 2-seeded, membranaceous, reticulate-veined 
samaras ; seed somewhat triangularly compressed. 



History and Habitat. — The Wafer Ash is indigenous to North America, rang- 
ing from Pennsylvania westward to Wisconsin and southward to Florida and Texas, 
It grows in moist, shady places, on the borders of woods, and among rocks, flower- 
ing in June at the northern range. The plant was sent to England for cultivation 
in 1704 by Bannister, but, being lost there, Catesby reinforced their gardens from 

Carolina twenty years later. 

Rafinesque first introduced the plant in American medical literature in his 
work on Medical Botany, 1830, speaking of the leaves as vulnerary and vermifuge. 
Schoepf gives the same in substance ; and Merat and De Lens speak of the fruit 
as aromatic and bitter, and an affirmed substitute for hops. Howard speaks of 
the bark of the root as an excellent stimulant, expectorant tonic ; especially useful 



* Uraoy, ptao, to fly : the I .reek name of "the elm, allu.ling to the winged fruit 












• 



34-2 



in agues. Jones* speaks of the plant as "a pure unirritating tonic" in cold infu- 
sion, especially adapted to convalescence after debilitating fevers. Following these 
its use became general, especially in Eclectic practice, for a variety of troubles 
especially asthma, phthisis, glandular degeneration in general, syphilis, scrofula 
chronic diarrhoea, epilepsy, dyspepsia, intermittent fever, and chronic rheumatism 

preparations are : Extractum Ptelece Hydro-alcoholicum ; Infu- 



The E 



Ptelece : and Ptelcce Oleo 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark, gathered after the 



fruit is ripe, but before the leaves begin to fade, is treated as in the preced 
drug. The tincture, separated by pressure and filtration, has a brownish 



& 



by transmitted light; a bitter odor; an extremely bitter taste ; and an acid 



reaction. 



CHEMICAL 



The analysis of G. M. Smyserf resulted in 
the determination of albumen, bitter extractive, tannic and gallic acids, a brittle, 
tasteless resin, and a soft acrid resin. According to Justin Speer,J the root-bark 
contains a crystalline yellow coloring-matter, oleo-resin, and berberina,% but no 



tannin. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— In Dr. E. M. Hale's provings of this drug upon 
a number of observers, who took from 30 to 500 drops of the tincture, and from 
1 grain to a scruple of " Ptelein," the following disturbances occurred : Mental 
depression and confusion ; frontal headache , vertigo ; contraction of the 



pup 



aural pains with swelling of the lymphatics; tongue sore, yellow-coated; ptyalism ; 

voracious appetite ; nausea, with pressure in the stomach as of a stone ; griping 

colic ; great urging followed by copious diarrhceic stools ; urine increased ; heart's 

action increased ; general restlessness and prostration, followed by chilliness and 
fe ve r. 



Description of Plate 34. 



1. Female flower. 

2. Male flower. 

3. Stamen. 

4. Anther. 

5. Fruiting branch. 

6. Samara. 

7. Section of fruit. 

8. Seed. 

(1-4 and 7-8 enlarged.) 



* Eclectic Practice. f Am. Jour. Phar., 1862. % Ibid., 1867. | See p. 15-2 



:i:> 













$m. 



ad nat del.et pinxt. 



AlliNTHUS GLANDULOSUS,Desf 






^ 






N. ORD -SIMARUBACE^E 

Tribe.SIMARUBE/E. 



35 



GENUS.— A I LA NTH US * DESF 



SEX. SYST.— MONCECIA POLYGAMIA. 



AILANTUS. 



TREE OF BEA YEA'. 



SYN.— AILANTHUS GLANDULOSUS, DESF. 
COM. NAMES 



TILLOW 



CHINESE SUMACH; (PR.) AILANTE, VERNIS DES JAPON;t (GER.) 
GOTTERBAUM. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK AND FLOWERS OF AILANTHUS 

GLANDULOSUS, DESF. 



Description. — This beautiful tree, which so much resembles an overgrown 
itaghorn sumach, grows in this country to a height of from 30 to 60 feet Stein 
irect, columnar, much branched ; wood hard, heavy and glossy, like satin. Lea, 
ong, odd pinnately compound; petioles 1 to 2 feet long; leaflets oblong, pointed, 



blunt teeth at the base, rendering 



4h gl 



lar upon the under surface. Inflorescence in large terminal thyrsoid panicles; 
flowers greenish, diceciously-polygamous. Calyx 5-toothed. j -tals 5, inserted 

under an hypogynous disk. Stamens 10; filaments inflated and hairy at the base | 
anthers 2-celled. Ovary 5-lobed ; style columnar ; stigma capitate, radiately 5-lobed. 
Fruit composed of from 2 to 5 long, thin, somewhat twisted, linear-oblong, veiny, 
1 -celled. 1 -seeded samaras. 



Simarubacese. — This small family of mostly tropical trees and shrubs, is rep- 
resented in North America by 7 genera of 1 species each. The characteristic 
of the order are as follows ; Bark bitter. Leaves alternate, pinnately-compound : 
stipules none. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual. Calyx persistent; sepals 4 



St 



5. Corolla deciduous, twisted in aestivation ; petals 4 to 5 
as many or twice as many as the petals ; filaments inserted upon an hypogynous 
disk. Ovary composed of 4 to 5 lobes; ovules suspended, 1 in each cell; sfylt 
various. Carpels 2-valved, as many as the petals, capsular or keyed ; sesds pendu- 
lous ; albumen none; cotyledons thick ; radicle short, superior. 

The only proven plants of this order, excepting the one under consideration 
are: the tropical-American Cedron {Simaba Cedron, Planch), and the South- 
American Quassia or Dysentery-bark (Simarouba amara, Aubl.), the bark of 
which was once a noted remedy in dysentery. 



* The name should be spelled, Ailantus, being derived from a Moluccian species called Atlanta. 
f Also used to designate Rhus vernix. 






35-2 















■ 



The other more or less prominent medical plants are: the West-Indian 



Jamaica Quassia or Bitter Ash (Picrana excclsa, Lindl.), noted for its extreme 
and lasting bitter wood, so largely used in commerce for the manufacture of 
Quassia-cups, the water from which is useful as a stomachic tonic, anthelmintic, 
and antiperiodic ; the Brazilian Si?narouba versicolor, St. Hil., noted as being- so 
bitter that insects will not attack the wood ; and the Indian Nima quassi aides, 
Hamilt.. employed as a bitter tonic in the North of India. 



History and Habitat. — This large tree, that has caused more newspaper 
comment than any other now planted in this country, is a native of China, and is 
included in this work as an American remedy because it is from the naturalized 
tree that our provings were made. 

'I he Ailanthus tree was introduced into England in the year 1751, and 
thrived well ; about the year 1800 it was brought to this country, and soon grew 
in public favor as an ornamental tree for lawns, walks and streets ; later on it 
became in greater demand on account of its supposed property of absorbing from 
the atmosphere malarial poisons; under this new idea the tree became a great 
favorite in cities and large towns, especially as its growth was rapid and its 
beautiful foliage pleasing. The occurrence, however, of several severe epidemics, 
especially in the larger cities, set people thinking— might not this tree, which so 
fully absorbs poison, also throw off toxic effluvia? may it not store up the 
noxious gases and again set them forth in the flowering season ? Certainly the 
staminate flowers smell bad enough to lay any disease to their emanations. A 
war upon the trees followed, both wordy and actual, which almost banished them 
from the country. The feeling, however, died a natural death, and to-day many 
fine trees abound, especially in the larger eastern cities. 

Another vote for its preservation lay in the fact that the tree afforded material 
for a silkworm (Atlacus Cynthia, Drury), which has been successfully acclimated 
in this country by Dr. Stewardson and Mr. Morris. The cost of production of 
silk from their culture is said to be about one-fourth that of mulberry silk, beside, 
the product is tough and stronger than any other fabric made ; it is said that the 
Chinese wear garments of this material through several generations of constant use. 

The bark of the tree was experimented with in France about the year 1859, 
and found to be emetic, cathartic and anthelmintic. The bark has been employed 
by Roberts and others, both dried and fresh, as a remedy for dysentery and 
diarrhoea, and as an injection in gonorrhoea and leucorrhcea ; an alcoholic extract 
was found by Prof. Hetet* efficacious in the removal of tapeworm, though the 
prostrating nausea caused by the draught renders it disagreeable. The tincture 
has been used in doses of from five to sixty drops in palpitation of the heart, 
asthma and epilepsy. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— Equal parts- of the fresh shoots, leaves 
and blossoms, and the young bark, are chopped and pounded to a pulp and 
weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thor- 



Jour. de Chine Med., Dec, 1S59. 



35-3 



hly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After stirring 
whole well, and pouring it into a well-stoppered bottle, it is allowed to stair 




: days in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then separated by decanting, 
ling and filtering ; it has a deep orange-brown color by transmitted light ; a 
gly vinous odor; a mawkish taste ; and an acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL 



Several analyses of the bark have bee 



all of which agree with the latest one by Mr. F. H. Davis.* He determined the 
presence of fixed and volatile oil, resin, wax, sugar, tannin, jrum, starch, and 



O ' "*> £> 




oxalic acid ; but failed, as had the others, to detect the presence of alkaloids 
glucosides. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Ailanthus causes nausea, vomiting, great refa 

ation of the muscles, and death-like sickness, very similar to that product 1 
tobacco-smoking in beginners. According to M. Hetet, the purgative proper t 
resides in the resin, while the volatile oil gives rise to the prostrating and other 

ill effects produced in some persons by the emanations from the flowers. TIv 

characteristic symptoms produced by Ailanthus arc: vertigo and di; in s, s vere 
headache, purulent discharges from the mucous membranes of the im iml ey< ;. 



dilated pupils with photophobia, pale, sickly, bilious countenance, irritation of 
throat, loss of appetite, tenderness in the stomach and abdomen, loosem <>l 
bowels, suppressed urine, oppression of breathing, languor and la titude. 



i 



Description of Plate 35. 



. End of a flowering branch, several leaves and thyrsi removed, Binghamton, H. Y., June 30th, 1885. 



2. Flower. 

3. Calyx and pistil 

4. Petal and stamen. 

5. Stigma. 

6. Stamens. 

7. Section of ovary. 

8. A leaflet. 

9. Fruit. 

10. Full leaf in outline 
(2-7 enlarged.) 



* Am. Jour. Phar., 1885, 600. 






; 



36 



4 





lU.adnatdel.etpinxt 



Rhus Glabra, Linn. 



\ 



N. ORD.-ANACARDIACE^. 

Section -SUMAC* D. C. 

GENUS.— RHUS, LINN 

SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA. 



36 



RHUS GLABRA 



SMOOTH SUMACH. 



SYN.— RHUS GLABRA, LINN.; R.BLBGANS, AIT.; R. VIRGINICUM, CATESB.; 

R. CAROLINIANUM, MILL. 

COM. NAMES.— SMOOTH SUMACH OR SUMAC ; SHUMAKE ; (FR.) SUMAC ; 

(GER.) SUMACH. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK OF RHUS GLABRA, LINN. 



Description. — This smooth shrub usually attains a growth of from 5 to 1 5 
feet in height. Branches somewhat straggling. Leaves odd-pinnate ; petioles 
crimson, 12 to 18 inches long; leaflets 12 to 30, lanceolate-oblong, acutely senate, 
pointed, and whitened beneath. Inflorescence dense, terminal, thyrsoid panicles ; 
flowers perfect, polygamous. Sepals lanceolate, or more or less triangular, very 
acute, nearly as long as the petals. Petals incurved at the apex. J lypogynous 
disk almost entire, its lobes, however, separating when a sepal is detached from 
the calyx, bringing away with it a stamen and petal ; lobe somewhat reniform. 
Fruit globular, clothed with acid, velvety, crimson hairs ; stone smooth. 

Rhus. — This genus is widely distributed, and contains numerous species 
characterized in general as follows: Leaves usually compound. Flowers polyga- 
mous or dioecious, greenish-white or yellowish-green ; sepals 5, small, united at the 
base, generally persistent; petals 5, ovate, spreading, slightly hairy within. Stamens 
5, alternate with the petals ; filaments inserted with the petals underneath the lobes 
of a chrome-yellow hypogynous disk, situated at the base of the sepals. Styles 3, 
short, generally united into one, sometimes distinct ; stigmas 3, capitate. Fruit 
consisting of many small, indehiscent, dry, drupes ; stone or nutlet osseous ; seed 
suspended from the apex of a funiculus that arises from the base, and extends to 
the apex of the cell ; cotyledons foliaceous. 

Many other species of Rhus are used beside those embodied in this work ; 
among which are the following : The Japanese R. vcrnix affords the finest of the 
black lacquers, so extensively used in China and Japan for coating household 
articles, etc. This species in its toxic action is said to greatly simulate R. venenata, 
of this country. The South European R. coriaria, and R. cotinns, are extensively 
used in tanning the finer grades of morocco leather; the seeds of the former 






* An alteration of the Arabic simaq ( Fofsk.). 

f The ancient Greek and Latin name (Celtic Rhudd. y red 



36-2 

species are said to be used at Aleppo to provoke an appetite, and in Turkey 
generally, in the manufacture of vinegar. Inferior grades of the inimitable black 
lacquer, made from R. vernix, are furnished by R. Javanica, R. Sinense, and R. 



daneum. Our southern R. pumila, Michx., has been variously 



some 



claiming it to be entirely innocuous, others judge it to be the 






poisonous of the North American species, claiming that it will show its effects upon 
those who are not susceptible to the influences of R. toxicodendron. The Floridian 
and West Indian R. metopium produces a substance called Doctor's Gum, which 
is said to be emetis and purgative ; and the Chinese R. Buchi-amela, Roxb., certain 
galls used in Germany for the manufacture of tannic and gallic acids, and pyrogallol. 

■ 

■ 

Anacardiaceae. — This large, chiefly tropical family, consists of mostly poison- 
ous trees or shrubs, having a resinous or milky, acrid juice, which turns black or 
blackish in drying. Leaves alternate, usually compound, and devoid of dots ; 
stipides none. Inflorescence usually in axillary or terminal, erect panicles ; flowers 
small, regular, often polygamous ; (estivation imbricate, rarely valvate. Sepals 
or 5, usually distinct, but sometimes more or less united at the base, and persistent. 
Petals as many as the sepals, and inserted beneath an hypogynous disk, lining the 
base of the calyx. Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them ; fila- 
ents distinct. Ovary ovoid ; styles 3, distinct or combined ; stigmas 3, decidedly 
stinct. Fruit drupaceous, indehiscent, i-celled; seed borne upon a curved stalk 
arising from the base of the cell ; testa membranaceous ; embryo more or less 
curved ; albmnen none. 

The following plants of this family figure more or less prominently in our 
Materia Medica : The Indian Cashew-nut (Anacardium orientale, Semecarpus 
Anacardium, Linn.) ; the fruit of this tree is also called the marking-nut, and is 
almost universally used for stamping linen. The Cuban guao (Comocladia dentata, 
Jacq.), which is said by the natives (and corroborated by others) to cause the death of 
any who sleep beneath its shades ; this is especially true of individuals of plethoric 
habit. The New Zealand Karaka or Kopi-tree (Coryno-carpus Icevigatus, Foster) ; 
and the Mexican and Peruvian Schinus, a product of Schinus molle, Linn., used 
by the natives for healing tumors and reducing inflammation, especially of the eye. 



Other members used in medicine and the arts are : The Brazilian Schh 



d 



arceira, Linn., which is said to exude an effluvia that causes swellings to appear 
in those who remain for a few hours beneath it. (Note S. molle above.) The Tropic 
American Anacardium occidental, Linn., is used as a vermifuge, and the juice is 
said to be efficient in the removal of warts, corns, and vegetative growths ; the nuts, 
however, are edible, either raw or boiled. The Mediterranean Lentisk or Mastic 
Tree (Pistacia Lentiscus, Linn.) yields Gum Mastich, a concretion highly valued by 



Turks as a masticatory for sweetening the breath and hardening the 



g 



This product is useful also, for a temporary filling in carious teeth, easing the pain 
therein. Ptstacia terebinthus, Linn., yields the famous Chian Turpentine ; while the 
European P. vera furnishes the Pistachio nuts of the confectioner; the Cochin China 
P. oleosa, a valuable oil ; and the African P. Atlantica. an Arabian article of food. 



36-3 



The Indian Mango {Mangifera Indira, Linn.) yields a luscious fruit which 
holds the place in that country, that the peach does in this. The Malabar Holi- 
garna longifolia, Roxb., and Stagmaria verniciflua. Jack., of the Indian archipelago, 
furnish to the Chinese two of their famous black lacquers. It is said that the 
resin of the last named species is noxious and acrid, and that it is unsafe to 



& 



der the branches of th 



History and Habitat. — Rhus glabra is one of our least nocuous species. It 
grows in rocky or barren soil, common throughout North America, flowering 
northward in June and July. 

An infusion of the berries of this species is said to furnish an unequalled 
black dye for wool. The berries, when dried, form an article of trade in Canada 
known as sacacomi, this, when smoked as a substitute for tobacco, is said to anti- 
dote the habit; the Western Indians make a preparation of equal parts of the 



d of tobacco, which they smoke under the name of KiniA 



■■■■■ 



A cold infusion of the berries is often used as a cooling drink in fevers il is 

also claimed to be of benefit in diabet s and strangury. The bark of the root i 

claimed to form an antiseptic dressing for ulcers and open wounds ; while an 
infusion of the same is considered an excellent astringent for use in aphthous and 
mercurial sore mouths, diarrhoea, dysentery, gonorrh< i, ami leucorrlv and to 



be 



known the juice of the 



known these strange growths to disappear from the use of various innocuous 
" charms," such as a neighbor's potato surreptitiously obtained, rubbed upon Up- 
growths and cast over the left shoulder without noting its fall, etc., etc. 

Smooth Sumac is officinal in the U. S. Ph., as: Extractum Rhois Glabra* In 
the Eclectic Materia Medica the preparations are : A octum Rhu o/W;/v and 
Extractum Rhus Fluidum. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.—' Hie fresh bark, including that of the 
root, gathered when the plant is mature, hould be chopped and pounded to a pulp 
and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp well mixed 
with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. Aft r stirring the 
whole well, it should be poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand 

for eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the mass by filtration, should exhibit a beautiful, 
very deep crimson color by transmitted light Its taste should be at first sour 
then astringent, leaving a sensation upon the tongue very like that of alum : its 
odor sour-vinous ; and its reaction strongly acid. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Callotannic acid, C l4 H, I >,. This pure tan- 
nin of nut-galls also xists in the 1 aves and bark of the plant. It is an amorphon 
porous, resinous, friable mass, freely soluble in water, less so in alcohol, and insolu- 
ble in pure ether. 



* Rafinesque, .!/<"</. /'lot . ii., 257. 



36-4 

Calcium Bimalate. — This salt is found clinging to the hairs of the fruit ; 
concretion exuded from them ; when soaked off the fruits are no longer sour. 

Oil of Rhus. — This waxy oil may be extracted from the seeds of this and o 
species of the genus. It will acquire a tallow-like consistence on standing, and 
be made into candles, which burn brilliantly, but emit a very annoying puns 
smoke. 



Resin, oleo-resin, sugar, starch, coloring matter, and gum, have also been 



determined.* 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Rhus glabra caused in one individual, in doses 
of from 30 to 120 drops of the tincture, headache, dryness and heat of the nostrils, 
with hemorrhage, ulceration of the mouth, loss of appetite, with painful distress in 
the stomach and bowels, followed by diarrhoea, scanty secretion of urine, great 
weariness and fatigue, loss of flesh, heat and dryness of the skin, followed by 
copious sweat during sleep.f One symptom was also developed in this case that 
I desire to comment upon, viz. : " Dreams of flying through the air." During the 
summer of 1879, while botanizing near Bergen Point, N. J., I came into a swarm 
of furious mosquitoes ; quickly cutting a large branch from a sumach bush at 
hand, I used it vigorously to fight off the pests. Several fine specimens of Baptisia 
tinctoria grew at hand, and while studying them I kept the sumach branch in con- 
stant motion, perspiring freely during the time. On leaving the spot I cut a cane from 
the same shrub, and also ate of the refreshing berries. For three successive nights 
following this occurrence I flew (!) over the city of New York with a graceful and 
delicious motion that I would give several years of my life to experience in reality. 
Query : Did I absorb from my perspiring hands sufficient juice of the bark to 
produce the effect of the drug, or was it from the berries I held in m> 
I noticed no other symptoms, and never before or since enjoyed a like dj 



r mou 



Description of Plate 36. 



i. End of flowering branch, Waverly, N. Y., July 4th, 1884 

2. Flower. 

3. Petal. 
4- Pistil. 

5. Stamen, lobe of disk, and sepal. 

(2-5 enlarged.) 



* Am. Jour. Phar., N. S., I, 56 ; ibid., XXV., 193 ; Tilden, Jour. Mat. Med., N. S., i., 195 ; Proc. Royal Society, 

1862, 402. 4. T)r M^rcViall iv, TTo1«'. 



New 





XCl.ad nat.del.et pinxt 



Rhus Venenata, dc 



N. ORD.-ANACARDIACE/E 

GENUS.— RHUS, LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— PEXTANDRIA TRIGYNIA. 



37 



RHUS VENENATA. 



POISON SUMACH. 



SYN.— RHUS VENENATA, D. C. 

COM. NAMES.— POISON OR SWAMP SUMACH, POISON ELDER, POISON OR 
SWAMP DOGWOOD, POISON ASH, POISON TREE, POISON WOOD. 



A TINCTURE OF THE BARK OF RHUS VENENATA, D. C. 



Description. — This too common swamp shrub grows to a height of trom 6 t<> 
30 feet. Stem erect, branching at the top; branches smooth or nearly so, some- 
times verrucose. Leaves odd pinnately compound ; petiole brilliant red or purplish ; 
leaflets 7 to 13, smooth, ovate-lanceolate, acute, entire. Inflorescence loose, slender, 

erect panicles, in the axils of the uppermost leaves; flowers polygamous, greenish- 
white; pedicels pubescent. Calyx persistent. Fruit a persistent, drooping, thyre- 
oid receme of globular, smooth, grayish- white berries, about the size of a small 
pea; testa thin, papyraceous, loose and shining; nutlet oblong, flattened, longitu- 
dinally striate by deep sulci ; inner coat soft, membranaceous, incised ; cotyledons 
somewhat thick and fleshy. . 

History and Habitat.— The Poison Sumach is indigenous to North America, 
ranging from Florida to Mississippi and northward to Canada. It habits swampy 
ground, and blossoms in June at the north. 

This most poisonous of our northern species has at times been confounded 
and considered identical with the Japanese R. vermx, L. ; how near the resem- 
blance may be I have had no opportunity to judge; however, we, as Homce- 
opathists, should not confound them, as climatic difference may cause varying 

properties, and R. vernix may yet be proven. 

The poisonous nature of this species has precluded its use in domestic and pre- 
vious practices; the principal effort concerning it has been attempts by farmers and 
others toward its extermination ; very few persons, however, who understand tlv 
plant will even approach its vicinity unless compelled by circumstances to do so. 

Like the R. vernix of Japan, the wounded bark in spring and autumn exude 
a thick, whitish, opaque and viscid fluid, having a penetrating smell, which on 
exposure soon changes to a deep black. On boiling the juice in water long 
enough to evaporate the volatile oil, and applying the resulting fluid to any sub- 
stance, it forms a glossy-black permanent coating ; thus making a varnish of valu 
which might be used in lieu of the famous Japan- varnish which th y utilize so 
extensively upon their fans, boxes, and household utensils and furniture. 



37-2 



It is a well-known fact that this species will prove poisonous to many persons 
who are unaffected bv R. toxicodendron, and, like it, even the emanations of the 



shrub are virulent to many, while others may handle, and even chew it, with 
impunity. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh bark, stemlets and leaves are 
treated as in the preceding species. The resulting tincture is opaque in even 
ill quantity; in thin layers it has a deep red color; its taste is bitter and 



sm 



astringent; and its reaction acid. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — An examination of the juice by Dr. Bigelow* 
is the only analysis so far made ; this shows no active principle. An examination 
of the chemistry of R. toxicodendron, page 38-3, would not be out of place here. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Many opportunities are offered for study under 
this rubric, on account of the numerous cases of poisoning, both on record and 
often occurring in country practice. The general effects are usually ushered in 
within a day of the exposure, commencing with a general flush of the skin, accom- 
panied by intolerable itching and more or less tumefaction, especially at first of the 
hands and face ; this continues until an erysipelatous condition apparently ensues. 
A more livid appearance follows, with great burning, followed by groupings of 



coalesce ; this is followed by pustules forming of 



watery vesicles, which soon 
watery vesicles, which finally discharge and form yellow crusts, which later on 
become brown and disgusting in appearance. Great heat and swelling have mean- 
time progressed until the face is often unrecognizable ; this condition is about four 
or five days at its height before resolution commences. Marks are often left, and 
sometimes the crusts remain chronic on some portion of the exposed parts for 
long periods. One case in my practice had resisted all the efforts of physicians 
for over thirty years; then yielded in about thirty days to a high potency of the 
drug itself at my hands. 

Several cases of poisoning came under my observation here some four years 
ago in several young men employed in a boot factory as finishers. Their duty was 
to dress the new boots with a black varnish applied with a sponge by the right 
hand, while the left hand and arm was thrust into the boot. All suffered from a 
scabby eruption about the left biceps and right hand and wrist, while the fingers 
of the right were cracked, sore, inflamed and painful. Upon first observing the 
casis I judged some poison must be used in the varnish, and so informed them ; 
to me Rhus seemed to be that substance. While on a train, a month or so later, I 
overheard two manufacturers of boots, who sat before me, talking of their trade; 
when, on passing a swampy spot, one pointed out of the car window at some 
R. venenata, and exclaimed, " That is the stuff we use." These cases all yielded 
finely to idem high. 

The specific action of the drug, collated from various cases, is as follows: 
Sadness and gloomy forebodings ; vertigo ; dull, heavy headache ; smarting and 
burning of the eyes, with dimness of vision ; redness and swelling of the face; 



Am. Med. Bot., I, 4c 2. 



37-3 



tongue red, especially at the tip, swollen and cracked ; difficult d< lutition ; profuse 
watery stools; burning of the urethra; hoarseness and dryness of the lanr 
increased heart's action; trembling of the limbs: bruised and paralyzed feeling 
in the legs, with aching and weakness; tired, weak, and prostrated en< rail) 
almost all forms of skin trouble, from simple redness and burning to \ >ieles 
cracks, pustules and complete destruction: restlessn ., chillin and heat, with 



hly 



dryness but no subsequent sweat ; — all of which show the poi on t be of 



Dl tPTlON OF Pi. ATE ;,7. 



i. End of flowering branch, Ithaca, N. Y , June 14th, 1 

2 Flower. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Fruiting thyrsu 

6. Fruit. 

7. Fruit iritb outer cost removi-d. 

Nutlet. 

(a-.| and 6 1 ilarge<l 





TH.adnat.del.etpinxt 



Rhus Toxicodendron, unn 



N. ORD.-ANACARDIACEiE. 

Sect -TOXICODENDRON, TO URN- 
GENUS— RHUS, 

SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA. 



38 



RHUS TOXICODENDRON. 



POISON IVY. 



SYN.— RHUS TOXICODENDRON, LINN. ; R TOXICODENDRON, VAR. QUER- 

CIFOLIUM, MICHX.; R VERRUCOSA, SCHEELE ; R. TOXICARIUM, AND 
HUMILE, SALISB.; R. RADICANS, VAR. TOXICODENDRON, PERS. ; 



TOXICODENDRON PUBESCENS, MILL. 



COM. NAMES 



OAK 



MERCURY: (FR.) SUMAC 



G1PTSUMACH 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH LEAVES OF RHUS TOXICODENDRON, FINN. 



Description. — This decumbent or more or less erect shrub, grows to a heigh 
of from 2 to 4 feet, or more, according to whether Rhus radicans is distinct fron 
this species or not. Root reddish, branching. Leaves 3-foliate, thin ; leaflets rhom 
bic-ovate, acute, rather downy beneath ; they are entire when young (see plate) 
but when full grown become variously dentate, crenate, sinuate, or cut-lobed 
The lateral leaflets are unequal at the base, and sessile, the terminal one la 
and situated at the end of a prolongation of the common petiole. Infiorest 
loose, slender, axillary, racemose panicles. Flowers polygamous. Fruit glabr 
lobose. uale brown ; nutlet somewhat gibbous, striate, and tuberculate. 



■ 



& 



History and Habitat.— The Poison Ivy grows in thickets and low grounds, 
quite common in North America, flowering in June. 

Rhus toxicodendron was introduced into England as a plant in 1 640 ; but was 
not used as a medicine until 1798, when Du Fresnoy, a physician at Valenciennes, 
had brought to his notice a young man who had been cured of an herpetic erup- 
tion {dartre) on his wrist, of six years' standing, on being accidentally poisoned 
by this plant. He thereupon commenced the use of this plant in the treatment of 
obstinate herpetic eruptions, and in palsy; many cases of each yielding nicely to 
the drug.* Since Du Fresnoy's success, the plant has rapidly gained a pla 
general practice, meeting some success in the treatment c " 
amaurosis, and various forms of chronic and obstinate eruptive di ases. 

The milky juice of this species is used as an indelible ink for marking 
and as an ingredient of liquid dressings or varnishes for finishing boots and 



t 



* Des caracteres, du traitement, et de la cure des da/res, etc., pay f usage du Rhus radicam. 



38-2 



I an certain, however, that Rhus venenata is more extensively used for the latter 
purpose, as will be seen from my experiences detailed under that drug. 

The fresh leaves are officinal in the U. S. Ph.; in the Eclectic Materia Medicas 
the preparation advised is Tinchira Rhus Toxicodendron. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— On account of the car. necessary in 
the preparation of our medicamenta , it is an absolute necessity that we should 
know, without a chance for doubt, the exact plant that we use, after proving I 
have therefore, especially in this case, carefully examined into the relationship 
existing between R. Toxicodendron and its so-called variety radicans. The only 
differences acknowledged by authors are as follows : 



R. toxicodendron, L. 

Stem erect. 

Height of growth 2 to 4 feet. 

Stem devoid of rootlets. 






Leaves trifoliate. 

Leaflets variously toothed or crenate, smooth 
above and slightly pubescent underneath. 



R. radicans, L.* 

Stem more or less tortuous. 

Height 4 to 30 feet or more. 

Stem profusely studded with dark-colored rootlets, 

by which it clings to its chosen support. 
Same. 

Leaflets entire, or slightly dentate, smooth both 
sides. 



During the present season I have carefully examined a great number of ind 



duals in this and adjoining counties, and 



that an individ 



de, as the result of my obse 



commencing its growth as toxicodendron may becom 



radicans if proper support is reached. I found in several places along the Chenan 
River, both forms growing from the same 
Glenwood Cemetery, up< 
accompanying plate was 
(climbing about 9 feet i 



the 



mad 



root. At the entrance of a ravine near 
tskirts of this city, is the plant from which the 



this individual is radic, 



a 



m 



tree), b 



• in its mode of growth 
bore no rootlets, being 



pported merely by the shoots of the elm ; its foliage answers exactly 



codendron 



O 



rge pi 



the bank of 



Susq 



usual high-water mark, has all the characters of radicans 



and grows in a trailing manner along the ba 



River, below the 
:pt the rootlets, 



passing in its growth fou 



by bushes 



pports : /. e., two sturdy elms, one sycamore, and a large stump surrounded 



dron choosing open 



said that the two forms differ in their place of growth, toxicodt 




d 



dicans shady spots ; it however foil 



ssity that if toxicodendron is radicans when it climbs, radicans 



as a 
hade 



petent observers than myself, have doubted th 



these form 



amon 



& 



them 




M 



and Pursh 



because of its support. 

Many other far more 
verity of the distinctions in 

who considered them merely localisms, and Bigelow states : " among the plants 
which grow around Boston, I have frequently observed individual shoots from the 
same stock, having the characters of both 



observed that 



young plants of R. radicans frequently do not put out rooting fibers until they 



* Rhus Toxicodendron, var. radicans, Torrey ; Toxicodendron vtdgare, Mill. ; Rhus Toxicodendron, var. a vidgare, 
Michx. ; Rhus scandens, Salisbury. 



38-3 

several years old, and that they seem, in this respect, to be considerably influenced 
by the contiguity of supporting objects." 

My tinctures of both forms are exactly alike in physical properties ; portions 
of each yielded the same amount of solid extract per ounce, after evaporation ; 
and as far as I can determine, they are identical. 

The bulk of our guiding symptoms are compiled from cases of poisoning, 
where the form causing the effect is not identified. I then, in the light of all this. 



gest that our tincture be made as foil 



Take equal parts by weight of fresh leaves of each form, gathered on a cloudy, 
sultry day, just before the flowers are developed, chop and pound them to a pulp, 
and weigh, treating the resulting mass as in the preceding species. The resulting 
tincture should have a dark brown color by transmitted light, and will give off no 
characteristic odor; it will have a biting and astringent taste, and a strong acid 
reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Rkoi tannic Acid, C M H tt O u . This S] dlic 
tannin of Rhus is a yellowish-green, gummy m; >s, havin a slightly bitter and 
astringent taste and an acid reaction (Wittstein). 

Toxicodendric Acid. — This peculiar, poisonous, volatile principle, was isolated 

from this plant by Prof. Maisch.* He describes it as resemblim both formic 

and acetic acids in some of its reactions, but distinguishable in its failure to pro- 
duce a red color with neutral ferric salts. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The toxic action of this species is one difficult 
to explain. The first noticeable peculiarity is its choice of victims, many persons 
being entirely devoid of response to its influences, many others peculiarly suscep- 
tible. Out of ten men employed to " clear out a twelve-acre lot that was compl telj 
filled with poison vine, cat briers, and brambles, the poison vine reatly pn domi- 
nating," four only escaped poisoning. "At first there was a lively fight between 
the poison vine and the men, and it looked as if the former would get the better 
of it; for most of the men soon began to show signs of being tired, and at the 
end of the fourth day six of the men were flat on their backs, too sick for any- 
thing." f I remember one illustration. When a lad, while in bathing with five 
others, we all ran a race, stark naked, through the underbrush n ir by, passing in 
and out through a clump of what was afterward found to be poison iv\ ; two of 
the party were taken ill the next day and soon d veloped quite serious symptoms 
of poisoning; all the others, including myself, escaped. 

Another peculiarity is that in many ca is not necessary to even touch the 

plant to be severely poisoned. While playing croquet one sultry das in June, with 
a young lady cousin, she struck her ball with sufficient force to cause it to roll 
underneath a clump of poison ivy that grew at a short distance from the edge of 
the lawn. She, knowing her susceptibility to the poi on, carefully reach i under 
the vine and extracted the ball without touching even a leaf. Durin the evening 



* Proc. Am. Phar. Assoc, 1865, 166. t *"""' N ™ Yorker > ***** in ^ P 1 **** °" gin:l1 "° lCCt 



38-4 

of the same day, her face be^an to itch and burn, and in the nieht it swelled 



such extent that the eyes were not only closed, but the lashes even were lost to 
view in the swollen countenance. Nearly two weeks elapsed before the symptoms 
caused by this exposure entirely subsided. 

A third peculiarity is that the plant is more poisonous during the night, or at 



any time in June and July when the sun is not shining upon it. Absence of sur 
light, together with dampness, seems to favor the exhalation of the volatile prir 
ciple (Toxicodendric Acid) contained in the leaves. Of this Porcher says:* "A 
acrimonious vapor, combined with carbu retted hydrogen, exhales from a grovvin 



plant of the poison oak d 



It can be collected in a jar, and is capable 



f inflaming and blistering the skin of persons of excitable constitution, who plunge 



»» 



t> 



their arms into it. 

The symptoms caused by this plant are: First, redness and swelling of the 
affected part, with intolerable itching and burning, followed by 
and a sort of intoxication. Infiltration of the face and eyes, and agglutination of 
the lids after sleep ; great restlessness, pain, thirst, and fever. The surface of the 
skin, after a time, becomes studded with confluent bullae where the cellular tissue 
is loose, then a dermatitis follows resembling erysipelas ; this may spread rapidly 
and finally communicate to the mucous membranes. This is followed by swelling 
of the mouth and throat, cough, nausea, and vomiting. Rheumatoid pains develop 
about the joints, and a painful stiffness asserts itself in the lumbar region, while 
the legs and arms become numb. Confusion of mind and delirium may then set 
in, during which the patient may become so ill-humored, restless, and anxious, 
that he will jump out of bed. The concomitant symptoms are inflammation of the 
eyes, dilation of the pupil, weakness of vision, and sometimes dilopia ; frequent 
epistaxis ; brown coated tongue, with a triangular red tip ; swelling of the parotid 
glands, with difficult deglutition ; griping in the abdomen ; diarrhoea ; profuse 
urination; oppression of the chest ; rapid pulse ; great weakness, weariness, and 
prostration ; soreness of the muscles, worse while at rest, and passing off when 
exercising ; sleepiness ; and chilliness, followed by fever and copious sweat. 

There are almost as many antidotes recommended for Rhus tox. poisoning 
as for the bite of the rattlesnake. Prominent, however, among the applications 
are: alkaline lotions, especially carbolate of soda, alum-curd, and hyposulphite of 
soda, keeping the skin constantly moist /with the agent in solution ; meanwhile 
administering Bryonia, Belladonna, Apis, Grindelia robusta, or Verbena urticifolia. 



Description of Plate 38. 



1. End of flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., June 27th, 1884 

2. Outline of leaf. 

3. Flower. 

4. Calyx and pistil. 
(3 and 4 enlarged.) 



* Reso?'c. South. Fields and Forests, 202. 



59. 




(E.UL . ad natdel.et pinxt 



Rhus Aromatica, Ait 



N. ORD.-ANACARDIACE/E 

Series.-LOBADIUM, RAF. 

GENUS.— RHUS. 

SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA. 



39 



RHUS AROMATICA. 



FRAGRANT SUMACH. 



SYN.— RHUS AROMATICA, AIT.; RHUS CANADENSIS, MARSH.; RHUS 

SUAVEOLENS, AIT.; BETULA TRIPHYLLA, THUN. ; TURPINIA PU- 
BESCENS, AND GLABRA, AND LOBADIUM AROMATICUM, RAF. 

COM. NAMES.— FRAGRANT, OR SWEET-SCENTED SUMACH, STINK BUSH, 

SKUNK BUSH. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT BARK OF RHUS AROMATICA, AIT. 



Description. — This straggling but very pretty bush usually grows to a height 
of about 4 feet. Leaves 3-foliate, slightly sweet-scented; leaflets rhombic-ovate, 
prominently ribbed, crenate or cut-toothed ; the middle leaflet broadly cuneate at 
the base, and narrowing gradually to its insertion at the end of the common 
petiole ; all sessile, and coriaceous when old. Inflorescence single or clustered, 

scaly bracted, catkin-like spikes; scales reddish, and furnished with copious hairs 
upon the border ; flowers polygamo-dicecious, prefolial. Hypogynous disk 5-part< 1, 
large; lobes strongly reniform, the hilum of each almost entirely surrounding the 
base of the filament inserted under it. Fruit similar to that of Rhus glabra, but 
somewhat flattened ; nutlet smooth, depressed. 



History and Habitat. — This least poisonous of all our indigenous species of 
Rhus, is common in dry, rocky soils, ^vhere it flowers in April or May, before the 
appearance of the leaves. It is the finest species to cultivate, its dense foliage 
becoming still more so, and the leaves enlarging and varying beautifully. It was 
introduced into England as an ornamental shrub in 1759. 

The previous medical uses of the berries were the same as those of R. glabra. 

This fruit is termed the squaw-berry, because the Indian women gather large 
quantities, which are dried and used for food. The berries are excessively sour, 
but very much used while fresh during the summer months; when macerated they 
make a pleasant drink. The wood is very tough, far more so than the willow, and 
is used by the Indians in Utah, Arizona, Southern California, and New Mexico for 
making into baskets. This wood exhales a peculiar odor, which is always recog- 
nizable about the camps of these Indians, and never leaves articles made from it.* 



* Dr. Edward Palmer in Am. Nat., 1878, 597. 



39-2 



PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh bark of the root is treated 
as in the preceding species. The tincture obtained is the most transparent and . 
lightest in color of all the species of Rhus here mentioned. It has a beautiful, 
clear, crimson color by transmitted light ; a decidedly terebinthic odor ; very astrin- 
gent taste, and strong acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Volatile Oil. This body has, when first dis- 
tilled, the disgusting odor of bed-bugs ; but when treated with ether and evapo- 
rated, it acquires a pleasant aroma after having been exposed to the air for 

twenty-four hours. 

Beside the above, Mr. H. W. Harper* determined the presence of gallo- 
tannin. resin, acid resin, fixed oil. and a red coloring matter. 



Description of Plate 39. 



i, A flowering branch, from Lowmansville, N. Y., May 14th, 1884. 

2. End of late summer branch, showing the inflorescence preparing for the next season 

3. Flower. 

4. Petal. 

5. Stamen and lobe of disk. 

6. Pistil and hypogynous disk. 

7. Dormant inflorescence. 

8. Scale of same, outer face. 

9. Scale of same, inner face. 

(3-9 enlarged.) 



* Am. Jour. Phar. y 1881, 212. 



• 



40 




(telQjd natMet piwt. 



N. ORD -VITACE^E. 

GENUS—A MPE LOPS IS,* MICHX 

SEX. SYST.-PEXTANDR1A MONOGYNIA. 



40 



AMPELOPSIS 



VIRGINIAN CREEPER. 



SYN.-AMPELOPSIS QUINQUEFOLIA, MICHX., AMPELOPSIS HEDERA- 
CEA, DC., VITIS QUINQUEFOLIA, LAM., VITIS HEDERACEA, WILLD., 
HEDERA QUINQUEFOLIA, LINN., CISSUS HEDERACEA, PERS. 

COM. NAMES -VIRGINIAN CREEPER, AMERICAN IVY, WOODBINE, 

FIVE-LEAVES, FALSE GRAPE. WILD WOOD-VINE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH SHOOTS AND BARK OF AMPELOPSIS QUINQUE- 
FOLIA, MICHX. 



Description.— This common vine is familiar to all residents of the Northern 
United States, being often planted as a porch screen on account of its rapid 
growth, its beautiful shade and the magnificence of its autumnal coloring. The 
stem is extensively climbing, reaching out in all directions, and fastening itself 
by the disk-like appendages of the tendrils to anything that will give it support, 
thus sometimes reaching a great height. Leaves long petioled, digitate, smooth, 
with five oblong-lanceolate coarsely serrate leaflets. Flower clusters cyme-like, 
the pedicels angularly jointed and somewhat umbellate. Flowers small, and 
perfect. Calyx entire, crenate, or slightly 5-toothed. Petals 5, at first scemingh 
united, then becoming distinct, concave and thick, expanding and reflexing before 
they fall. Disk none. Stamens 5 ; filaments slender ; anthers large, oblong 
introrse. Ovary somewhat lobed at the base, conical, 5-angled, 2-celled ; style 
short or wanting ; stigma small and simple, or slightly 2-lobed. Ovules 2 in each 
cell of the ovary and erect, anatropous from its base. Fruit a dark purplish blue 
berry when ripe, about the size of a pea. Seeds bony, with a minute embryo at 
the base. 

History and Habitat.— This woody climber haunts low moist grounds, well 
supplied with trees or bushes, often making the bodies of elm trees grandly 
picturesque by its dense green covering of their trunks, or hanging in festoons 
from blasted trees, and covering rocks and stumps with its dense verdure, it 
renders beautiful everything it clings to, while after the first frosts its vividly 
brilliant coloring makes one of the most striking points in an autumn landscape. 
It opens its yellowish green flowers, few at a time, in July; the berries being rip 
in October. The Virginian Creeper is dreaded by many, in its wild state, when 

* ijort\t; a vitte, and ol\;, appearance. 



' 



.^ 



40-2 

without support, from its often being taken for poison ivy, to which, however 
it bears no resemblance, except perhaps in this mode of growth. This ind 
vine is being- cultivated in Europe much as the European ivy is here, for auornmo- 
walls. Ampelopsis is not mentioned in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic Materia 
Medica its preparations are Decoctum ampelopsis, and Infusum ampelopsis. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION— The fresh young shoots and bark are 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of 
alcohol are taken, and having mixed the pulp well with one-sixth part of It, the 
rest of the alcohol is added. The whole is then stirred, poured into a well- 



toppered bottle and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool pi 



Having separated the tincture by decanting, straining, and filtering, it 
presents by transmitted light a slightly brownish-red color; is of a decided sour 



& 



and has a strong acid 




CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-/>/w^r/^,* C H G O.,, determined 
Gorup-Besanez in small quantity in the green leaves. This body crystallizes 
square prisms readily soluble in water and alcohol. 

Cisso-Tannic Acid, C 10 H 12 O 8 , determined by Wittstein in the autumnal 
colored leaves as the pigment of the red coloration ; it is liquid at ordinary tem- 
peratures, and has an astringent, bitter taste. In this acid as a sediment is 
another body termed by this author insoluble or changed cisso-iannic aeid 



th 



( C 2o H 28 OJ, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol. It exists when dry as a d 
dark-brown, brittle, shining mass, having a bitter, acrid taste. 

_ The leaves when green contain also free tartaric acid and its salts, 
sodium and potassium. 

Glycollic Acid, C 2 H 4 O, and Calcium glycollate (C, H 3 3 ), Ca, exist in the 
ripe berries. (Schorlemmer.) 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.-Little or nothing is known of the action of this 
drug upon man. Mr. Bernay, however, in Pharm. Jour, and Trans., vol. vii. 1876, p. 
bo, reports that two children, aged respectively two and a half and five years, after 
chewing the leaves and swallowing the juice were quickly seized with vomiting 
and [purging, witn tenesmus; then collapse, sweating, and faint pulse; followed 
by deep sleep for two hours, from which a return of the vomiting and purging 
aroused them. The pupils were dilated and remained somewhat so four hours 
alter the commencement of the attack 



Description of Plate 40. 

1. Flowering spray, from Ithaca, N. Y., June 17, 1880. 

2. Branch showing tendrils. 

3. Flower (enlarged). 
4- Berries. 




* Oxyphenic Acid. 



41. 



. 




3£? 2 



3 



(EltLadnaUeUtpinxt 



RHAMNUS CATHARTICUS.Linn. 



N. ORD.-RHAMNACE^E. 

GENUS.— RHAMNUS,* TOURN. 

SEX. SVST.— PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA 



41 



RHAMNUS CATHARTICUS 



B TICK THORN. 



SYN.— RHAMNUS 



MCENCH 



GER.; CERVIS- 



OOM. NAMES.— PURGING BUCKTHORN 
(GER.) WEGDORN, KREUZDORN. 



A TINCTURE OF THE RIPE BERRIES OF RHAMNUS CATHARTICUS, LINN. 



Description. — This dense-spreading shrub or small tree attains a growth of 
from 6 to 12 feet. Stem erect; bark grayish; branchlcts numerous, tipped with a 
sharp spine. Leaves somewhat opposite or sometimes more or less tufted, oval, 
acuminate, and minutely denticulate-serrate ; veins prominent beneath, and arched 
in a direction parallel to the margin. Inflorescence in axillary clusters ; flo s 
minute, greenish-yellow, polygamous or dioecious, the sterile ones with ovate 
sepals and petals and an abortive ovary. Calyx urceolate, 4 to 5 cleft, persistent; 
lobes lanceolate ; torus thin, lining the tube. Petals 4 to 5 small, linear-oblong ; 
claws short. Stamens short, mostly 4, rudimentary in the fertile flowers ; filaments 
surrounded by the corolla. Ovary free, 2 to 4 celled, not enclosed in the torus ; 
styles 2 to 4 distinct or more or less united ; stigmas 4, somewhat club-shaped or 
ligulate. Fruit an ovoid, berry-like drupe ; nutlets 3 to 4, seed-like, cartilaginous ; 
seeds grooved on the back and rounded at the sides, a horizontal section resem- 
bling the face of a horse's hoof; cotyledons leaf-like, the edges revolute. 

Rhamnacese.— A small family of shrubs or small trees, often with thorny 
branchlets. Leaves mostly alternate, simple ; stipules small or obsolete. Inflor- 
escence various ; flowers small and regular (sometimes apetalous, or, by abortion, 
dicecious or polygamous) ; in aestivation the sepals are valvate and the petals con- 
volute. Petals clawed, concave, inserted into the edge of a fleshy disk lining the 
short tube of the calyx. Stamens 4 or 5, perigynous, as many as the sepals and 
alternate with them. Ovary 2 to 5 celled ; ovules solitary, anatropous; styles more 






* From the Celtic ram, branching. 



41-2 

or less united ; stigmas 2 to 5, simple, and usually distinct. Fruit a capsule, drupe, 
or berry ; seeds erect, one in each cell ; axil none ; embryo large ; cotyledons broad ; 
albumen sparing and fleshy. 

This family furnishes us with only one other proven plant, viz. : the European 
Black Alder {Rhamnus frangida, Linn.), the bark of which is a mild but certain 
purgative, useful in habitual constipation. 

Among the other plants of the order useful to medicine, we find the French 
Berry, a purgative fruit yielded by Rhamnus irfectorius, Linn. The fruit of the 
Indian Zizyphus cenophila, Mill., is eaten by the natives, who consider the bark a 
fine vulnerary. The East Indian Z. Jujuba, Lam., and the Persian Z. vulgaris 
yield a mucilaginous juice from which is made the famous Jujube Paste, esteemed 
for the manufacture of a pleasant pectoral lozenge, called by the French Patede 
Jujube ; the Arabian Z. lotus yields a berry known as the Lote ; this is supposed 
to be the true Lotus of the Lotophagi. It is found on the eastern as well as the 
western extremity of the African desert, and is described by Mr. Park as small 
farinaceous berries, of a yellow color and delicious taste. The natives, he says, 
convert them into a sort of bread, by exposing them some days to the sun, and 
afterwards pounding them gently in a wooden mortar until the farinaceous part 
is separated from the stone. The meal is then mixed with a little water, and 
formed into cakes, which, when dried in the sun, resemble in color and taste the 
sweetest gingerbread. The roots of the North American Berchemia volubilis, 
De C, are claimed to be a useful remedy in cachexias and an antisyphilitic. The 
twigs of the New Jersey Tea (Ceanotkus Americanus, Linn.) are very useful on 



account of their mild astringency as an injection In gonorrhoea, gleet, and leu- 
corrhoea; this plant is now being proven for a place in our Materia Medica. The 
Mexican Ceanothns azurea, Desf., is considered a powerful febrifuge ; while the 
Senegal C. discolor is a useful astringent in dysentery. Hovenia dulcis, Don., 
enlarges its peduncles in fruit to such extent, and they become so sweet and 
succulent, that the Japanese consider them a rare delicacy; they are said to 
greatly resemble in taste a Bergamot pear. 

History and Habitat. — The Purging Buckthorn is indigenous to Europe and 
Northern Asia, from whence it was introduced into this country as a hedge-plant ; 
it has escaped in many places in New York and New England, where it flowers 
from April to May, according to the season. 

The medical history of this plant extends back to a period dating from before 
the Norman Conquest; it was then called Waythorn or Hartsthorn. In the 13th 
century Welsh physicians prescribed the juice in honey as a mild aperient drink. 
In Spain it is referred to as early as 1 305 ; and it is then noted by all writers on 
medical plants during the 16th century. Buckthorn first appeared in the London 
Pharmacopoeia in 1650 ; it has also held a place in the Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States, but its space is-now held by R. frangula. The Purging Buckthorn has now 
fallen into disuse on account of the violence of its action and the resulting severe 
irritation of the bowels. 



41-3 



The principal uses now are those o( economy, the juice of the fresh berrie 
giving a saffron-colored dye, and that of the bark a beautiful yellow. A fine green 
pigment for water-coloring is made by the French from the ripe berries mixed with 
alum ; this color, called Vert de Vessie, or sap-green, has been used as the principle 
for most of the foliaee of the plates in this work. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh, ripe berries are pounded to 
a pulp, sufficient to separate them from the nutlets, and weighed. Then two parts 
by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of 
it, and the rest of the alcohol added. The whole is then poured into a well-stop- 
pered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, being shaken 
twice a day. 

The tincture, separated from this mass by pressing and filtering, is oj aque ; 
in thin layers it exhibits an orange-red color by transmitted light and a ta te at 
once acid and astringent. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS— RJiamnoialhartni* A bitter, brittle, yellow 
ish, amorphous substance, soluble in water and alcohol, not soluble in ether; when 
fused it passes into a thick, yellow oil. 

Rhamnin, f C u H w O, + (H,0) r J--This ghieoside, discovered in the berries 

by a Pontoise pharmacist named Fleury, in 1X40, w, isolated, named, and furtlx r 
studied by Lefort.§ Rhamnin, when pure, forms minute, yellow, translucent table 
scarcely soluble in cold water, soluble in hot alcohol, and break down i in the 
next body. 

Rhamnegine, GJ4J3,,.— This second glucoside of Lefort is in all respects, 



24 *:;2^14* 



except solubility, identical in its physical and chemical property s with 
ing. When decomposed by heating with a dilute mineral acid, it br ik 
a crvstallizable suirar, isomeric with mannite and rhamtutin, C 12 H lf ,O v 



ece d 



Rhamnotannic Acid.— This tannin-like body, obtained in the eparation of 
rhamnin, results as a greenish-yellowish, amorphous, friable, bitter mass, soluble 
in alcohol and insoluble in water. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The purgation following the ingestion of tlv 
ripe fruit of Rhamnus catharticus is, in almost even instance, accompanied by c n- 
siderable thirst, dryness of the mouth and throat, and s vere griping pains in the 
abdomen. A case is reported || of the efi cts of eating the berries by a lad j ti 



ptoms were as follows: Eyes glistening and injected 



1,1 



lation of trismus; the abdomen became hard and distended; colic: diarrhoea 
respiration short and anxious; pulse variable: the skin w at one time warm, 

at another cold; the boy was unable to rise, could not walk, and s< m I to 



•Cithartin t Rhamiicitne (Gallatly. 1858) . Chrysorhamnin- •' • B« e, 1865). 

J ( IH IT,/) )0 (Schut Z CM erger). \ Jour. J< Huir.^ 5, ,.. 4** | LeopuM, - ,/. fffafc, 1850. 



41-4 

endeavor to press the head against the wall. The symptoms all showed a high 
state of irritation of the alimentary tract. 



Description of Plate 41. 



1. End of a fruiting branch, Ithaca, N. Y., July 17th, 1885. 

2. Female flower. 

3. Section of ovary. 

4. Male flower. 

5. Petal. 

6. Stamen. 

7. The persistent calyx-tube. 

8. Nutlet. 

9. Horizontal section of the nutlet. 

(2-9 enlarged.) 







42. 





.Ttl.adnatdel.etpinxt. 



EU6NYMUS ATROPURPUREUS. Jacq 



N. ORD.-CELASTRACEiE. 

Thbe-EUONYME/E. 



42 



GENUS.— EUONYM US,* TOURN 



SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



EUONYMUS 
ATROPURPUREUS. 



WA-A-HOO. 



SYN.— EUONYMUS ATROPURPUREUS, JACQ.; E. CAROLINIENSIS, AND LATI- 
FOLIUS, MARSH. 

COM. NAMES.— WAHOO, WAHOON, BURNING BUSH, SPINDLE-TREE, INDIAN 
ARROW- WOOD; (FR.) FUSAIN, OU BONNET DE PRETRE; (GER.) SPINDEL- 
BAUM. 



JACQ 



Description. — This low shrub seldom attains, out of cultivation, a height of over 
10 feet, varying usually from 6 to 10. Stem erect; branches straight, appearing 
more or less terete by having 4 double, white, linear ridges upon its surface, dark 
blotched with white verrucose spots between the ridges. Leaves opposite, thin, 
petioled ; oval-oblong, acute at the base, and pointed; margin finely serrate ; midrib 
prominent. Inflorescence loose, few-flowered, divaricate cymes, terminating long, 
lateral and axillary, drooping peduncles, ranged along the young shoots of the 
season ; flowers perfect, their parts in fours. Calyx short and flat ; sepals orbicular, 
spreading, united at the base. Petals broadly ovate, .somewhat acute, spreading. 
Stamens mounted upon the angles of a flat, somewhat quadrilateral disk, which is 
more or less united with the ovary and covers its superior surface ; filaments merely 
mamma-like processes of the disk ; anthers appearing sessile, 2-celled, opening by 
a broad transverse chink upon their upper faces, and furnished with a broad dorsal 
connective. Style simply a central projection of the disk ; stigma hardly evident. 
Fruit a smooth deeply four lobed and celled, loculicidal capsule ; cells 2 to 3 seeded; 
seeds elliptical, ashy, enveloped by a red aril. 

Celastracese.— Shrubs with simple, opposite or alternate leaves; st^w'es 
minute caducous. Flowers small and regular ; cestivation imbricate. Calyx 4 to 5 
lobed, persistent. Petals plane, as many as the sepals, and inserted by a broad 
base underneath the disk. Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with 
them, inserted upon a disk which fills the calyx cup and is sometimes more or less 



* B»nyir, Euonyme, the mother of the Furies; or fl, eu, well; Swpa, onoma, named ; alluding to the poisonous 
effects of the plant upon cattle. 















\ 



42-2 

united with the ovary. Ovary free from the calyx ; ovules anatropous, erect or 
pendulous ; styles united into one. Fruit a 2 to 5 celled capsule ; seeds arilled, one 
or few to each cell, embyro large, cotyledons faliaceous ; albumen sarcous, thin or 
sometimes absent. 

The only proven plant of this order is the European Spindle Tree (Euonymus 
Europa-us, Linn. ), the properties of which are very similar to, if not identical with, 
the species under consideration. The following plants of the family are more or 
less useful, viz.: The common Bittersweet, or, better, Staff Vine (Cclastrus scan- 
dens), so often confounded, by the laity, with Dulcamara, has orange-colored fruit; 
has been largely used in domestic practice, as an alterative, diuretic and cholagogue 
in various diseases where it seemed necessary to ''cleanse the blood." It was 
considered without equal for the removal of hepatic obstruction. The Indian C. 
paniculatus is considered stimulant. The branches of the Chilian May ten us Chil- 
ensis are used in decoction by the natives as a wash for the swellings produced in 
those who have rested in the shade of the Lithri Tree* The root-bark of the 
Indian Elaodcndron Roxburghii is used by the natives, in decoction, for the 
reduction of alm.ost any kind of swelling ; and the African Cat ha edulis is claimed 
to be used by the Arabs as an anti-somnolent and intoxicant. Almost all the 

species of this small order are used in their native countries to subdue inflamma- 
tion. 



History and Habitat. — The Wahoo grows in moist, open woods, or along 
rivers from Western New York to Wisconsin, and southward. It flowers at the 
north in June and ripens its beautiful fruit in October. It is the fiery appearence 
of the fruiting bush after the leaves have fallen, and the capsules bursted, and 
especially when contrasted with a snow background, that gives it an appearance 
eminently fitting the name often applied, the Burning Bush. 

Especially of late Wahoo has attracted much attention in medical circles as a 
laxative tonic, alterative, and depurant in torpidity oi the liver ; also as a remedy 
for derangement of the stomach and in secondary syphilis, and an expectorant 
in colds, coughs and asthma. It needs, however, more thorough proving to deter- 
mine its sphere of usefulness. Mr. Hardyman, of Cardiff, statesf that he has used 
Euonymin in 2 grain doses at bedtime, and finds it of much value in hepatic 
obstruction, needing, however, a saline purge to complete its usefulness. When 
used in this way I should much prefer the seeds of the plant to salts to procure 
the cathartic action. The oil of the seeds has been used both in this country and 
Europe to destroy lice (Pediculus Capitis, Vestimenti, and Pubis). 

The officinal preparation in the U. S. Ph. is Ex tr actum Euonymi. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark of the twigs and root, 
of the wild plant, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two 
parts by weight of alcohol are taken, and after thoroughly mixing the pulp with 
one-sixth part of it, the rest of the alcohol is added. After having stirred the whole 



place 



pour it into a well-stoppered bottle, and let it stand eight days in a dark 



* Lithrea caustica (Law us caustica), Lauraceae. f The practitioner in New Rem., 1880, 80. 



42-3 



The tincture separated from the mass by pressing and filtering' 



by transmitted light 



d and bitter taste, no specific 



odor, and an acid 



CHEMICAL 



Euonymin. On treating the tincture with 
chloroform, a dark substance is obtained which partly dissolves in ether as a 
beautiful yellow resin. The insoluble portion dissolved in alcohol, and the resin 
precipitated by plumbic acetate, the menstruum after filtration and evaporation 
yields a neutral, amorphous, bitter body soluble in alcohol and sparingly in water.* 

Euonic Acid. — This acid crystallizes in acicular forms, and is precipitable from 
its solutions by plumbic subacetate (Wenzel). 

Resins, gum, sugar, a crystallizable bitter principle, aspara-in, tartaric, citric 

and malic acids were also extracted. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— In large doses the Wahoo acts as a drastic 
purge attended by griping and followed by prostration ; the discharges being sero- 
mucoid with an admixture of bile. It promotes the biliary functions and intestinal 
secretions, increasing capillary circulation gen< rally. 

The symptoms noted are: deathly nausea; vertigo; e cessivc tormina; 



prostr 



and cold sweat. Profuse and viol nt evacuation of the bo 

panied by much flatulence and colic.f 



Desi uiFiii'V of Plate \z. 
i. Portion of a flowering branch, Cincinnati, O., June 17th, 1883 






2. Knd of branch. 

3. Flower showing calyx. 

4. Face of flower. 

5. Section of flower. 

6. Stamen, 

7. Fruit. 

8 Horizontal section of ovary. 

(3-8 enlarged.) 



* Wenzel in Am. Jour. Phar., 1862, 312 



f Hale, Xciu RtmeJx 








.Itt.idnatdel.etpinxt. 



&SCULUS HlPPOCASTANUM.Linn. 






N. ORD.-SAPINDACE^E. 

Tribe-HIPPOCASTANE/E. 



43 



GENUS— AESCULUS,* LINN 



SEX. SYST.-11KITANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



AESCULUS HIPPO 

CASTANUM. 



HORSE CHESTNUT. 



SYN.— AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM, LINN. ; CASTANBA POLIO MULTI- 
FIDO, BAUH.; CASTANEA EQUINA, GER. ; CASTANEA PA VINA. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON HORSE CHESTNUT,t ASIATIC HORSE CHEST- 
NUT, BUCKEYE;! (PR.) MARRONNIER DTNDE ; (GER.) ROSSKAS- 

TANIE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH, RIPE, HULLED NUT OF AESCULUS HIPPOCASTA- 
NUM, LINN. 



Description.— This stately, umbrageous tree usually attains a growth of 



about 60 feet in height, and 50 feet in diameter of foliage. Trunk erect ; ovate, 
and smooth-barked when young ; oval, tending to quadrilateral, when old ; bark 
of the full grown tree greyish, rough, and fissured ; inner bark smooth, greenish- 
white, tough, fibrous, astringent, and bitter; wood light, not durable, /.eaves op- 
posite, digitately 7-lobed ; leaflets 7, obovate, with a cuneate base, acute tip, and 



doubly-serrate margin; straight-feather-veined, early deciduous. Infl, 
dense, pyramidal, upright, hyacinthine thyrsi, terminal upon the shoots oi the 
season ; flowers many, often polygamous, the greater proportion of them sterile ; 
pedicels articulated. Calyx tubular or bell-shaped, oblique or inflated at the base ; 
limb 5-lobed. Corolla spreading, white, spotted with purple and yellow ; petals 



5 



lly 5> more or less unequal, nearly hypogynous, clawed and und 



margined. Stamens 6-8, usually 7, declined ; filaments unequal, aw -shaped, long 
and slender ; anthers oval, 2-celled. Ovary ovate, stipitate Swelled ; style 1 fili- 
form ; stigma acute ; ovules 2 in each cell. Fruit a roundish echinate, 3-celled, 
3-valved capsule, splitting into 3 dissepiments, disclosing 1-2 full formed, some- 
what hemispherical nuts, and sometimes an aborted third ; seed* large amy a. 
ceous nut, having a dense shining testa marked with a large roundish hilum ; coty- 
ledons thick, sarcous, cohering; radicle corneal, curved. 

Sapindace^-This large and variable order is chiefly tropical, especially the 



* An ancient Latin name. The Aesculus of the Romans was a km I o f e* 
f Horses are said to eat greedily of the frmt, and the Arabs to use the powd 
when affected with pulmonary disorders ; hence the vulgansm. 

X From a resemblance of the nut to the eye of that an.mal. Th.s name b mo, 



food of their horses 



species 



43-2 

typical suborder, of which the genus under consideration is the only North Ameri- 
can representative. The family is composed of trees, shrubs, or tendril-ocarina- 
climbers, showing widely different characters of leaf, flower, and fruit ; and in- 
cludes the soap-berries, bladder-nuts, and maples. The /eaves are usually alter- 
nate (Exc. Aesculus), simple or compound. Flowers mostly irregular and un- 



symmetrical ; sepals 4-5, imb 



petals 4-5,' alternate with the 



sepals, and sometimes wanting. Disk sarcous, regular, expanded, or glandula 
protruding between the petals and stamens. Stamens 5-10, perigynous or hyp 
gynous ; filaments free or cohering at their bases ; anthers introrse. Ovary 2- 
celled and lobed ; ovules 1-2 in each cell ; style simple, or 2-3 cleft. Fruit a cap 
sule, samara, or fleshy indehiscent drupe ; embryo curved or convolute (Kxc. Sta 
phylea) ; albumen wanting. 



1 
o 



The plants that are of parti 



family, besid 



under consideration here, are : Guarana or Brazilian Cocoa [Paullinia sorbilis, 
Mart.), and the Brazilian timbo-sipo (Pattllinia pinnaia, D. C ). Economically the 
berries of Sapindus saponaria and the bark and roots of other species are used in 
lieu of soap in cleansing woollens. The genus Paullinia contains many species 
in which a deleterious narcotic constituent is developed in the juice or seeds ; the 
native Brazilians prepare a slow but potent and certain poison from Paullinia 
pinnata ; P. australis is supposed to be the origin of a venomous honey found in the 
Brazilian woods ; and P. etirruru yields an arrow poison to the natives of Guiana, 
who also prepare a narcotic intoxicating drink from P. cu'ana. The products of 
most species of this order are to be regarded with suspicion, yet the Chinese 
Lee-chee {Nephelium Lichti) and Longan [Nepkelium Longari) are delicious fruits; 
the Brazilian Fruta de Pavao (Schmidelia edulis) is sweet and palatable ; and the 
Jamaica wing-leaved honey-berry (Melieocca bijugis) edible, sub-acid, and pleas- 
ant. The berries of many species of the genus Sapindus are edible, though the 

seeds, used by the natives of the country of their growth to poison fish, are active 
narcotic toxicants. 



History and Habitat. — The horse chestnut is a native of Asia ; it was intro- 
duced into Europe about the middle of the sixteenth century by seed, and first 
cultivated in England by Tradescant in 1633 ;* after this its growth became quite 
general, as the tree accommodates itself quickly to all temperate regions. It is 
one of our first trees to bud in the spring, and flowers in April and May, its fruit 
being fully ripe at the first autumn frost. Being one of our most dense shade 
trees, dark, cool, and clean, it is extensively planted in the yards and along the 
streets of almost every American city and village. The nuts are eaten greedily 



by horses, sheep, goats, cows, and pigs, and form an 



fattening food fo 



those animals when prepared in such a manner as to drive off the acrimony. This 
is best accomplished by boiling them in potash and washing them with water. 
Germination, however, renders them pleasant food through change of the bitter 
principles to saccharine, a result similar to that produced in malting barley. The 



* Woodville. 



4 3-3 

nuts are said to yield a starch of finer quality than that of any cereal (Parmen- 
tier) ; paste made of the powdered nuts is claimed to be very tenacious and not 



the 



saponaceous property of the seeds, when 
in lieu of soap, is highly esteemed in cleaning and fulling woollens, espe- 



attacked by moths and vermin 
used 

cially in France and Switzerland (Marcandier). The nuts of Aesculus Californica 
are largely used by the natives of that State for making into bread, after remov- 
ing the bitterness by freely washing the powdered cotyledons. The fruit of Ac. 
pavia is used by the Aborigines for stupefying fish ; this species is so common in 
Ohio that it has become an emblem, and given rise to the sobriquet 4< Buckeye 
State." 

The use of Cortex hippocasta?ii dates from the writings of Matthiolus * In 
Europe it was put forward, especially by Zannichelli, as an efficient remedy for in- 
termittent fevers of various types ; this use lias been upheld by many able medi- 
cal writers, from whose works it would appear equal if not superior at that lime to 
Peruvian bark. The usual dose given was from one to four scruples of the 
powder, repeated from two to six times in twenty-four hours ; this use seems never 

to have extended to England or America. The bark and nuts w re introduced 
into the Edinburgh College with a view to their -Triune power; it betn known 
that insufflation of the powder caused violent sneezing, it was recommended U>r 

the purpose of producing or promoting nasal discharge. 

In this country, especially among the laity, the nuts have been greatly e? 
teemed as a remedy for hemorrhoids and rheumatism, used either as a decoction 
or as a salve prepared with lard. So great is the faith of many people afflicted 



with either of these diseased conditions, that they carry a few nuts 



in 



ih 



eir 



pockets from season to season, fully confident that the disorder is warded off by 
this means.f In Europe the oil procured by means of ether is us< 1 largely in 
neuraleia and rheumatism. An infusion of the bark or nut is said to act favor- 
ably in the healing of indolent and gangrenous ulcers. The t sta of the nuts is 
narcotic ; according to Dr. McDowell io grains are equal to 3 grains of opium. 

Aesculus is not officinal in the U. S. Ph., nor has it an officinal preparation in 
the Eclectic Materia Medica, though used — especially as an extract— under the 
name Aesculin. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh, ripe, hulled nut is pou 
pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the 



d 



mixed thoroughly 



one-sixth part of 



the 



f 



added 



After stirring the whole well, and pouring it into a well-stoppered bott! 
lowed to stand at least eight days in a dark, cool place. 



The 



pa rated fro 



mass by filtration, h 



clear brownish- 



orange color by tran mitted light; no characteristic odor; an extremely bitter, 



d. and 



gent 



nd an 



d 



An amylaceous deposit tak 



place on standing, which, being of no value to the preparation, may be filtered off. 

_i .-_i—-— — — ■ — ------ - ~- .■!■■ -~ii- -- - v ^ ' — - 1 

Epist. Medicinal op. omn. p. 101, 125. 

f I know at present many who indulge in this practice who have !*en suffcrc , and the] arc r. free froi 

the disease while carrying the nuK This should not seem a fallac 1 BS an horn ithisis, in casta where Aetculua 

is indicated. 



43-4 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Aesculin, C 21 H ... O n + I l.,Q. This aromatic 



glucoside exists in the bark of many trees of the genera Pavia and Aesculus. It 
crystallizes in fine, snowy needles and globules, which lose their water of crystalli- 
zation and fuse at 160 (320 F.), decomposing at higher temperatures. They 
are soluble in both hot and cold water and in alcohol, their solutions exhibiting a 
fine light-blue fluorescence. Boiling with dilute mineral acids decomposes this 
body into glucose and 

Aesculetin, Q H 6 4 , another glucoside, which also exists in a free state in the 
bark. This body is only sparingly soluble in water, and crystallizes in bitter 
needles, which break down under the action of boiling potash into formic, oxalic, 
and protocatechinic acids. 

Paviin, C n H 36 O^. This glucoside is considered identical with fraxin, and 
will be found described under Fraxinus Americana, 137. 

Oil of Aesculus, This oil is readily obtained from the nuts of this species by 
etherial extraction. It results as a beautiful yellow liquid, congealing at 1 ° (33. 8° F.), 
and becoming solid at -5 (23 F.). 

Qtiercitrin, C^ H^ O r This coloring matter of quercitron, occurs in the testa 
of the nut,* and in the flowers. 

Aesculetinic acid is one of the resultants of a still farther decomposition taking 
place in glucose and aesculetin when they are decomposition products of the ac- 
tion of baryta water upon aesculin. 

Aescinic acid* This amorphous body is a decomposition product of aphro- 
daescin when boiled with liquor potassa. 

Argyraescin. This acrid, amorphous glucoside was discovered by Rochelder 
in 1862 as a constituent of the seed. It is soluble in alcohol and water ; a watery 
solution forming a soapy foam on agitation. This body together with 

Aphrodaescin,* another acrid, amorphous principle, having the same proper- 
ties of solubility and saponification, and breaking down under the action of a con- 
centrated mineral acid into sugar and aescigenin* so markedly resemble saponin 

that a question arises as to whether they are specific principles, or are to be con- 
sidered together as 

Saponin, C 32 H M 18 . This peculiar glucoside, existing in the roots of Sapo- 
naria officinalis, many species of Lychnis^ Polygala Senega& Gypsophila Stru- 
thium,\ Lucuma glycyphlcea^ Monninia polystachya^ Quillaja Saponaria** and 
many other plants, including ferns ; has, before the observation of Rochelder, been 
accounted a principle of the nuts of this plant. It is a white, amorphous, sternu- 
tatory powder, having at first a sweetish, then a pungent and lastingly acrid taste. 
It is readily soluble in water, the solution frothing like that of soap on agitation, 
and is resolved under the action of concentrated hydrochloric acid into an amor- 
phous sugar and sapogenin. 

Although our tincture is made of the nuclei of the nuts only, still it would 
seem as if the bitterness, astringency, and acrimony present, were due to all or 
nearly all of the above constituents found in the bark. 



* Rochelder. f Githagin. % Senegin, Polygalin. f Struthiin. I| Monesin. \ Monninin. ** Quillajin 



43-5 




PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— We have no accessible accounts of p 
s drug, still the provings, being made with goodly sized doses of 



A 



f tli 



ture, are sufficient to give us an insight into the pn\ 

hippocastanum causes inflammation of the mucous m 

and digestive tracts, and especially of the rectum ; this is shown in the folk 

list of symptoms: Dryness, heat, burning and swelling of the mucous memb 

of the nose, larynx, and trachea, with a sub 

the same sy 



d 



prevail in the mouth and oesophagus, followed by profus* 

_... and mucous discharge ; the tongue becomes coated with a thick white oi 

>w fur, and feels as if scalded ; the throat becomes congested, raw. and burn 

followed by a sense of constriction, and renders deglutition painful and diftl 

Constant burning in the stomach and epigastrium, followed by nausea, retch 

and violent vomiting, with great tenderness and colic throughout th. abdome 

markedly present. Severe dryness, burning, and soreness ol th, rectum, * 



iih 



It. 



and sufficient inflammation of 
tumors, indicate the severity of the action of the drug in this locality. I. 

efforts at stool, with great urging, and constant severe pain in the lumbar region 

extending to the hips and sacrum, are constant ymptoms of th- dru . Us aeon 

upon the liver and portal system is marked by severe congestion and undan, 
burning, constrictive pains and deep sorem , Th- provin] however, fa, to 
substan iate its previous use in intermittent fever and neuralgia : its febrile symp- 

Isb^ing only slight, and its pains, other than those rel ible to th- alun ntary 



f 



<-> 



D i KirnoN 01 Plate 43- 

I. End of flowering branch from Ithaca, H. Y., June 4 , l8&>. 

2. A medium-size leaf. 

3. Flower. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Nut. 

(3 and 4 >ligl>dy enlarged 



•- 



44 



















M/ 

























\- 







E"» * 





m 


















\ 




* - 



• 









HT 



V' 



«*■ 






r 



I 






1 









I 



vr< 



I 



( 










■ 

















r 




k 






>N 

















' \ 



l 




- 



MM 





i 











Afe. Hippoca.stan.um. 



5 



A'e. flava. 




.TU.adnatdel.etpinxt. 



A'esculus Glabra, wind. 



N. ORD -SAPINDACE^E. 

Tribe.-HIPPOCASTANE/E. 

GENUS— /ESCULUS. 

SEX. SYST.— HEPTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



44 



ESCULUS GLABRA. 



B JJCKE YE. 



SYN.— ESCULUS GLABRA AND PALLID A,WILLD. ; M. ECHINATA, MUHL 
M. OHIOENSIS AND MACROSTACHYA, MICHX. ; PA VIA GLABRA AN 



MACROSTACHYA, LOIS.; MAC 



ROTHYRSUS DISCOLOR, SPACH. 



COM. NAMES. — OHIO BUCKEYE, FETID BUCKEYE, SMOOTH HORSE- 
CHESTNUT. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH NUT OF ESCULUS 



Description.— This species differs from the preceding in the following par- 
ticulars : Bark exhaling a very unpleasant odor, similar to that of the flowers of 
the preceding. Leaf small, smooth ; leaflets 5, ovate-lanceolate, acute, and finely 
serrate. Inflorescence smaller and more cymose ; flowers small, pale yellow, nar- 
rowly tubular-campanulate, polygamous. Petals only 4, upright, not reflexed. 
Stamens curved, not declined; filaments filiform, long-hairy. Frtdt echinulate 
with very short pyramidal points. 



History and Habitat.— The Buckeye is indigenous to the United States, where 
it ranges from Western Pennsylvania and Virginia to Michigan, Indiana, and Ken- 
tucky ; it habits the rich alluvial soil along the bottom-lands of the Ohio River and 
the streams feeding it, and blossoms in June. 

The previous uses of this species are almost identical with those of JE. Hip- 
pocastanum, though not so extensive, as its qualities are more toxic, and were, on 
that account, dreaded. 



AND 



The fresh-hulled nut is treated 



the preceding species. The resulting tincture has a clear amber color by trans- 
mitted light; a honey-like odor ; a slightly bitter and pungent taste ; and an acid 



reaction. 



^Esculus glabra should be more thoroughly p 
larger therapeutic field than its congener. The tincture for this further pro 



Id 



de the nut-shells and bark as well as the kernels; a larger scope 



would undoubtedly be covered by such a preparation 






44-2 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — So far as we are able to ascertain, no special 
analysis of this species has been made that determines its individuality ; we can 
therefore do no better than refer to the preceding species. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The principal proving of this remedy is that 
recorded by Prof. E. M. Hale * who claims its sphere of action to be an irritant 
of the cerebro-spinal system and the alimentary tract. The symptoms prominent in 
his record are : Confusion of mind, vertigo, stupefaction and coma ; dimness of 
vision ; thickness of speech ; nausea and vomiting ; eyes fixed and expressionless ; 
paresis of the tongue ; tympanitic distension of the stomach with cramp-like pains; 
constipation, with hard knotty stools; lameness and weakness of the lumbar 
region ; and spasms and convulsions, followed by wryneck, episthotonos and 

paralysis. 



Description of Plate 44. f 



1. A leaf. 

2. Flower. 

3. Stamen. 

4. Anther. 

5. Fruit. 
(2-4 enlarged.) 



* New Remedies, 1877, p. 19 (Symptomatology). 

f The fruits of M. Hippocastanum and flava are added for comparison 




45 







13 




TCL.ad nat.dcl.et pinxt 



Polygala Senega, Linn. 






N. ORD -POLYGALACE^E. 

GENUS.— POL YG A LA,* TOURN 

SEX. SYST.— DIADELPHIA OCTANDKIA. 



45 



SENEGA. 



SENECA SJVAKEROOT. 



SYN.— POLYGALA SENEGA, LINN.; P. VIRGINIAN A, LEM.; PLANTULA 
MARILANDICA, RAIL ; SENEGA OFFICINALIS, SPACH. 

COM. NAMES. — SENECA, SENEKA, OR SENEGA SNAKEROOT, MILK- 
WORT, MOUNTAIN FLAX; (FR.) POLYGALE DE VIRGINIE; (GER.) 
SENEGAWURZEL. 



A TINCTURE OF THE DRIED ROOT OF POLYGALA SENEGA, LINN. 



Description. — Rootstock thick, hard, knotty, and sometimes slightly branched 



Stems several, simple, toueh and wiry, from 



L 



d 



sessile, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute at both ends; margins rough; stipul 
none. Inflorescence a solitary, loose, terminal spike ; flowers small, greenish-whit 
almost sessile, and very irregular. Calyx persistent; sepals 5, arranged ii 
as to form ; the outer set, composed of 3, are small, acute, lanceolate, ai 
ish; the inner set, of 2, are large, broad, orbicular, concave, slightly veiny bodies, 
called ala, enclosing the petals. Petals 3, hypogynous, connected and united with 
the stamen-tube ; the middle or lower one keel-shaped, and short-crested along the 
back • the two lateral oblong:, blunt, and veiny. Stamens 8, enclosed by the lower 



& 



petal; filaments united below into two bundles of 4 each; anthers small, i-celle 
and opening by a pore at the apex. Ovary laterally compressed, 2-celled by 



transverse partition ; ovules 



Style large 



flated, and curved above, greatly resembling in form a pipe thrust into the sum- 
mit of the ovary ; stigma a fringe-like appendage to the upper margin of the 



bowl-like enlargement of the style. Fruit a small, 2-celled capsule, flattened 



contrary to the partition, and partly enclosed by the persistent calyx ; deh 
loculicidal. Seeds black, hairy, with a white caruncle extending the length of the 
seed ; embryo straight, axial ; albumen scanty. 

Polygalaceee.— This small family is represented in North America by 3 gen 



g 45 



pecies, of which 40 belong to the typical genus Polygal 



Th 



natural order is characterized as follows : Herbs or shrubby plants h 
furnished with a bitter, milky juice. Leaves mostly alternate and entire ; stipuh 
absent. Flowers very irregular, hypogynous, and pseudopapilionaceous ; caly 
consisting of 5 very irregular sepals, the odd one superior (Exc. Krameria 



* no\ii,pohts, much; y&U, gala, milk; as some species were supposed to increase this secretion. 



45-2 



Stamens 4 to 8, monadelphous or diadelphous ; anthers innate, 1 -celled, opening 
at the top by a pore or chink. Style curved and hooded. Fruit a 2-celled and 
2-seeded capsule. 

The only remedy furnished to our Materia Medica by this order, beside Senega, 
is the Peruvian or Red Ratanhia (Krameria triandra, R. et Pa v.), for which many 
other species are often substituted in general medicine, viz. : the Mexican and 
Brazilian Sa vanilla or Violet Ratanhia (K. Ixina, Linn.) ; the Para or Brown 
Rhatany (K, ar gen tea, Mart.) ; the North American K. lane eo lata, Torr. ; the 
Texan K. secundijlora, D. C ; and the Chilian K. cistoidea, Hook. The genus 
Polygala furnishes many plants noted as tonics, alexiterics, cathartics, and dia- 
phoretics, notable amongst them being the North American P. sanquinea, L. ; the 
European P. amara, L., and rubella, Muhl. ; the Austrian P. chameebuxus, L. ; 
the British P. vulgaris, L. ; and the Nepaul P. crotalarioidcs, D. C. The Brazilian 
P. Poaya, L., is strongly emetic when fresh, and is considered scarcely inferior in 
its action to Ipecacuanha ; while the Javanese P. venenosa, Juss., is so dreaded as 
a virulent poison that the natives refuse to touch it. The East Indian Soulamea 
amara, D. C, is a valuable febrifuge, used with marked success in pleurisy and 
Asiatic cholera ; and Bardiera diversifolia is considered an energetic diuretic and 
sudorific. The Peruvian astringents, termed by the natives Zallhoy, derived from 
Monninia polystachia, petrocarpa, and salicifolia, R. et Pav., are excellent anti- 
dysenteries, and, on account of the saponin-like body, monninin, contained in them, 
are also used as detergents and dentifrices. 



History and Habitat. — Senega Snakeroot is indigenous to North America, 
growing in rocky soils, from New England northwest to the Saskatchewan River 
and thence southward. It flowers in May and June, 

About the year 1 735, John Tennent, a Scotch physician, noted that the Seneca 
Indians obtained excellent effects from a certain plant, as a remedy for the bite of 
the rattlesnake ; after considerable painstaking and much bribing, he was shown 
the roots and given to understand that what is now known to be Seneca Snake- 
root was the agent used. Noting, then, that the symptoms ot the bite were similar 
in some respects to those of pleurisy and the latter stages of peripneumonia, he 
conceived the idea of using this root also in those diseases. His success was such 
that he wrote to Dr. Mead, of London, the results of his experiments.* His epistle 
was printed at Edinburgh in 1738, and the new drug favorably received through- 
out Europe, and cultivated in England in 1739. The action of Seneka was claimed 
to be that of a stimulating expectorant, thus claiming usage in the latter stages of 
croup, pneumonia, humid asthma in the aged, etc. ; also, when pushed to diuresis 
and diaphoresis, it was found valuable in rheumatism, anasarca from renal troubles, 
amenorrhcea, dysmenorrhcea, and kindred complaints. Among the German physi- 
cians Seneka received praise in the treatment of ophthalmia after the inflammatory 
period had passed ; and was claimed by Dr. Ammon to prevent the formation of 
cataract, and promote the formation of pus in hypopyon. The use of Seneka against 



* Tennent, Epist. to Dr. Richard Mead concerning the Epidemical Diseases of Virginia, etc 






45-3 

the poisonous effects of rattlesnake bites, and those of rabid animals (Barton), is 
not warranted by the results so far gained, at least in civilized practice. 

Seneka is officinal in the U. S. Phar. as: Abstraction Senega, Extraclnm 
Senega Fluidum, Syrupus Senega, and Syrupus Scilla Compo situs* In the 
Eclectic Materia Medica the preparations are: Infusoritm Senega and Tinctura 
Laricis CompositaA 



PART USED AND PREPARATION— The- dried root, gathered when the 
leaves are dead, and before the first frost, is coarsely powdered and covered with 
five parts by weight of alcohol, poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed 
to stand eight days in a dark, moderately warm place, being shaken twice a day. 

The tincture, separated from this mass by decanting and filtering, has a clear, 
slightly brownish, orange color by transmitted light, an odor greatly resembling 
sweet cider, at first an aromatic then bitterish and chokingly acrid taste, and an 
acid reaction. After tasting the tincture or chewing the rootlets, a very peculiar 
sensation of acridity and enlargement is felt at the root of the tongue, which, once 
recognized, will always mentally associate itself with this plant. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Polygalic Acid.% C H M O u . This peculiar 
body, existing principally in the rootlets, was discovered by M. Peschier, and mon 
thoroughly studied, fifteen years later, by Queveniu § who isolated it as a white, 
odorless, acrid, amorphous powder. This acid has not yet been proven to l». 
characteristically different from the general characters of various specific forms of 
saponin, though it has been carefully studied by many organic ch mists, among whom 
are Gehlin, Procter, Dulong, Bucholz, Bolley, Christophsohn, Schneider, I en tulle, 
Folchi and others. The stubbornness of this body in resisting the action of sol- 
vents and reagents without changing form completely renders it, like trilline, very 
difficult to comprehend. Polygalic acid, when superheated upon platinum foil, 
bursts into a bright flame and leaves no residue; it dissolves thoroughly in hot 
water, and remains in solution; it dissolves also in boiling absolute alcohol, but 
deposits again on cooling; on evaporating its watery solution without stirring, it 
is deposited in greenish scales. This acid forms a frothing, saponaceous solution 
in boiling water; breaks down under the action of dilute mineral acids into sapo- 
genin and amorphous sugar; and has prominent acridity and sternutatory power 
—all of which prompted Gehlin to give it the name of Sawgin\\ Christophsohn. 
Bolley, Schneider, and Bucholz regard the acid as identical with Saponin. The 
physiological action of Senega would also tend to prove at least a similarity 
between this acid and Saponin. 

Virgineic Acid.— This still doubtful body exists, according to Quevenne, in 
the fixed oil of the root. 



* Squills, Seneka, Tartar Emetic, and Calcium 1'h pbate. 

f Tamarac bark, Juniper berries, Prickly Ash bark, Wild Cherry bark, Sen Snalw 1 . 1 msy, and Podophyllum. 

% Senegin ; Polygalin. 

| Jour, de Phar., 1836, 449- 

|| Berlin Jahrsbuch, 1804, 112. 



- 



«***^HH 



45-4 



Polygalin. — The body termed thus by Peschier is now deemed to be simply 
the volatile oil of Dulong* and other analysts. 

Isolusin. — A doubtful bitter principle isolated by Peschier; and 



Oil of Senega.f — A bitter, rancid, disagreeable, reddish-brown body, having 
the consistency of syrup, and an acid reaction. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — In doses of from 10 minims of the tincture to a 
scruple of the powdered root, Seneka causes : anxiousness, with heaviness and 
dullness of the head and vertigo ; aching and weakness of the eyes, with lachry- 
mation, pressure in the ball, flickerings, dazzling vision, and contracted pupils; 
sneezing ; pytalism ; inflammation of the fauces and oesophagus, with constric- 
tion ; thirst and anorexia; nausea; mucous vomiting; burning in the stomach; 
cutting colic; copious, thin, watery stools; profuse urination, with burning, scald- 
ing, and sticking pains along the urethra, and frothing urine; roughness and irri- 
tation of the larynx, with orgasm of blood to the chest, accompanied by constriction, 
aching, soreness, and oppression; general debility; restless sleep; and profuse 
diaphoresis. 

From these symptoms, it will be noted that Seneka acts quite similarly to 
Saponin, causing, like it, a paresis of the muscles of the respiratory tract, the termi- 
nal filaments of the vagus, inhibitory centres, accelerator nerves, and the vaso- 
motor system in general, resulting in capillary congestions, followed by rapid 



exosmosis. 



Description of Plate 45. 



1. Whole plant, Ithaca, N. Y., June 7th, 1885. 

2. The calyx from below. 

3. The face of a flower. 

4. Middle petal, showing the crest, hood, and stamens 

5. Petal and stamen. 

6. Pistil. 

7. Section of ovary. 

8. Capsule. 

9. Section of same. 

10. Seed, showing caruncle. 
11 and 12. Sections of same, 

13. Plan of flower. 

(2-13 enlarged.) 



* Jour, de r/iar., 1837, 567. f Not Seneca Oil 



46 





5 





2 






6 



Itl.adnatdel.etpinxf. 



GenIsta TiNCTORiA,Lmn 



N. ORD -LEGUMINOSiE. 

Tribe. -GEN IS TE/E. 

GENUS.— GENISTA,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— MONADELPHIA DECANDRIA 



46 



GENISTA. 



DYER'S BROOM. 



SYN.— GENISTA TINCTORIA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— DYER'S BROOM, GREENWOOD, DYER'S GREEN-WEED, 
WOAD- OR WOOD- WAXEN, WHIN; (PR.) GENET DES TEINTUIERS- 
(GER.) FARBEGINSTER. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT GENISTA TINCTORIA, LINN. 



Description. — This thornless, perennial, shrubby plant grows to a height of 
foot or more. Stern erect ; branches numerous, terete-angled, the younger on 
erect. Leaves alternate, simple, lanceolate, nearly smooth, and sessile. Inflore 



cence a terminal spiked raceme ; fl< 



bracted. Caly 



2-lipped, the upper 2-parted, the lower 3-toothed ; lobes 5, acute, .pointed. Corolla 
perigynous, papilionaceous ; petals 5, as follows : vexillum or standard straight, 
oblong-oval, spreading, superior to and partly enclosing the other petals ; alee or 
wings 2, oblique, spatulate with a straight claw, and exterior to the two lower 
petals ; carina or keel oblong, straight, deflexed, claws curved, composed of two 
connivant petals coherent by their anterior edges and enclosing the essential 
organs ; estivation imbricate. Stamens 10, monadelphous ; filaments inserted with 
the petals upon the base of the calyx ; sheath entire ; anthers of two forms, the 
alternate ones shorter. Ovary 1 -celled. Pod flat, continuous, smooth. Seeds 
several ; cotyledons large, sarcous ; radicle incurved. 



Leguminosae. — This immense family of herbs, shrubs, and trees, growing in 
every part of the world, from the equator to the frigid zones, is represented in 
North America alone by 78 genera, having, in all, 791 species and 122 recognized 
varieties. The general features of this order are: Leaves alternate, usually com- 
pound, mostly entire ; stipules present. Flowers papilionaceous or regular, hypo- 
gynous. Sepals 5, more or less combined, with the odd sepal inferior in its relation 
to the bract. Petals 5, the odd one superior, i. e., next the axis of inflorescence. 
Stamens 5, 10, or many; filaments monadelphous, diadelphous, or in rare instances 
distinct. Pistil single, simple, and free ; ovary solitary and simple, free from the 
calyx. Fruit a legume ; seeds various ; albumen mostly wanting. 

To give the materia-medicist a better idea of phyto-grouping, I shall mention 






* Celtic gen, a small bush. 



46-2 

somewhat extensively the numerous medical and ceconomical products furnished 
by this magnificent family, though to specify all would fill a volume, extending as 
they do from some of our most esculent vegetables through almost all the neces- 
sities of man to many narcotico-acrid poisons. The species proven and established 
as curative agents in the Homoeopathic Materia Medica, are, beside the eight 
represented in this work : Copiava, the oleoresin of Copaifera mullijuga, Hayne, 
and many other South American species of the genus, prominent among which 
are : C. officinalis, Linn. ; C. bijjiga, Hayne ; C, Langsdorfii, Desf. ; C. coriacea, 
Mart. ; and C. Guianensis, Desf. ; the Cochin-China Derris piiinata, Linn. ; the 
irritating Cowitch gathered from the pods of DolicJios (Mucuna) puriens, Linn., 
which grows in both the East and West Indies; the Central American Logwood, 
the heart of H&matoxylon Campechianum, Linn. ; the Brazilian Barba de boi, 
called by Mure Hedysarum ildefonsiamim, but more probably, from his descrip- 
tion, the H. lagocephalum of Link. ; Indigo or Indigotin, a blue coloring-matter 
extracted from different species of the genus /ndigofera, growing in India, Africa, 
and South America, principally, however, from Indigofera thictoria, Linn., /. 
anil, Linn., and I. argentea, Linn. ; an inferior quality of this substance is also 
obtainable from /salts tincloria (Cruciferae) ; Polygonum linctorium (Polygonaceae) ; 
Nerium tinctorum (Apocynacese) ; Bapiisia tincloria ; Tephrosia apollinea ; and 
several minor plants ; Laburnum, a South European poisonous tree, Cyticus La- 
burnum, Linn. ; Lathyrus, the European Chickling vetch, Lathyrus sativus, Linn. ; 
Mim. ; the Brazilian Mimosa humilis, Willd. ; the powerful Calabar Bean, the state 
poison of Old Calabar, in Western Africa, Physostigma venenosum, Balf. ; Jamaica 
Dogwood (Piscidia erythrina, Linn.), which produced in Mr. Hamilton such sud- 
den and powerful sleep that the glass from which a drachm of the tincture had 
been taken remained for twelve hours in his hand;* the Alexandrian Senna, the 
well-known anthelmintic, consisting of the dried leaves of Cassia obovata, Coll., 
C. acutifolia, Del., and C. lanceolala, Lam. ; Tongo, the Tonka Bean, the odorous 
fruit of the Guianian Dipteryx {Coumaround) odorata, Willd.; the Californian 
Astragalus Menziesii, Gray; the Guianian Erythrophlaum Guinense, G. Don; and 
the Brazilian Cabbage Tree Geoffroya (Andira) vermifuga, Mart. 

In the pharmacopoeias of the United States, Great Britain, Germany, India, 
etc., and in general secondary lists we find more or less prominent the following 
members of this order: The European Broom (Cytisus, Genista, scoparius, Link), 
a renowned diuretic, emetic, and purgative, which has long enjoyed a popular 
reputation in dropsical affections, though contraindicated in all acute renal troubles; 
it contains a body of the tannic-acid group, termed scoparin (C 21 H 22 O 10 ) to which 
its diuretic qualities are due, and an oily, narcotico-poisonous, volatile alkaloid, 
sparteine (,C 15 H 13 N), which resembles, chemically, nicotia and conia in having no 
oxygen. The Oriental Fenugreek (Trigonella Faznum- gr ce cum , Linn.), whose 
fatty seeds are largely used in veterinary practice, mostly as a vehicle for drugs. 
The common Liquorice, a product of several varieties of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Linn., 
growing along both shores of the Mediterranean and in Asia, can hardly be classed 
as a medicine, but rather as an adjunct to prescriptions. The Bengal Kino or Dhak, 



* Pharm. Jour., 1 845, p. 76. 













6-3 



d to b 



the Inspissated juice of the Indian Butea frondosa, Koenio-, is cons „ 
good substitute for the officinal Kino ; the seeds form a Mohammedan vermifu fe . 
of considerable repute. Kino, noted as an astringent application to indolent ulcers, 
and internally as a remedy in diarrhoea and pyrosis, is the inspissated juice of two 
species of the genus Pterocarpus, as follows: Malabar Kino, from P. marsupium, 
D.C, African Kino, from P. erinaceus, Poir.; other kinos are used, produced by 
plants outside of this family. Balsam of Peru, a well-known astrii 
check excessive discharges from mucous surfaces, as in leucorrhce 



own astringent, used to 

leucorrhcea, gonorrhoea, 
d gleet, and internally in asthma and bronchitis as an exnectorant. i« the r^.'™.,^ 



dation of the Central American Toluifera Pereira, Baill. Balsam of Tol 

of the South American Toluifera balsamum, Linn.; it lb 



is 



f the most useful 



s 



d components of cough 



f the day; the tropical Bonduc Seeds, the fruit of Casalpinia Bonducella, Ro> 



are used in India as a tonic and 



debility and intermittent 



fevers. The Cassias used, other than those previously mentioned, are : the Asiatic 
Indian Laburnum ( Cassia Fistula, Linn.), a noted purgative or mild laxative, accord- 
ing as the dose is large or small; the American Wild Senna (Cassia Marilandica, 

Linn.), a cathartic, whose action often causes severe griping ; and Tinnivelly Senna 
(Cassia augustifolia, Vahl.), which is considered a safe an. brisk purgative. Th< 
active principle of the sennas (cathartic acid) seems to be eliminated by digestion, 
and to pass into mother's milk in an active state, as babes are often purposely or 
accidentally purged by the nurse's use of senna leaves. The well-known laxative 
refrigerants, East and West Indian and Egyptian Tamarinds, are the fruits of 



Tamarmdus Indica, Linn. Cutch or Catechu, a product of the Indian Acacia 
Catechu, Willd., is used, like "pale catechu," as an astringent, useful in chronic 
dysentery and diarrhoea, as well as in speaker's aphonia and passive hemorrhages. 

The root of the Mediterranean Anihyllis Hermaunia>, Linn., is a powerful diuretic; 



d A. vuhieraria. L 



The seeds of the Indian Psoralia 



corylifolia, Linn., are considered stomachic and deobstruent. The root of the East 
and West Indian Clitoria tematea, Linn., is emetic ; while that of the Circassian 
Pueraria tuberosa, D.C , is employed by the natives to reduce swellings of joints ; 
and that of the New Zealand Tcphrosia purpurea, Pers., is tonic and antidyspeptic. 
The bark of the Indian Agati grandi flora, Desv., is a powerfully bitter tonic. The 
leaves of the South European Bladder Senna (Cohitea arborcscens, Linn ), are pur- 
gative, and used as an adulteration of senna ; while those of Coronilla Emerus, 
Linn., and C. varia, Linn., have a similar property, the latter being considered also 
diuretic and even poisonous. The leaves of the European Arthrolobium scorpioides, 
D.C., are vesicant; and the roots of the Indian Ormocarpum souwides, D.C, 



d 



of the East Indian Phaseolus tr/lobus. Willd 



considered by Hindoo practitioners to be sedative, antibilious, and tonic. The 
Guadeloupe Dragon's Blood, an exudation of Pterocarpus Draco, Linn., was once 
used as a substitute for the true commercial article,* as an astringent in dysentery. 
Rumph states that the roots of the Molucca Ccesalpinia Nuga, Ait., are useful in 



* Resir.a Draconis, from Calamus Draco, Willd. (Palmae) ; another substitute for which was claimed in the exuda- 
tion of the Canary Island Drcacena Draco % Linn. (Liliaceae). 



46-4 

calculous and kidney complaints. The root of the East Indian Flower Fence 
(Poinciaua pulcherrima, Linn.), is claimed by Schomburgh to be an acrid poison, 
and the leaves and flowers as having been used in decoction as a successful 
remedy against the fevers of Tortcola ; while Macfadyen claims them to be a 
powerful emmenagogue, even to abortion. Jatahy, the resin of the Jamaica J/y- 
menacE Courbaril, Linn., is employed, according to Martius, as a remedy for obsti- 
nate coughs and incipient phthisis with hematic sputa; while Gum Animi, from the 
same species, is employed like a pastile for fumigation in asthma. Lignalces, a 
fragrant product of disease in the Cochin-China Eaglewood, Alcexylon Agallo- 
chum, Lour., is said by Loureiro to be an astringent useful in preventing vomiting 
and easing diarrhoea ; its perfume is also claimed to be useful against paralvsis 



d vertigo. Two astringents— the first acrid and the second diuretic— are found 



in the West Indian Mimosa fragifolia, Linn., and M. Unguis, Linn. The Javanese 
Euchresta Horsfieldii is esteemed by the natives as an antidote to poisons of any 
description. The roots of the North American Turkey pea (Tephrosia Virginiana, 
Pers.) are purgative, and were greatly esteemed by the Aborigines as an anthel- 
mintic; and the roots of the Chinese Robinia amara are powerfully bitter and 
astringent; while R. flava, of the same country, is used as a febrifuge. This glance 
at a few of the medicinal plants of the order shows a general stimulant, tonic, and 
astringent line of action to prevail. 

Many virulent poisons are found in this order, principal among which are : 
The seeds of the European Bitter Vetch ( View ervilia, Willd.) are said by M. 
Virey to be poisonous, and cause a weakness of the limbs when eaten mixed with 
flour, in bread, and to cause horses to become almost paralytic ; Christison claims 
that flour containing the ground seeds of Lathyrus Cicera, Linn., is also po 



The roots of the East Indian Phaseolus radiatus, Linn., are said by Royle to be 



poison. The powdered bark of Robinia maculata is used in Cam peachy 



for rod 



The violet seeds of the European Anagyris fcetida, L 



& 



are said to have poisonous properties similar to those of laburnum. The branch- 
lets of the Jamaica Tephrosia toxicaria, Pers., are used by the natives to stupefy 
fish ; this poison is said to act immediately, and to somewhat resemble d w 
its effects. The blue flowers of the West Indian Sabinea florida, D.C., are con- 
sidered poisonous— a property probably due to their indigo. 

Many valuable gums are produced either as natural exudations, as a result 
of insect depredations, or are intimately held in the wood-cells of many species. 
Principal among them are: the Gum Arabics, derived as follows: Kordofan or 
White Sennaar Gum, as well as Senegal Gum, are produced by Acacia Senegal, 

; Suakin or Talha Gum, by A. stenocarpa, Hoch., and A. Seyal, van Fistula ; 
Morocco or Brown Barbary Gum, supposedly by A. Arabica, Willd. ; Cape Gum, 
by A. horrida, Willd. ; East India Gum, by A. Arabica and other species ; Austra- 



Willd 



Gum, by 



pally A. pycantha, Benth. ; and Red Gum, by 



the Senegal A. Adansonii, Guill. Gum Sassa is a product of the Abyssinian Aca 
cia Sassa, Willd. The Oriental Tragacanth, of varied utility, is produced by 
Astragalus gummifer, Labi. 

Among the many food-products, our attention is first called to the beans and 
pease— the first of which will be found described under Phaseolus vulgaris, page 






46-5 



51, et seq.; our common garden pea is derived from Pisum sativum, Linn., whose 
native country is extremely doubtful. The Asiatic Lentil, the seed of Lens escu- 
lenta, Mcen., is well known as a food ; and it was for an indigestible mess of these 
that Esau is said to have sold his birthright to his brother Jacob. It is the opinion 
of many writers on Egyptology that the Camel's Thorn (Alha gi Maurorum,1 ourn ), 

which exudes a sweet substance that may be gathered by merely shaking tin 
branches, was the manna that is said to have nourished the children of Israel while 

The unripe seeds of the common European Lathyrus Aphaca, 
g and tender, are claimed to be a useful substitute for our gard 



the wild 



pease; yet, according to Lindley, they are narcotic when ripe, and if eat. n then 
produce excessive headache; Dutch Mice, the tuberous roots of the same species, 
are amylaceous, and eaten in Holland. The fruit of the Caspian / tcia Fata, Linn., 
is eaten young, as in the last-mentioned species, but the roots an; a narcotic 
poison. Johannisbrod, so greatly esteemed in Germany, is the pulp of the fruit 
of the Syrian Ceratonia SUiqua, Linn.* The tropical oil, ground, or peanut, the 
fruit of Arachis hypogcea, Linn. — which so strangely rip< ns under the ground after 
flowering at some distance above it — furnishes an oil not interior to that from 



ble oils. The fi 



lornu d aft 



1 should be more exten- 



the olive, which is used largely to adulterate t; 
known as an article of commerce to need descr 
pressing out the oil from the nuts, is very diges 
sively used as a flesh-forming food for cattle. 

Among the many food products of the North Ameri< an Indians derived from 
this order we find: the Prairie Potato or Bread-root (Psoralen esailrnta), greatly 
esteemed by the Sioux, who use this root extensively under the name of tip n- 

nah. It is of a sweetish, turnip-like taste, is often cut in thin slices and dried for 

winter use, and when pulverized forms a light, starchy Hour; it is very palatable, 
however prepared. 

Another so-called wild potato, or ground-nut of the Sioux — the true pomuie- 
de-terre of the French — is afforded by Apios tuberosa, and is largely used as an 
article of diet. 

Bur Clover [Medieago lupulina) produces an abundance of seed, much 
relished by the Indians. The Indian pop-pea, the fruit of several species of the 
genus Astragahis, is highly valued, when boiled, by the Indians of the W tern 
Territories. The Screw bean (Strombocarpus pubescens), although insipid until 
quite dry, is no sooner ripe than it becomes very sweet and palatable, and is con- 
sidered a superb article of diet by the Indians along the Colorado River, who 
collect with assiduity all they can store for winter use. When ground it is made 
into sun-baked bread, like the next. The fruit of the Mesquite * Prosopsis juliflora) 
is an important article of food for many Indian tribes; the pods, with their eed 
are pounded into a coarse meal, mixed into doughy cakes with water, and bak I 
in the sun, after which they keep for long periods. This bread-cake is very su et 

and nutritious.-j* 

Many leguminose plants afford excellent dyes, principal among which are 

indigo and logwood, both of which have been mentioned; further than these we 



* Johanniskraut is Hypericum perforatum I Hvpericac e), and Johanniswur/.el, Ulix Mas (Filices). 
f J. A. Dodge, in U. S. ric. Kept., 1870, pp. 404-428. 



46-6 

have : The Indian Red Saunders in the wood of Pterocarpus santalinus, L 



d in India as a red dve for silks and other fabrics; Brazil Wood (Cces 




echinata. Lam.) affords a red dve ; Braziletto Wood, from C. Braziliensis 




Sappan Wood, from C. Sappau, and Camwood, from BapJiia nitida y are all well- 
known dyes. 

The fibres of die Spanish Broom {Spartium junceutn) , whose seeds are emetic 
and purgative, are used in Southern Europe for cordage, and also for the manu- 
facture of gunny-bags. The Prayer Bead, the seed of the Indian Liquorice {Abrus 
precatorius, Linn.) is a beautiful little scarlet oval with a black spot. These seeds 
are used by the Hindoos as a standard of weight called Rati, and are celebrated 
as having been used to determine the value of the great Koh-i-noor diamond ; 
they are also used in the manufacture of rosaries. Valuable timbers, elegant 
perfumes, fine balsams, brilliant varnishes, and numerous articles of commerce, 
difficult to classify, are products of this most varied order. 



History and Habitat. — Genista is indigenous to Northern Asia and Europe, 
but has become thoroughly naturalized in eastern New York and lower New 
England, especially, however, in Essex County, Massachusetts, where it has 
become an actual pest on dry, sandy hillsides, which it renders positively yellow, 
in June and July, with its profusion of flowers. 

Though once vaunted in Russia as a prophylactic in hydrophobia, this plant 
has nearly dropped out of medical thought. Its leaves and seeds are mildly pur- 
gative, its seeds alone often emetic, and the whole plant sometimes diuretic. Ray 
says that after cows have browsed upon this plant their milk becomes bitter — a 
property communicated also to butter and cheese if made from such milk. 

As its common names denote, Genista is one of the many leguminose plants 
yielding dyes. The flowers, and indeed the whole plant, yield a clear, greenish- 
yellow coloring-matter, that, in conjunction with Woad (Isatis tinctoria — Cruci- 
ferae), gave fine results in the dyeing of wool green. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION— The whole plant, while in flower, is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alco- 
hol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest 
of the alcohol added. The whole is then placed in a bottle, tightly corked, and 
allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, has a deep reddish- 
orange color by transmitted light; a strong herbaceous odor; an astringent 
taste ; and an acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— No analysis of this species has, so far, resulted 
e isolation of its active principle, the general constituents of plants and a vola- 
)il only being separated. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Our provings of Genista by Dr. E. B. Cushing 
are the only data obtainable, so far, for the determination of its action. These 



46-7 



- 

experiments failed to prove the plant capable of acting as an emetic, purgative, 
or diuretic; still, they cannot be pronounced as conclusive. 



Description of Plate 46. 

1. A branch, with two flowering branchlets, Salem, Mass., June 25th, 1885 

2. Flower. 

3. Elements of the corolla— a, standard; b> wing ; c, keel, Laid open, 

4. Stamens.* 

5. Anthers. 

6. Calyx, opened. 

7. Pistil. 

8. Fruit. 

9. Seed. 

10. Longitudinal section of seed. 

11. Horizontal section of same. 

(2-7 and 9-1 1 enlarged.) 



* By some inexplicable error, this figure contains n stamens, insUud «»l 10, lioitld be. 




47 





nat.del.et pinxt. 



TrIFOLIUM PrATENSE, Linn. 



N. ORD -LEGUMINOS/E 

Tribe.-TRIFOLIE/E. 



47 



GENUS. -TRIFOLIUM,* LINN. 

SEX. SVST.-DIADEI.rHIA DECANDRIA. 



T 










M 



RED CLOVER. 



SYN.— TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON RED CLOVER; (FR.) TREFLE; <GER.) ACKER- 




A TINCTURE OF THE FLOWER-HEADS OF TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE, L. 



Description.— This largely-cultivated biennial, or short-lived perennial plant, 
attains a height of from i to 3 feet. The root is large, diffusely branched, and 
gives rise to many stems. Stems ascending, stout and slightly hairy. Stipules 
broadly lanceolate, clasping at the base and surmounted by an awl-shaped tip; 
leaves three-foliate, on long petioles ; leaflets oval or obovate, sometimes retuse 
or even emarginate, with a nearly entire edge, and marked with a whitish-green 
/^-shaped spot on the central portion of the upper surface. Inflorescence a dense, 
ovoid head of bracted, sessile flowers. Calyx not distinctly hairy, but having a 
bearded zone in the throat ; teeth setiform, the lowermost longer than the others, 
which are equal. Corolla extended-tubular, about twice the length of the calyx, 
withering soon after expansion ; petals more or less coherent with one another. 
L'gumes dry, scarious, containing each a single seed ; seed somewhat kidney- 
shaped. 



TRIFOLIUM.— This genus comprises leguminose herbs growing in tufts or 
diffusely spreading, and characterized as follows : Leaves palmately or sometimes 
pinnately three-foliate, rarely more ; leaflets usually minutely toothed, rarely entire ; 
stipules scarious, coherent with the petioles. Inflorescence dense heads or spikes, 
or sometimes, when the flowers are few, umbellike. Calyx persistent, tubular or 
somewhat bell-shaped, five-cleft or toothed ; teeth awl shaped. Corolla five-cleft, 
withering or persistent, monopetalous at the base ; vexillum longer than the alse, 
and generally than the keel. Stamens rendered more or less diadelphous by the 
tenth filament, the tube usually free from the corolla ; when united with it, it is 
through the mediumship of the claws of the alse and keel. Ovary two- to six- 
seeded ; style filiform. Fruit a small, scarious legume, containing from one to 
two or sometimes three to six seeds; dehiscence none, or, if present, it takes 



* Tres, three; folium, a leaf. 



47-2 



lace at the suture and extends through the calyx. A description of 
rder may be found under Genista tinctoria, 46. 



History and Habitat.— Red clover has become extensively naturalized here 
since its introduction from Europe, escaping to unused fields, along roadsides, 
and even to open woods, beautifying all with its close, red, sweet-scented heads, 
which appear from May to August. As hay, clover is highly valuable, either 



xed with succulent grasses 



by 



half than that of timothy {Phleum pralense), yet ruminants seem to eat of it more 
greedily and with a fuller sign of satisfaction. Porcher says that, in Ireland, 
when food is scarce, the powdered flowers are mixed with bread, and esteemed 
wholesome and nutritious. As a green manure for field fertilization, and an ele- 
ment of importance in rotation of crops it is also greatly prized, on account of 
its large percentage of potash, lime, and phosphoric acid. 

Its former use in medicine has been as a component of a salve, or extract, for 
all kinds of indolent sores and ulcers, to which it proves peculiarly soothing. A 
strong infusion is often used in half-ounce doses, to suspend the spasm of whoop- 
ing-cough. 

Trifolium is not officinal either in the U. S. Ph. or Eclectic Materia Medica. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION— The fresh blossoms are pounded to a 
pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp 
thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After having stirred the whole well, allow it to stand at least eight days in a 
dark, cool place. 

The tincture thus formed, after decanting, straining and filtering, should have 
a light, clear, orange-brown color by transmitted light, a slightly astringent, hay- 
like taste, and a decided acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-The only assay of the flower-heads that I 
have been able to find is one by Grazel, reported in the Proceedings of the CaL Phar. 
Soc., 1883, p. 49. He found, beside the usual constituents of vegetable matter, 
an acid, an extractive, tannin, and a resinoid principle soluble in ether, giving a 
a green color when dissolved in liquor ammonia, and a yellow color in liquor 
potassa. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. -With the exception of the following effe 
noted by Dr. T. C. Duncan, little or nothing is known of the action of this pla 
Excessive dryness of the throat and fauces, causing a severe, hacking, irritat 
cough, a feeling of congestion of the lungs, dry, costive passages from the bow 
and a copious flow of pale yellow urine. 



Description of Plate 47. 

1. Upper part of stem, Bergen, N. J., June 13th, 1879 

2. Outline of root. 

3. Flower (enlarged). 

4. Fruiting head. 

5. Pollen, x 380. 














4t 



1 



3 









2 






(p.TU.aiJnatdel-etjiinxf 



TRIFOUUM REPENS, Linn 






N. ORD .-LEGUMINOS^E 

Tribe.-TRIFOLIE/E. 



48 



GENUS — T R I F O L I U M , LINN. 



SEX. SVST.— DIADELPIIIA DECANDRIA. 



TRIFOLIUM REPENS. 



WHITE CL VER. 



SYN.— TRIFOLIUM REPENS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— WHITE CLOVER; (FR.) TREFLE BLANC; (GER.) WIESEN 

KLEE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BLOSSOMS OF TRIFOLIUM REPENS, LINN. 



Description.— This prostrate perennial herb has no positive size, the stem 
is slender, spreading and creeping, pale and glabrous throughout. Petioles 
very long and slender; leaflets obovate, obovate-emarginate or obcordate, the 
edges very minutely toothed, the caret-shaped grayish spot upon the upper surface 
pale and indistinct; stipules nearly linear-lanceolate, scarious and pointed. Pe- 
duncles glabrous, longer than the petioles. Inflorescence axillary, consisting of 
small, open, more or less flattened globose heads. Calyx much shorter than the 
corolla ; teeth shorter- than the tube, awl-shaped and of unequal sizes. Corolla 
white, larger in proportion to the size of the head than the preceding. Fruit a 
4-seeded legume. (Read also the generic description under T. pratense, 47.) 

History and Habitat.— This species is doubtless indigenous, at least to the 
northern portion of America, from which it has spread southward and westward, 
over fields, roadsides and open woods, blossoming earlier than the preceding, and 
changing from a creamy-white to a dull-rose and finally a rusty-brown color. As 
hay the white clover is far inferior to the red, especially in the warmer climates 
where the cattle refuse to eat of it altogether, probably on account of its action 

upon the salivary glands. 

This species is not mentioned in the U. S. Ph., nor is it spoken of in the 

Eclectic Materia Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh flower-heads prepared as in 
T. pratense, afford a tincture of a clear chestnut-brown color by transmitted light, 
of less astringency, greater acidity, and a more penetrating taste. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS —Although without doubt this species will 
prove of greater use in medicine than the preceding, I can find no data upon its 
specific chemistry. 



48-2 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION -Dr. T. C. D 



notes the 



toms in seven persons who partook of the pounded fresh flower-head 



following 

o 

i: A 



symp- 
sensa- 



tion of fulness and congestion of the salivary glands, with pain, which in one indi 
vidual amounted to mump-like pains in the parotids; this was quickly followed ii 



by a copious flow of 
stock that ate of the 



plan 



A similar effect has been noted in the south upot 
A further and critical examination into the chem 



istry and action of this species is greatly to be desired 



Description of Plate 48. 

1. Flower (enlarged). 
2. Whole plant from a stony pasture, Ithaca, N. Y., June 3d, 1880 

3. Pollen x 380. 





♦9 



^ : HI .ad naf del et p 



4 



i" 



xt 



MeliliJtus Officinalis. wind. 









N. ORD -LEGUMINOS^ 

Tribe-TRIFOLIE/E. 



49 



GENUS— MEULOTUS,*TOURN 



SEX. SYST.— DIADllLi'IIIA DECANDRIA. 



M 








T 





S II EET CL VER 



MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS, WILLD. 

SYN.— MELILOTUS VULGARIS, EATON, TRIFOLIUM OFFICINALE, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— SWEET CLOVER, YELLOW MELILOT, YELLOW SWEET 

CLOVER, MELILOT; (FR.) MELILOT; (GER.). STEINKLEE, MELILO- 
TENKLEE. 



MELILOTUS ALBA, LAM. 

SYN— MELILOTUS LEUCANTHA, KOCH, MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS, 

PURSH, MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS, VAR. ALBA., NUTT. 



COM. NAMES.— SWEET CLOVER, WHITE MELILOT, MELILOT 



t 



beco 



d h 



an annual or 



perennial herb. Stem with its spreading branches 2 to 4 feet high. Leaves alter- 
nate, pinnately 3-divided. Leaflets obovate-oblong, obtuse, sharply and widely 
serrate, from one-half to 1 inch long. Racemes axillary, spiked, from 2 to 3 
inches lono- while flowering. Flowers small, yellow, about one-quarter of an inch 
1 when fully expanded. Calyx persistent, with 5 unequal pointed teeth. Corolla 



pletely united 



more than twice the length of the calyx, deciduous, Petals: vcxillum ovate, acute, 
slightly longer than the wings; alee induplicate ; carina con 
ing to, and looking backward between, the alae, entirely free from the stamen 
tube. Stamens 10, diadelphous, inserted with the corolla; anthers uniform; 
pollen grains more or less abruptly cylindrical, resembling Trifolium, but much 
smaller and more uniform. Ovary free, 1 -celled, containing 1 or 2 amphitropous 
ovules ; style filiform, terminal. Pod (legume) about one-sixth of an inch in 
length, pyriform in the cup of the withered calyx, inflated or gibbous, coriaceous, 
transverselv wrinkled, scarcely dehiscent and tipped with the persistent style. 



*.«X: honey, X»r*j, * Ugttminose plant, so celled. 

+ The "Amer Horn. Thar." orders separate tinctures to be made. The proving! were made of a tincture of both 
M officinalis and M. alba combined. The German Pharmacopoeia recognize* only M. officinalis (Yellow Melilot). 



Description.— Melilotus officinalis.— This sweet-scented European plant has 












49-2 

Melilotus alba.— This biennial species is taller and more widely branched 
than the preceding, the flowers are smaller, white, and more densely crowded, 
the vexillum is comparatively longer and the leaflets mucronate-truncate. For 
a full description of the Leguminosse, vide Genista tinctoria, 46. 

History and Habitat.— Mel ilot, especially the white species, is found in 
many places in the Eastern States and New York, flowering from June to August, 
and growing in stony, waste places, generally along river-banks, though some- 
times in cultivated ground, where it has become naturalized from Europe. Its 
sweet-scented flowers have been variously used as flavoring for many products, 
notably Gruyere cheese, snuff and smoking tobacco. In Europe it has been often 
used in the food of cattle to whet their appetites; it is also claimed that when 
packed with furs and clothing it protects the articles from moths, besides giving 
them a pleasant odor before wearing. The odor of Melilot is due to an aromatic 
compound cumaric anhydride, which when first observed was supposed to be 
benzoic acid; its identity was proven some years after by Guillemette; it also 
occurs in faham-leaves, sweet bed-straw {Gallium triflortwi), tonka-beans {Dip- 
terix odorata), sweet woodruff {Asperula odorald), and sweet-scented vernal grass 
{AntJioxautJium odoratitm). 

The flowers of the Melilots have been extensively used by the laity, boiled 
with lard, as a salve for ulcers, open indolent sores and broken breasts with 
much success. 

Melilotus is neither officinal in the U. S. Ph., nor the Eclectic Materia 
Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.-The fresh flowers are pounded to a 
pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp 
mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After having stirred the whole well and poured it into a well-stoppered bottle, 
it is allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture separated 
by decanting, straining, and filtering, is by transmitted light of a clear red- 
dish brown color, it has a vanilla-like odor, a bitterish taste very similar to that 
imparted to the palate by chewing tea leaves, and a decided acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-Cumarin, or Cumaric Anhydride, C 9 H 0, 
is found combined with either of the acids ; it is sparingly soluble in cold water, 
more freely in alcohol and boiling water, and crystallizes in large transparent, 
fragrant prisms, melting at 67 (152. 6° F.) and boiling at 291 (556.0 F.). 

Melilotic Acid, or Hydrocumaric Acid.— C 9 H 10 O a , crystallizes from water in 
large, pointed prisms, melting at 82 (179. 6° F.). On fusing with potash it 
yields acetic and salicylic acids. 

Hydrocumaric Acid. Potash. Acetic Acid. Salicylic Acid. Potash. 

C,H 10 O, + 5HKO = C 2 H 4 2 + C T H fi 3 + HKO4 

Cumaric Acid.— C„ H 8 8 , occurs together with the preceding; it crystallizes 
from water in long needles, melting at 195 (383.0 F.). (Schorlemmer.) 



49-3 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.-What slight action Melilotus lias upon the 
ystem is without doubt due to the principle cumarin, which in quite large dos< 
auses nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and oreat depression, with sleepiness, contusion, 



pain in the head, depression of 



• 



Description of Plate 4). 

1. A branch from Binghamton, N. Y., July 25, iS8j 

2. Flower (enlarged). 

3. Pod (enlarged }. 

4. Seed (enlarged). 

5. Pollen x 380. 







:^x 



4 









5. 



1 



















I 



.TFLadnafdeLetpinxt. 



ROBINIA PSEUDACAC!A,Linn 









N. ORD.-LEGUMINOS^E. 

Tribe -GALEGEA. 

GENUS— ROBINIA,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA. 



50 










FALSE ACACIA. 



SYN.- ROBINIA PSEUD - AC ACIA, LINN.; PSEUD ACACIA ODORATA, 

MOENCH. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON LOCUST, YELLOW LOCUST, TREENAIL, BLACK 

LOCUST; (PR) ROBINIER; (GER.) FALSCHE ACACIEN. 



TWIGS 



Description.— This commonly cultivated, ornamental tree, grows to a height 
of from 50 to 80 feet, attaining its greatest height only in the southern parts of 
the United States. The stem is erect, straight, deliquescent, from 1 to 4 feet in 
diameter and covered with a dark, rough bark ; wood yellow, much valued for 
its lightness, hardness and durability. Branches naked, spinous when young, the 
spines taking the place of stipules. Leaves odd-pinnate, the base of the stalks 
forming sheaths about the developing buds of the next season ; leaflets in from 
8 to 1 2 pairs of ovate or oblong, stipellate, nearly sessile, smooth blades. Inflor- 
escence axillary; of showy, drooping, slender, loose racemes ; of white or creamy, 
fragrant flowers. Calyx short, more or less campanulate, five-toothed or cut and 

1 

slightly two-lipped by the coherence of the two upper teeth. Corolla papilliona- 
ceous ; standard large, rounded and reflexed, slightly longer than the wings, and 
obtuse keel. Stamens diadelphous, nine-and-one. Style bearded along the inner 
side. Fruit a nearly sessile, smooth, linear, flat pod, from 2 to 3 inches long, one- 
celled and four- to eight-seeded, at length with two thin valves. Seeds small, dark 
brown, somewhat renniform, but the hilum is small and so near one end that their 
form is more like the body of a retort; testa smooth; radicle incurved; cotyledons 
leafy. For description of the N. Ord. Leguminosae, vide Genista tinctoria, 46. 

History and Habitat. — This tree is indigenous to the central and southern 
belts of the United States, and so fully cultivated in the northern parts, that it 
now grows there spontaneously, blossoming in May and June. The inner bark 
of the roots, stem, and inner coating of the pods is sweet and mucilaginous. The 
seeds, upon pressure, yield a large quantity of oil. They are quite acrid, but lose 
this quality upon boiling; they then furnish a pleasant, nutritious article of food, 
much esteemed by the aborigines. The yellow locust should take first rank 
among ornamental trees to be planted by settlers in the West, not only on 

John Robin, herbalist to Henry IV. 



50-2 

account of its beautiful foliage and fragrant flowers (points of great use forshade 
and honey), but also for its invaluable wood. Locust is well known for its great 
durability, even when thoroughly exposed, and is thus exceedingly valuable for 
fence-posts, railroad ties and supports for structures generally. 

Robinia is not mentioned in the U. S. Ph. It has a place, but is not officinal, 
in the Eclectic Materia Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark of the young twigs is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alco- 
hol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it and the rest of 
the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well it is poured into a well- 
stoppered bottle and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tinc- 
ture is then separated by straining and filtering. Thus prepared, it has a beautiful, 
clear, reddish-orange color by transmitted light, a dry, sweetish taste peculiar to 
the inner bark, and a decided acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS— Robinin, C 2 ,H :50 O 1(i -f Aq. This aromatic glu- 
coside bears great resemblance to quercetin, yielding as products of decomposition 
this body, and peculiar sugars. (Schorlemmer.) Robinin is found principally in the 
flowers ; it forms fine, satiny, yellow needles, neutral and tasteless, losing water 
at too (212 F.), and fusing at 195 (383 F.). It is soluble in both water and 

alcohol. 

Robinic acid. This body was discovered in the roots by Reinsch, but after- 
wards doubted. Prof. Hlasiwetz (Chem. (iaz., Aug. 15, 1855), m nis examination 
of the root, decided that the above body was Asparagine ; he obtained some two 
and a half ounces of this substance from thirty pounds of the root. The bod} 
answers to the following properties : Large, hard, refractive, octohedral crystals, 
colorU-ss and constant upon recrystallization, and having a mawkish taste ; they 
fuse when heated, giving off an ammoniacal odor. Tannin, and the usual plant 
constituents, have also been determined. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Robinia causes extreme nausea, profuse acid 
vomitings, fluid eructations and purging. These symptoms followed eating of the 

bark. (Dr. A. R. Ball.) 

Dr. Shaw {Med. Times and Gazette, vol. i., p. 570) gives the following effects 
noticed in a child who had eaten of the seeds : Inability to hold the head upright, 
nausea and attempts to vomit, with a tendency to syncope, when in an upright 
position ; voice, respiration and heart's action feeble, as from exhaustion ; a pain- 
ful, paralytic condition of the extremities, which became shrunken on the fifth day. 
All the symptoms seemed like those produced by a long-continued diarrhoea, 
though in this case purging was not present. 



Description of Plate 50. 

1. Flower (somewhat enlarged). 

2. Stamens. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Fruit. 

5. End of young branch in flower, Ithaca, N. Y., May 24th, 1S80 




Vulgaris. 



N. ORD -LEGUMINOSiE. 

Tribe.-PHASEOLE/E. 

GKNUS.— PHASEOLUS,* LINN. 

SEX. SVST.— DIADELPHIA DECANDRIA. 



51 



PHASEOLUS. 



COMMON BEAN. 



SYN.— PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— KIDNEY BEAN, WHITE BEAN, POLE BEAN, STRING BEAN ; 
(FR.) HARICOT; (GER.) SCHMINKBOHNE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE DRIED SEEDS OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS, LINN. 



Description. — This common cultivated annual herb grows to various heights, 
according to its form and the method of cultivation. Stem twining and twisted, or 
short and erect in the bushy forms. Leaves pinnately trifoliate; leaflets large, 
ovate, pointed, entire. Inflorescence in solitary axillary racemes, the peduncle 
stout and shorter than the leaves. Calyx campanulate ; teeth 5, unequal, the .three 
lower ones larger, cuneate, acute, the two upper merely apparent. Corolla papilio- 
naceous ; keel circinate and somewhat spirally twisted ; vexillum entire or nearly 
so, notched at the apex ; alee pear-shaped, each furnished with a long claw and 
short incurved appendage. Stamens diadelphous ; filaments circinate, dilated at 
the base. Ovary stipitate, hairy ; style long, circinate, with a hairy margin ; stigma 
pointed, hairy. Fruit a continuous, pendent, compressed, loculicidal, more or less 
falcate pod, polyspermous, and with cellular partitions between the seeds ; seeds 
more or less reniform, cylindrical, or compressed ; hilum small, oval-oblong, naked ; 
cotyledons thick ; radicle incurved. 

History and Habitat.— The Common Bean, so extensively cultivated as an 
esculent, was formerly supposed to have been introduced here from India, but 
Prof. Gray claims it a native plant, as the fruit and seeds were found in the tombs 
of ancient Peruvians at Angon, along with other purely native vegetables ; it is, 
however, probable that the plant is not indigenous north of Mexico. The Bean has 
been cultivated by the natives from remote aboriginal times, many varieties having 
become valuable to them then (as they are to us now) as a potage, both while 
green, legume and all, and the seeds alone when ripe and dried. No previous 
medical use is discoverable. 



* From the Latin phaselus, a little boat, the pod being somewhat scaphoid. 



51-2 



USED AND PREPARATION.— The ripe dried 



pounded to 



pulp and macerated for eight days in twice their weight of strong alcohol bein 



shaken 



day, and kept in 



stoppered bottles 



dark, cool pi 



.•=> 



The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, has a disgusting fecal odor 
clear but slightly yellowish color, and a neutral reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS 



Legumin, or Vegetable Casein 



This albu 



minoid, or proteid body, containing both N and S, is found 
Leguminosae, from which it may be separated by trituratin 



arm water and pressing the pulp through 



many seeds of the 

after soaking 



dino-. and 



The liquid deposits starch 



t> 



acid 



the casein-like body may be precipitated from the liquor by 



This peculiar amorphous body is obtained by extracting the seeds 

extract with ether to remove the sugar. Phaseolin 



Phaseolin. 
with alcohol, and 

produces a volatile oil, of very disgusting fecal odor, by decomposition. 



treating 1 the 



Inosite 



galactose, existing in the muscles of 



heart and lung 



as well as in the parenchyma of the liver and kidneys, is also found in the seeds of 
this and other Leguminosse. 

The following analyses of Beans by Einhoff and Braconnot % show the general 
constituents : 



Skins, 

Starchy fibrous matter, 4 



Einhof. 
288 



Braconnot. 

7- 



2 5 
Starch > • " 1380 

Animo-veg. matter and starch, 799 



Extractive, 



42.34 
5-36 



*3* 



Albumen and animo-veg. matter, r- 

Mucilage, 

Loss and water, 



Legumin, 

Pectic acid, legumin and starch, 
Fatty matter, 

Pulp skeleton, 



744 
21 



Uncrystallizable sugar, 
Earthy salts, . . . 



2 3- 

18.20 

1.50 
.70 
.70 



.20 



1. 00 



3840 



100.00 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION 



Th 



by eating raw beans are those of Dr. Demeu 



ly accounts of the ill effects produced 



de here, as the b 



and William Dale, Esq 



the 



mildewed, and the severity of the symp- 



toms, together with their character, appear to me to be due to the fungu 



symptoms produced in the fi 



Severe fro 



headache 



by pain, soreness, and itching of the eyeball; eyeball painful to touch; pain 
epigastrium when touched, and hernia-like pain at r 



ght 



g 



•uinal 



g 



. The 
panied 

in the 
Beans, 



* See p. 95-3. 

f Gehlen's Jour., vi, 545. 

X Ann. de Chim. et Pkys., xxxiv, 85. 



\ Jour, de la Societi Gall., I Ser., 4, 112 
|| Brit. Med. Jour., 1864, 471. 



51-3 

when cooked, produce a well-known flatulency, which symptom I have also noted 
from a dose of about five drops of the tincture. The seeds certainly deserve a 

proving, especially so if the symptoms recorded by Dale could be 



thorough 
verified. 



Description of Plate 51. 



1. Summit of plant, Binghamton, N. Y., July 27th, 18X6. 

2. Flower. 

3. Calyx and standard. 

4. Ala. 

5. Keel and calyx. 

6. Stamen. 

7. Pistil 

8. Stigma. 



3-8 enlarged. 











52. 



/ 


























m 










4 





6 




-4) 




5 




TU.adnat.del.et pinxt. 



BAPTISIA TlNCTORIA,R.Br. 






N. ORD.-LEGUMINOS^E. 

Tribe. SOFHORE/E ET PODAL YRIE/E. 

GENUS.— BAPTISIA,* VENT 

SEX. S\ ST.— DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



52 



BAPTISIA 



WILD IJVDIGO. 



SYN. 



LINN 



MICHX 



COM. NAMES.— WILD INDIGO, FALSE INDIGO, INDIGO WEED, YELLOW 

WILD INDIGO. DYER'S BAPTISIA, HORSEFLY WEED, RATTLE BUSH, 
YELLOW BROOM, CLOVER BROOM ; (FR.) INDIGO SAUVAGE, INDIGO 
TREFLE; (GER.) BAPTISIE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF BAPTISIA TINCTORIA, R.BR. 






Description. — This slender, glaucous, perennial, bushy-branching herb, grow: 
height of from 2 to 3 feet. Root large, irregular, ligneous, light yellowish 



brown internally, blackish externally; rootlets numerous and lighter in color. 
Leaves palmately 3-foliate, sessile or nearly so, becoming like all other portions of 



6 



the plant — even the yellow flowers — black, when dry ; leaflets x / 2 to ^ inch long, 
rounded or cuneate-obovate, dark bluish-green with a light green stripe on the 
midrib ; stipules and bracts minute, caducous. Inflorescence short, loose, few- 
flowered racemes, terminal upon the branches ; flowers canary-yellow, about as 
long as the leaflets. Calyx cup-shaped ; limb 4-toothed, the upper tooth double, 
therefore broader than the rest. Corolla : standard about the length of the wii 
or slightly shorter, emarginate, and reflexed laterally ; keel somewhat incurved, 
the two petals composing it nearly separate, straight; wings oblong, straight. 
Stamens 10, distinct; anthers alike and uniform. Ovaiy stipitate ; style curved, 
dilated below ; stigma minute. Fruit an oval, centrally inflated, mucronate legume, 
stalked in the persistent cup of the calyx ; stipe nearly twice the length of the 
calyx-cup. Seeds many, ovoid, cinnamon-brown ; hilum small, rounded ; embryo 
straight or incurved. Read description of Leguminosae under Genista tinctoria, 
46. 

History and Habitat. — Wild Indigo is indigenous to the Canadas and the 
United States. It grows as far south as Florida and west to the Mississippi, 
plentifully however only near the coast, where it delights in the dry, sandy soils. 



* paxrifa, Baptizo, I dye. Some species yielding an inferior indigo dye. 



52-2 



As regards New York State : I have noted in traveling upon the N. Y. & Erie 
R. R., that it ceased entirely at Narrowsbur . 122 miles from New York City.* 
I have not met with the plant in Chenan o, Broome, Tioga nor Tompkins Counties 
and Dr. Lucy fails to find it in Chemung; this is probably due to the rich loam of 
these localities. Dr. Barton says:-j- "It promiscuously inhabits a variety of situa- 
tions, though almost always in a dry soil, in every State of the Union." It flowers 
in the Northern States from June to August. 

The young shoots of this plant resemble, in form ami general appearance, 
those of asparagus, and are used, especially in New England, in lieu of that herb 
for a pottage. As a dye, it is no longer used, being far inferior to Indigofera and 
its employment unnecessary. 

The most important previous use of the plant as a dru^, was as an "anti- 



septic " dressing for gangrenous wounds, especially in such cases as were accon 
panied by a low form of fever ; and in decoction in putrid fevers generally. D 
Thatcher says: J "its employment has been extended in a few instances to Typhi 



putrid fever, with such good effect as to encourage fu 



fo 



of fomentation or cataplasm it has proved eminently beneficial when applied to 
phagedenic and gangrenous ulcers ; especially if the decoction be administered 



nally at the 



Dr. Comstock savs :$ " I would ob 



that it is used in cases of mortification, in fevers supposed to be putrid, and 
inclining to putrescency, and in general where antiseptics are indicated." Our 
provings thoroughly corroborate, and our practice substantiates the above use of 
the drug. Any physician, of whatever school of practice, who fails to use this 
remedy in Typhoid alone where it is so often indicated, allows many an opportunity 
to save a life to escape him. The National Dispensatory|| contains under this 
drug the following, written, we feel compelled to say, in willful ignorance: 
"Nothing has recently been added to the knowledge possessed many years ago 

g this medicinal plant." The U. S. Pharmacopoeia gives no officinal 



th the drug, and 



paration ; this in the full light of 
tly lower percentage of death in Typhoid 
The preparations of the Eclectic Materia Medica are : Ex tr actum BapL 



Alcoholi 



urn ; Unguentum Baptisice, and Pilules Baptisia Composite?^ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root with its bark is chopped 
and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are 
taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it and the rest of the 
alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered 



bottle and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture separated from this mass by filtration is opaque, in thin layers it 
presents a deep brownish-red color by transmitted light ; it has no distinguishing 



* Author in Bull. Torrey Club, vol. xi, 1884, p. 133. 
t Veg. Mat. Med., vol. ii, p. 56. 

\ Thatcher's Dispensatory, p. 361, quoted in Barton's Veg. Mat. Med., pp. 58-59, vol. ii 
§ "Letter to Mr. Weems," in Veg. Mat. Med. Barton, vol. ii, p. 58. 
|| 1879, p. 267. 

\ Leptandria, Podophyllin, Sanguinaria and Baptisia. 



52-3 



odor, a peculiar bitter and astringent taste, imparts to the tongue on fi 



cold sensation quite similar to that of sulphate of soda (Glauber's Salt) 



nd has an acid 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— An analysis of the root was made by Dr. 

Greene * U. S. N., for the express purpose of obtaining the alkaloid, the previous 
analyses by Smedley,f and Warner.J resulting in alkaloidal salts only. Dr. Greene 
succeeded in obtaining pale yellow crystals of various forms, some being perfect 
octahedra. This purified alkaloid was found to be soluble in water, alcohol, and 
ether, other physical and chemical properties are as yet unknown. A whitish 
yellow resin was also determined in his analysis, whether or not it is the same as 
one isolated by Smedley is not stated. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — The symptoms of disturbance in the system 
following the ingestion of doses varying from i to 200 drops of the tincture ot the 

root, 30 grs. of the powder,, and 4 to 14 grs. of "Baptisin" in differem individuals 

are marked, and correspond to those of Typhoid or disintegrating forms ol fever. 
They are substantially as follows :§ mentally gloomy, low-spirited, indispo d to 
think followed by inability, dullness, and stupidity. Vertigo. I Kill, heavy headache 

with weakness and weariness of body, and tendency to delirium. Soreness and 

lameness of the eyeballs, with hot, Hushed face. Tongue coated white, yellow or 

yellowish-brown. Loss of appetite, nausea, and burning in the stomach. Dull 
pains in the region of the liver, especially at the site ot the t ill-bladder. Face 

sallow, with burnincr cheeks. Constant pain and aching in the al lomen, followed 

by marked distention, and soreness on pressure. Soft, dark, mucous stools, 
followed by constipation. Urine dark red. I difficult breathing with oppn ion of 
the chest. Pulse at first accelerated and full, then low and faint. Aching, stiffn ss, 

and soreness of back and extremities. Chills general, followed by f< ver, r sd< - 



d great prostration. N 

Dr. Hughes says: II " Baptisia is capable of 



<r 



true primary pyrexia in 

the human subject. ' This is no slight thing, lor there are very I w other drugs to 
which we can ascribe such power. And this pyrexia is exceed in ly like that of 
the early stages of Typhoid. We have no evidence that Baptisia affects Peyer's 
patches as they are affected in Typhoid, nor even that it acts upon them at all as 
Arsenic and Iodine, and perhaps Mercury and Turpentine do. But it is certain 
that it produces congestion and catarrh of the intestinal mucous membrane with 
abdominal tenderness, distention, and diarrhcea." Still, as the specific condition 
of inflammation of the patches of Peycr does not appear until the second or 

perhaps third stage, our remedy properly used has done its work ere this and is 

not then required, nor will any other be. such condition not foliowin , having 

been thwarted. 



* Am. Jour. Pkmr. t 1879, |>. 577 

f Idem, 186*, ]>. ,*io. 

J Idem, 187L ]'• 25 1 - * 

I Allen. Bnty. Pure Mai. Mai., vol. ii, pp. 31- »• 

|| Pharmacodynamics, i>. 162. 



52-4 



The only post-mortem examination 



has come to my notice is that of 



der Dr. Burt's experiments. In this animal the large and small intestines 



found greatly congested, and filled with mucus and blood 



Description of Plate 52. 

1. End of flowering branch, Pamrapo, N. J., July 6th, 1879. 

2. Flower. 

3. Pistil. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Pollen, x 250. 

6. Pod. 



(3 and 4 enlarged.) 












Ttl.adnat.del.etpinxt. 



Gymnocladus Canadensis, Lam. 



N. ORD -LEGUMINOS^E 

S. ORD.-C/ESALPINIE/E. 



53 



GENUS— GYMNOCLADUS,* LAM 



SEX. SVST.— DICECIA 



GYMNOCLADUS. 



COFFEE TREE. 



GYMNOCLADUS CANADENSIS, LAM 

COM. NAMES.— KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE 
KENTUCKY MAHOGANY, NICKAR TRE! 



AMERICAN COFFEE BEAN, 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH FRUIT PULP OF GYMNOCLADUS 

CANADENSIS, LAM. 



Description. — This peculiar tree, when mature, reaches a height of from 50 
to 60 feet. Trunk erect ; bark extremely rough, and curiously broken trans- 
versely ;. branches few, thornless, when young cane-like, and in winter so destitute 



/ 



of anything looking like a bud that the whole tree appears as if dead. Leaves 
bi-pinnate, 2 to 3 feet long, bearing a pair of opposite leaflets near the base, and 
from 4 to 7 larger, odd-pinnate accessory leaf-stalks, each of which (upon the 

jer branches) is composed of from 6 to 8 pairs of leaflets, so that each leaf 
may bear from forty-eight to one hundred and seventy-four leaflets. These leaves 
develop late and fall early. Leaflets alternate, vertical, ovate-lanceolate, taper- 
pointed and entire, the lower pair upon the base of the petiole almost cordate, 
larger and more pointed ; stipules none. Inflorescence terminal compound racemes 
or thyrsi ; flowers dioecious, pedicillate ; (estivation imbricate. Calyx elongated- 
tubular below ; limb 5-cleft ; lobes lanceolate, equal. Corolla not papilionaceous ; 
petals oblong, equal, inserted upon the summit of the calyx-tube. Stamens 10. 
included, inserted with the petals ; filaments distinct, short, and bearded ; anthers 
sagittate, versatile, introrse, 2-celled, opening longitudinally. Style single. Ovules 
anatropous. Fruit an oblong, flattened pod, 6 to 10 inches long and about 1 inch 
broad, pulpy inside; seeds 2 to 4, flattish, hard, somewhat ovoid, about one-half an 
inch broad, and of a dark olive color ; embryo straight. 



History and Habitat.— The Kentucky Coffee Tree grows in rich woods, along 
rivers and lakes, from Western New York and Pennsylvania, to Illinois and south- 
westward, where it flowers in June. 

The previous uses of this plant in medicine are grounded upon its peculiar 
action on nerve-centres. A decoction of the leaves and fruit pulp has been found 



ful 



in 



flex troubles incident upon masturbat 



* IV*, gymnos naked; **&&>;, klados, branch, from the barren and dead appearance of the tree in winter. 






53-2 



coughs dependent upon a chronic irritation of the mucous membranes of the 
air-passages, puerperal peritonitis, erysipelas, and typhoid forms of fever. To 
the arts it furnishes a hard wood, something like mahogany, with a fine grain, 
suitable for cabinet-work ; it weighs 40 lbs. 7 oz. per cubic foot, and has a sp. 



gr. of 647. The seeds are said to have been used by the early settlers of 
Central United States as a substitute for coffee, and the leaves as a purgative 
and insecticide. Concerning the use of Gymnocladns as a tly-poison, a Virginia 



correspondent of The American Agriculturist says: "Back of our house here, 
and overhanp-ing the piazza, is a very large coffee-tree. Though this locality is 



fested, like E°ypt, with a plague of flies, we have never suffered any serious 



yea 



from them. One year this tree was nearly stripped of its leaves b> 
cloud of potato-flies (the blistering fly), and we feared that the tree would die from 
the complete defoliation. In three days the ground beneath was black with a 
carpet of corpses, and the tree put out new leaves, and still flourishes. For ten 

have used the bruised leaves, sprinkled with molasses water, as a fly- 
poison. It attracts swarms of the noisome insects, and is sure death to them." 

Gymnocladus is officinal in none of the Pharmacopoeias. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh, green pulp of the unripe 
seed-pods is to be crushed and prepared as in the preceding drug. The tincture, 
after filtering from the mass, has a clear orange color by transmitted light ; is 
gummy upon the fingers ; and of a familiarly characteristic odor, resembling that 
of the pulp. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Cytisine, C 24 H 27 N 3 0. This alkaloid, found in 
the seeds of Cytisus Laburnum, is said to exist also in the leaves and fruit pulp 
of this tree. Extracted from Laburnum, it crystallizes in radiate, colorless, 
deliquescent forms, having a caustic and bitter taste, and an alkaline reaction, 
neutralizing acids completely. It sublimes without decomposition by the careful 
application of heat. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Gymnocladus causes vertigo with a sensation 
of fullness of the head ; burning of the eyes; sneezing; salivation; nausea with 
burnine of the stomach; desire to urinate; increased sexual desire; pains in the 



i> 



limbs, numbness of the body, sleepiness, and coldness 



Description of Plate 53. 



I of a sterile branch, Ithaca, N. Y., June 17th. 
2. A small leaf, four times reduced. 
3 and 4. Sterile flowers. 
5. Sterile flower in section. 
6 and 7. Stamens, posterior and lateral views. 

(5,6 and 7 enlarged.) 




ad nat.del.et piitxt 



Geum 



RlVALE, Linn. 



N. ORD.-ROSACE^. 

GENUS.— G E U M ,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 



54 



GEUM RIVALE. 



WATER A YENS. 



SYN — GEUM RIVALE, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.-PURPLE OR WATER AVENS, CHOCOLATE-ROOT; (PR.) 
BENOITE AQUATIQUE; (GER.) SUMPFNELKENWURZEL. 



WHOLE 



Description.— This beautiful perennial plant, distinguished on account of its 
hibiscus-like petals, grows to a height of from one to two feet. Root creeping, lig- 
neous, giving off numerous fibrous rootlets. Stem simple or nearly so, hairy. Leaves 
of two kinds ; those from the root on long deeply grooved petioles, lyrate and ir- 
regularly pinnate ; those of the stem few, nearly sessile, more or less lyrate below 
and 3-lobed above, serrate, pointed ; stipules ovate, incised. Inflorescence terminal on 
long, sometimes branched, peduncles -flowers few, large and handsome, nodding on 
bracted pedicels. Calyx erect, concave below, 5 -lobed, with 5 alternating bractlets in 
the sinuses. Petals 5, erect, retuse, dilated obovate, contracted into a claw at the ba - 
Stamens numerous, inserted into a stipitate disk in the cup of 



Ik 



by a longitud 



Pistils many ; ovary hairy ; sty I, 



long, with flexed tips. Fruit a dense, hairy, conical head, situated upon an erect 
stalk arising from the cup of the calyx; seeds oval, bearded, the epicarp retaining 
the persistent style, which is now hispid below and plumose above the angular 
flexion ef the style. 

Rosacete.-This grand natural order is represented in North America by 35 
genera, 2 1 3 species, and 92 varieties, aside from innumerable cultivated specimens 
The general characters of the order are : Plants consisting of trees, shrubs and 
herbs, and furnishing our most valuable fruits. Leaves alternate ; shfmUs gener- 
ally present though sometimes early deciduous. Flowers regular, handsome. 

Calyx of 5 to 8 sepals united to form the calyx-tube ; in some species with a sec 
ond set as bractlets, outside of, and alternate with, the sepals. Petals as many as 
the sepals, and inserted with the stamens upon a thin disk that hnes the calyx tube. 
Stamens very numerous, perigynous ; filaments slender. P.stds on, or many. 



r..*,g< ««; a Pl«a»»»< *>vor, one of Ihe specie, having aromalic root,. 



54-2 

either distinct in or upon a receptacle, or combined in the calyx-tube. Fruit either 
an achenium, a follicle, a drupe, or a pome. Seeds single, or a few in each ovary ; 
albumen wanting ; cotyledons large and thick ; embryo straight. Beside the useful 
and edible fruits— almonds, peaches, prunes, plums, and cherries (Amygdalca) ; 
crab-apples, apples, quinces, pears, etc. (Pomea) ; and strawberries, raspberries, 
thimble-berries, and blackberries (Rosacea) ;— we have many useful medicinal 
plants among the species in this order. Bitter almonds (Amygdalus communis, L., 
i var. amara, DC); sweet almonds (Amy gdalus communis % L., 2var. dulcis, DC); 
wild cherry bark (Prunus Virginiana, Miller) ; cherry-laurel {Primus Lauro- 
cerasus, L.) ; kousso (Brayera anthclminlica, A'uut/i.) ; peaches (Amygdalus Per- 
sica, Prunus Persica) ; and the three mentioned in this work. The genera Poten- 
tilla, Spirea, and Gil tenia, will in time also be proven to be of benefit in the treat- 
ment of disease. 



History and Habitat.— This indigenous inhabitant of bogs and springy mead 

from the New England States and Pennsylvania westward to Wisconsir 



& * v ..w.. V ... *..~ .^~- ~"t» 



and northward, flowering in May. Geum at one time gained great renown as 
" Indian Chocolate ;" it was given in decoction prepared with sugar and milk, for 
dysentery, chronic diarrhoea, colics, debility, dyspepsia, and most ailments of the 
digestive tract ; it was also used as a styptic in uterine hemorrhage, leucorrhcea, 



and hemoptysis, and as a febrifuge. (Rafinesque.) 

Though Geum has been dismissed from the U. S. Ph., it still retains a plac 

the Eclectic Materia Medica. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole plant, gathered before blos- 
soming in the spring, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two 
parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth 
part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, 
lr it into a well-stoppered bottle, and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool 
ce. The tincture, separated by straining and filtering, should have a deep 
nge-brown color by transmitted light, a slightly astringent taste, and an acid 



po 




reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — An analysis of Avens by Buchner, proves it 
to be very similar to the European Geum urbanum ; which, botanically, differs but 
slightly from the species under consideration. All the qualities of both species 
are given up freely to both water and alcohol. 



Volatile Oil of Geum.— A greenish-yellow, acid, butyraceous oil, having an 
odor like cloves. This body may be readily obtained by distillation of the roots 
in water. (Wittstein.) 

The Water Avens contains also a resin, an acid, bitter extractive, tannin, gum, 

and other general plant constituents. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The action of this species has not yet been 



> 



54-3 



determined. A short proving by the late Dr. Herring gave as symptoms : seven 
jerking, tearing pains, like electric shocks, shooting from deep within the abdomen 
to the end of the urethra, coming- on after eating. 



^ — to 



Description of Plate 54. 



* 

1. Part of flowering and fruiting plant, from Lowmansville, X. Y., May 30th, 1884 

2. Root leaf. 

3. Sepal, showing bracts. 

4. Petal. 

5. Stamen (enlarged), outer view. 

6. Stamen (enlarged), inner view, with open cell. 

7. Achenium (enlarged). 




55. 










<sw 



ad nat.del.et pinxt 



FRAGARIA YESCA,Linn. 



N. ORD.-ROSACE^E 

Tribe.-DRYADE/E. 



55 



GENUS.— F R A G A R I A ,* TOURN. 



SEX. SYST.— ICOSANDRIA POLYGVNIA. 



FRAGARIA. 



WILD STRAWBERRY. 



SYN.— FRAGARIA VESCA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.-WILD, FIELD,! OR WOOD STRAWBERRY; (FR.) LE FRAI- 

SIER; (GER.) ERDBEERE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH RIPE FRUIT OF FRAGARIA VESCA, LINN. 



Description. — Root perennial, horizontal, knotty 



g the 



ground and rooting at the end, sending therefrom young plants, following in due 
time the same process; stem none. Leaves mostly radical, ternately compound, 
hairy ; stipules adherent to the base of the petioles of the radical leaves ; leaflets 
sessile or nearly so, cuneate-obovate, coarsely serrate, and so strongly veined as 
to appear plicate ; petioles much longer than the leaves. Inflorescence loose leafy 
cymes, upon long naked scapes; leaves of the cymes small; stipules lanceolate- 
oblong, acute; pedicels erect or drooping; flowers white. Calyx concave at the 
base and furnished with 5 intermediate bracteoles alternate with its lobes; the 
whole remaining spread or reflexed in fruit ; lobes acute. Petals 5, obtuse, some- 
what crenate edged. Stamens small, indefinite. Styles deeply lateral. Fruit con- 
sisting of the greatly enlarged and now pulpy and scarlet globular receptacle ; 
achenia dry, scattered upon the surface of the fruit, not sunk in pits. 

History and Habitat.— The Wild Strawberry grows on dry and rocky banks, 
where it is common throughout the North Temperate Zone in Europe, Asia, and 
America With us it is thoroughly indigenous North, flowering in May and June 
and fruiting in July and August. This species, together with F Virgiuica-vhlch 
is more common, grows in richer soil, and has the achenia sunk in pits upon the 
surface of the receptacle— form our delicious wild strawberries. The other North 
American species of Fragaria are F Virginica var. Illinamsis, Gray, supposed to 
be the original of the « Boston Pine " and " Hovey's Seedling ; " and var. glauca, 
Watson ; F Californica, C.&S. ; F Chilensis y Duch. ; and var. Scoulen, Hook ; 
and F Mica, Andr., an adventive form. The F Virginica, Ehr., is supposed to 



* From the Latin fragrans, odorous, on account of the aroma of the fruit, 
f More properly applicable to the F. Virginica. 






55-2 

be the original of the beautiful scarlet Virginia strawberry. Rafinesque judged 
that about one hundred varieties existed, but contented himself with naming only 
seven of F. vesca, of which, however, none are recognized by botanists to-day. 

The previous medical uses of Fragaria were few ; the berries were ordered 
to be freely eaten of in various calcareous disorders. Many early writers consid- 
ered the fruit as beneficial in gouty affections ; Linnaeus extols their efficacy in 
preventing paroxysms of gout in his own case ; and Rosseau claims that he was 
always relieved of a calcareous affliction by eating freely of them. The root in 
infusion has been used in England for dysuria and gonorrhoea. The dried 'leaves 
(Strawberry Tea) yield a slightly astringent infusion used in domestic practice as 
an excitant, and as an astringent in diarrhoea and dysentery. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh, ripe berries, dealt with as 
in the preceding drug, yield an opaque tincture, having, when in thin layers, a 
deep brownish-carmine color by transmitted light. This tincture has a very 
astringent, somewhat vinous taste, the odor of the berries, and a strong acid 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — The fruit contains cisso-tanic,* malic, and 
citric acids ; sugar, mucilage, and a peculiar volatile aromatic body uninvestigated. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — It is a patent fact that many people with deli- 
cate stomach find it almost impossible to eat strawberries and cream — especially 
early in the season — without suffering from symptoms of disordered digestion ; 
the symptoms often culminating in quite severe attacks. A case in my practice 
several years ago, while a small-pox scare was prevalent in this city, gave nearly 
all the symptoms of the toxic effect of the fruit. A young lady, closely veiled, 
called hastily upon me early one morning, and when seated, withdrew her veil, and 
in a frightened manner desired to know if she had small-pox. Her face was 
swollen, bluish-red, and covered with a fine petechial eruption, which she said cov- 
ered her whole body, but especially her face and trunk. She complained of feeling 
at times somewhat faint, slightly nauseated, and generally swollen, but especially 
in the epigastric region and abdomen ; her speech was somewhat difficult, and 
examination showed a swollen tongue. I laughingly ventured asking her — although 
it was winter — where she had found strawberries, whereupon she asked me, in 
astonishment, how I knew she had been eating the fruit, adding that a friend in 
Florida sent her about two quarts, among other fruit, and that she and a lady friend 
had eaten them all the night before, on retiring. As the symptoms had apparently 
reached their height, I told her the cause, and advised that she eat nothing for 
twenty-four hours, giving no remedy, that I might watch the pure symptoms. In 
the afternoon of the same day the skin was hot and swollen, the patient thirsty and 
restless, and little sleep was gained that night; the next day the eruption began to 
fade, the appetite returned, and restlessness ceased. On the third day exfoliation 



* See under Ampelopsis quinquefolia, p. 40-2. 



55-3 

began and was very profuse, the skin appearing quite similar to the condition 
existing after a severe attack of scarlatina. The young lady who shar her fruit 

exhibited no symptoms whatever. 



Description of Pi ate 55. 



1. Whole plant, from Ithaca, N. Y., May 8th. 1880. 

2. A flower. 

3. Stamen. 

(2 and 3 enlarged.) 










56 























1 



2 




3 









.) 



<Sm. 



ad nat.dei.et pinxf. 



PiRus Americana, DC 










\ 



N. ORD -ROSACEA. 

S. Ord.-POME/E. 

GENUS.— PI RUS,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— POI.\ ANURIA TRIGYNIA. 



56 





RU 




AMERICAN MO UNTAIJV ASH. 



SYN.-PIRUS (PYRUS) AMERICANA, D. 0.; P. ACUPARIA, MEYER; SORBUS 
AMERICANA, WILLD. ; S. ACUPARIA, VAR. AMERICANA, MICHX. ; S. 
HUMIPUSA, RAP. 

COM. NAMES.— AMERICAN MOUNTAIN ASH, AMERICAN SERVICE TREE; 
(FR.) SORBIS; (GER.) VOGELBEEREN. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK OF PIRUS AMERICANA, D. C. 



Description.— This nearly smooth tree grows to a height of from 10 to 35 
feet. Bark somewhat resembling the cherry. Leaf-buds pointed, glabrous and 
glutinous; leaves compound, odd-pinnate; leaflets 13 to 15, lanceolate, taper- 
pointed, sharply serrate with pointed teeth, bright and shining green above, not 
pale below; teeth mucronate. Inflorescence in large, flattish, compound, terminal 
cymes Calyx with an urn-shaped tube ; limb 5-cleft. Petals roundish obovate. 
Stamens numerous. Styles 3, separate. Fruit a bright-scarlet, globose, baccate 
pome about the size of a pea ; seeds two in each cell ; testa cartilaginous. 

' History and Habitat.— This beautiful mountain tree is indigenous from Maine 
«, . ..insylvania, westward to Michigan, and southward along the Alleghany 
Mountains In the north it also habits swampy spots, and flowers in June. The 
rge clusters of brilliant red berries of this species and the P. acupana of Europe, 
hich hang long after the leaves have fallen, make the trees fine lawn ornaments. 
The close botanical and chemical relation of the American and European 
Decies render them so closely allied that many botanists consider them identical, 
nd the chemistry of the bark, so far as distinguished, is so much like that of the 
ild cherry (Cerasus serotina, D. C.) that its medical uses have been substitutive 
The previous use of the bark in medicine h as been as a to nic in fevers of 



to Pe 



* The classical name of the Pear tree. 



\ 



56-2 

supposed malarial types, where it was often substituted for cinchona. The berries 
were used as an antiscorbutic. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark is chopped and pounded 
to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp 
thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered bottle and allowed 
to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the above mass by nitration, has a reddish- 
brown color by transmitted light, a bitter taste, and an acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL 



So far as I am able to ascertain, no analysis 
of the bark of this species has been made" to determine its specific principles ; a 
glance, however, at the chemistry of the European species may be of benefit. 



Sorbus (Pirus) acuparia. 



Amygdalin, C 20 H 27 NO n . — This glucoside occurs in the bark, buds, flowers 
and kernels of many rosaceous plants ; it separates as pearly scales, which crys- 
tallize from water as transparent prisms, having the formula C 20 H 27 NO n (H,O) 3 . 
Amygdalin loses its water of crystallization at 120 (248 F.), liquefies at 200 
(392 F.), and caramelizes and decomposes at higher temperatures; it is soluble 
in water and alcohol, but not in ether. Under the action of dilute acids it splits 



up as follows : 



u , • Benzaldehyde 

Amygdalin. Water. Hyxl ™g amC or Oil of Glucose. 

Bitter Almonds. 

C 20 H 27 NO n + (H 2 0) 2 = CNH + C 7 H c O + (QH 12 6 ) 2 . 



Sorbin, C 6 H 12 6 , is the glucose found in the berries ; it forms in large, sweet 
crystals, which melt at 1 io° (230 F.). 

Sorbic and Parasorbic Acid, C 6 H 8 2 , two isomeric acids of the acrylic group, 
are also found in the berries of this species. 

Citric Acid, C G H 8 O r — This widely-distributed body occurs, together with malic 
acid, in the fruits of both species. Citric acid crystallizes in rectorhombic, glassy 
forms, readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether, and having a pure and pleasant 
acid taste. These crystals become white when exposed to the air, lose two mole- 
cules of water at ioo° (212 F.), fuse at 150 (302 F.), and decompose with a 
specific empyreumatic odor at higher temperatures. 

Malic Acid, C 4 H 6 0.. — This acid is found in the berries as they begin to ripen. 
It is obtained from its aqueous solution in small, colorless, deliquescent prisms, 
having a strong but pleasant acid taste. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The tincture produced, in Dr. Gatchell and 
others under his observation* a set of symptoms showing an irritation of the 



* Am. Horn. Oh., 1878, p. 520. 






56-3 

alimentary mucous membranes, and reflex nervous irritation. It also caused 
arthritic disturbances and symptoms of chill, heat, and perspiration. 



Description of Plate ^6. 



i. A portion of a cyme, Binghamton, May 28th, 1885 

2. A flower, showing perianth. 

3. A pistil. 

4. Stamens. 

5. Two leaflets. 

6. A branch in fruit. 

7. Section of fruit. 

(3, 4 and 7 enlarg I ) 




57. 



<jk. 




ad nat del.et pinxt. 



PENTHORUM SEDOIDES, Linn 



N. ORD.-CRASSULACEiE. 



57 



GENUS.— PENTHORUM,* GRONOV 



SEX. SYST.— DECAXDRIA PENTAGYNIA. 




PENTHORUM 



DITCH STONE CROP. 



SYN.— PENTHORUM SEDOIDES, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— DITCH OR VIRGINIA STONE CROP. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT PENTHORUM SKDOIDES, LINN. 



Description. — This homely perennial grows to a height of from 8 to 12 inches. 
Stem erect, somewhat angled, simple or somewhat branched; leaves scattered, 
nearly sessile, lanceolate, acute at both ends, and sharply serrate, In/lorest nee 
a loose terminal cyme of revolute spikes ; flowers yellowish-green, arranged along 
the upper surface of the branches of the cyme ; pedicels glandularly pubescent. 
Calyx pubescent below ; sepals 5, cuneate, acute. Petals rarely present. Stamens 
10; filaments smooth; anthers 2-celled, opening longitudinally. Pistils 5, united 
below; styles short, forming beaks in fruit; stigmas small, capitate. Fruit a 5- 
angled, -horned, and -celled capsule, opening by the falling off of the beaks ; car- 
pels many seeded ; seeds ellipitical, pointed. 

Orassulacese. — This family of mostly succulent herbs is represented in North 
America by 6 genera, 47 species, and 2 varieties. Leaves mostly sessile ; stipules 
none. Inflorescence cymose or racemose ; flowers perfectly symmetrical. Calyx 
mostly monosepalous and free from the ovaries ; sepals 3 to 20, persistent, and 
united at the base. Corolla sometimes monopetalous, sometimes wanting; petals 
if present imbricated in the bud and inserted with the stamens. Stamens distinct, 
equal to, or twice as many as, the sepals, inserted upon the base of the calyx. Pistils 
distinct (exc. Penthorum), minutely scaled at the base. Fruit a cluster of follicles 
opening along the inner suture (exc. Penthorum). Seeds numerous, anatropous; 

embryo straight ; albumen thin. 

This order yields but few medicinal plants, and those of little prominence. 
The common European Houseleek {Sempervivum tectorum, Linn.), whose leaves 
are coolinc- and astringent; the Orpine (Sedum Telephium, Linn.), whose leaves, 



""" ~- & 



boiled with milk, have been used by the laity as a remedy in diarrhoea ; and the 
Stone Crop (S. acre, Linn.)— whose apparently dechlorophylled leaves make a 
fitting cover for the old ruins which afford the plant a habitat throughout Europe- 
is acrid, and has been recommended in cancerous troubles and epilepsy. — (Doc- 



9/ S: 



<S 



* Him, J tie, foe; o>>, oros, a rule; from the floral symmetry. 



3. 



*w 






57-2 



History and Habitat. — Penthorum is an indigenous ditch-weed, common in 
all localities in the United States, where it flowers from June to September. 

It has always held a place in domestic practice as an astringent in diarrhoea 
and dysentery. Drs. Briggs* and Scudder brought it to the notice of practitioners 
as a remedy, both topic and internal, for irritation of the mucous membranes and 
various forms of subacute inflammation of the same, as in pharyngitis, vaginitis, 
tonsillitis, etc. 



PART USED AND 



PREPARATION.— I he whole fresh plant is to be chopped 
and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are 
taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the 
alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, pour it into a well-stoppered bottle, 
and allow it to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, shaking often. 



The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, has a brilliant reddish 



orange color by transmitted light ; no special odor ; an astringent taste ; and 



acid 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— An analysis by the Lloyd brothers failed 



yield a peculiar p 



A pec 



determined, which first turns blue then precipitates black from its alcoholic solu- 
tion with ferrous, and deep green with ferric sulphate. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Penthorum, according to Dr. Morrow's experi- 
ments, causes many symptoms simulating a coryza : rawness of throat and 



tongue ; increased appetite followed by nausea ; burning in the rectum ; loose 



stools followed by constipation ; increased urine ; cough, and constriction of the 



chest 



Description of Plate 57. 

1. Whole plant, Binghamton, N. Y., July 30th, 1885 

2. Flower. 

3. View of calyx. 

4. Anther. 

5. Carpel. 

6. Fruit. 

(2-6 enlarged.) 



* 



Ec. Med. Jour., 1875, 479- 









58 











^$fr 



3 



tip 




^m.adnatdel.et pinxt. HaMAMELIS VlRGJNICA, Linn 



\ 



N. ORD -HAMAMELACE^E. 

Tribe-HAMAMELE/E. 

GENUS. — HAM AM ELIS,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— TETRANDRIA DIGYNIA. 



58 




AMAMELIS. 



WITCH HAZEL. 



SYN.— HAMAMBLIS VIRCHNICA, LINN., HAMAMELIS MACROPHYLLA, 

PURSH, HAMAMELIS DIOICA, WALT., HAMAMELIS CORYLIFOLIA, 
MCENCH. 

COM. NAMES— WITCH HAZEL, SNAPPING-HAZELNUT, WATER-SEEKER, 

WINTER-BLOOM, SPOTTED ALDER. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH TWIGS AND BARK OF HAMAMELIS VIRGINICA, LINN. 



Description.— This strange shrub, whose flowers do not open until its leaves 
fall, grows to a height of from 5 to [5 feet. The stem is usually single, some- 
times as large as 4 inches in diameter at the base. Bark smooth, brown. 
Branches numerous, long, flexuous and forking. Leaves 3 to 5 inches long, cor- 
date-ovate or oval, with sinuate edges and straight veins, downy stellate-pubescent 

hen young, but b 



Petioles about one-h 



Involucre 3-leaved, scale-like, pubescent, on a short peduncle. Flowers many, 
axillary, several in a cluster or head. Calyx persistent, of 4 broadly-ovate, hair) 
recurved divisions, with 2 or 3 little bracts at the base. Corolla of 4 long, strap- 
shaped, yellow petals, which soon wither and curl. Stamens 8, four are fertile, 
four sterile; sterile stamens scale-like, truncate, opposite the petals; fertile 
stamens shorter, curving inward toward the pistil; filaments short; anther adnate, 
introrse, 2-celled, the cells rather widely separated, opening laterally by uplifted 
valves. ' Pollen, grains ellipsoid, with 3 evenly separated deep sulci. Ovaries 2, 
united below, Styles 2, short. Capsule roundish ovoid, hard and leathery, the 
lower half with the persistent calyx and bracts, the upper smooth. D 



loculicidal from the apex, during wh 



from the endocarp 



which contains the seeds, and soon bursts, disclosing 2 cells, black and shining 
thin each with a sinde seed. Nutlets stony, oblong, narrow, deep glossy black, 



P 



Embryo long, straight. Alb 



History and Habitat.-This plant, about which was formerly draped, by 
t versed in the occult arts, a veil of deep mystery, and whose forked branches 
> used as a divining-rod while searching for water and ores, grows profusely 
e damp woods of Canada and the United States, flowering in October and 
lino- its fruit in the following summer. 



&?*, like to, jilXfc, an apple tree. Some plants bear a slight resemblance to small wild apple trees. 






•8-2 



The many varied uses of a watery infusion of Witch-hazel bark were fully 
known to the aborigines, whose knowledge of our medicinal flora has been 
strangely correct as since proven. Its use in haemorrhages, congestions, inflamma- 
tions and haemorrhoids is now generally known through the medium of an 

aqueous distillate of the bark. 

The U. S. Ph. (1882) has wisely added Hamamelis to their medicaments, 
officinal as Extractum Hamamclidis Fluidum, In the Eclectic Materia Medica 
the officinal preparation is Dccoclum Hamamelis. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The bark of the young twigs and roots 
is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed, then two parts by weight of 
alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed with one -sixth part of it, and the rest of 
the alcohol added ; after having stirred the whole well, pour it into a well-stoppered 
bottle, and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture, separated 
by decanting, straining and filtering is by transmitted light of a deep yellowish- 
brown color. It has a sweetish, slightly astringent taste, an acid reaction, and a 
peculiar odor, which, once noticed, will always distinguish it. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— No analysis of this plant has been made to 
determine its principles except as far as tannin is concerned; this body was found 
in small percentage. Water seems, nevertheless, to extract all or nearly all of 
its virtues. The active body, however, must be more or less volatile, as prepara- 
tions of the plant, made without using proper care in regard to this feature, have 
not the action usually sought for. It is also a fact that the bark of the root alone 
is not sufficiently medicinal, and that the curative property of the tincture does 
not lie entirely in the tannin. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Hamamelis, according to Dr. H. C. Preston, 
who first attempted the study of its action, causes a determination of venous 
blood to the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. Its action would seem to be, not 
upon the circulation itself, but upon the coats of the veins, causing a relaxation, 
with consequent engorgement and exosmosis, this action in many cases proceeding 
to actual rupture of the vessels. The symptoms pointing to the above conclusion 
are produced as follows: Vertigo, venous epistaxis, preceded by severe pressure 



both in the os frontis and superior nares, relieved by the haemorrhage ; nausea 



d vomiting, pain and tenderness of the abdomen, with flatulence and diarrhceic 
ssages from the bowels; pulsations in the rectum synchronous with the pulse; 
Lich lumbar pain, with weakness of the lower limbs and general lassitude. The 
tion of hamamelis upon the heart and circulation in general is not marked in 



these experime 



Description of Plate 58. 



1. End of flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., October 23d, 1S81. 

2. Leaves added in June. 

3. Flower (enlarged), the petals broken off. 

4. Fruit. 

5. Pollen grains, side and end view, x 380. 

6. Nutlet. 







TTL.ad nat.dcJ.et pinxt 



PALUSTRE.var. LlNEARE . Gray. 












N. ORD -ONAGRACE^E. 



59 



GENUS.— EPILOBIUM,* LINN. 



SEX. SYST.— OCTANDRIA MOXOGYXIA. 



EPILOBIUM. 



WILLOW-HERB. 



SYN.— EPILOBIUM PALUSTRB, VAR. LINEARB, GRAY; E. PALUSTRE, 
GRAY; E.ROSMARINIFOLIUM, PURSH.; E. LINEARE, MUHL. ; E. PALUS- 
TRE, VAR. ALBESCENS, RICH.; E. PALUSTRE, VAR. ALBIFLORUM, 
LEHM. ; E. OLIGANTHUM, MICHX., P. ; E. TENELLUM DENSUM, LEPTO- 
PHYLLUM, AND CILIATUM, RAF.; E. ANGUSTISSIMUM, WILLD. 
(GREENLAND); E. PUBESCENS, PRESL.; E. SQUAMATUM, NUTT. 

COM. NAMES.— SWAMP WILLOW-HERB, NARROW-LEAVED WILLOW- 
HERB, MARSH EPILOBIUM, SWAMP WILLOW, WICKOP ; (FR. | HERBE 
DE ST. ANTOINE; (GER.) ANTONSKRAUT. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT EPILOBIUM PALUSTRE, VAR. LINEARE, GRAY. 






Description.— This slender, perennial herb usually attains a growth of from 
6 inches to 2 feet. Stem erect, roundish, terete, minutely hoary, pubescent, and 
branchy above. Leaves nearly sessile, narrowly lanceolate or linear, acute, attenu- 
ate at the base, and with more or less revolute margins ; the upper alternate ; th- 
lower opposite, entire, or denticulate. Inflorescence in a terminal corymb ; flower- 
buds nodding ; flowers minute, rose-colored. Calyx-tube not prolonged beyond the 
ovary ; limb 4-cleft, deciduous. Petals 4, erect, mostly notched at the end. and 
about twice the length of the calyx. Stamens 8, erect ; anthers short. Style erect, 



ded ; stigma clavate, nearly entire. Fruit an elongated 

; quadrangular, loculicidal pod; seeds numerous, bearing a tuft of 



5 



p 



Onagraceae. — This innocent order of 



d 



North America by 15 genera, 155 species, and numerous varieties, is characterized 
as follows : Flowers 4-merous (sometimes 2, 3, 5, or 6-merous) perfect and sym- 
metrical. Calyx with its tube adhering to the ovary : lobes valyate in thejmd 
obsolete. Petals convolute in the bud, sometimes ab ' " 



or 



St am 



y 



the petals or calyx-lobes : filaments inserted at the sun 
the7al7x-tu"be ;' "pollen with its grains often connected by cobwebby threads 
single, slender ; stigma 2- to 4-lobed or capitate. Fruit capsular or baccate 



of 

ds 



small, anatropous ; albumen wanting 



* T.-i. epi. upon ; Mfios, lol'os, a pod ; I the flov n to be. 



59-2 

History and Habitat. — The Swamp Willow- 1 1 erb is indigenous to North 
America, where it extends from the mountains of North Carolina, and from 
Southern Illinois, northward to the Arctic Circle. It habits high sphagnum swamps, 

and flowers in 'July and August. 

Epilobium has proven itself a mild tonic and astringent, quite useful in slight 
types of diarrhoea and dysentery attended with colic, cramps in the stomach, and 
light typhoid abdominal symptoms. In irritation of the intestinal canal, followed 
by diarrhoea and some tympanitis, it has often proved quite beneficial in the hands 
of our Eclectic physicians. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, while in flower, 
should be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed; then two parts 
weight of alcohol taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, 
and the rest of the alcohol added. Pour the whole into a well-stoppered bottle, 
and allow it to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, shaking twice a day. The 




tincture, prepared from this mass by decanting, pressing, and filtering, should have 
a light yellowish-brown color by transmitted light ; a smooth, then astringent taste, 
and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Xo analysis of this plant has so far been 
made. It contains, however, tannin and gallic acid, beside the usual plant con- 
stituents. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The experiments of Dr. Wright, who took from 
one-half to one ounce of the tincture, caused some symptoms that must have been 
due to so large a " drink." Outside of the symptoms that we are prone to lay to 
the alcohol, the following also occurred : Salivation ; loose stools ; red urine ; and 
chills, followed by feverishness and general aching throughout the body. 

A proving with the tincture prepared as here directed, should be made. 



Description oi Plate 59. 



1. A small plant from Appalachin, N. Y., July 26th, 1886. 

2. A flower. 

3. Petal. 

4. Stamen?. 

5. Pistil. 

6. Pod. 

7. Stert. 

1 2-5 and 7 enlarged.) 



60 




r 



\ 



2 



*# 




1 







3 



I 



$m. 



ad nat del.et pinxt 



GEnothera Biennis Linn 






N. ORD -ONAGRACE^E. 

GENUS.— CENOTH El 

SIX. SVST.— OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



60 



OENOTHERA. 



E VEJVIJVG PRIME OSE. 



SYN.- CENOTHERA BIENNIS, LINN.; CENOTHERA PARVIPLORA, LINN.; 

CENOTHERA GAUROIDES, HORNEM; ONAGRA BIENNIS, SCOP.; 
ONAGRA VULGARIS, AND CHRYSANTHA, SPACH. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON EVENING PRIMROSE, NIGHT WILLOW-HERB, 

SCABBISH, TREE PRIMROSE, CURE-ALL; (FR.) ONAGRE ; (GER) 
NACHTKERZ. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE, FRESH, NEWLY BLOSSOMING PLANT, CENOTHERA 



BIENNIS, LINN. 



Description. — Th 



biennial plant, attains a growth of 



from 2 to 4 feet. Root conical ; bark thin, yellowish, or brownish. The roots of 
the first year are fleshy and succulent, in the second they become fibrous and 



dy. Leaves alternate, 2-6 inches long, ovate-lanceolate, acute, very mi 
d, and pubescent ; the cauline sessile, those near the root contracted 



ly 



petiole. Inflorescence a terminal, foliaceous spike, lengthening greatly as the 
flowers develop and the fruit matures ; flowers odorous, light-yellow, ephemeral. 
Calyx-tube cylindrical, caducous, prolonged quite a distance beyond the ovary, be- 
ing more than twice as long as its lobes ; limb of 4 long, reflexed lobes. Petals 4, 
obcordate, not clawed, withering and becoming orange-brown after a night's 
expansion. Stamens 8, nearly equal, shorter than, and both opposite and alter- 



the petals ; filaments slender, sometimes curved 



the 



tile. Ovary ovate ; style terminal, long, cylindrical, exserted ; sHgmas a group of 4 
linear, diverging lobes. Fruit a 4-valved, many-seeded follicle ; follicle oblong, 



bium pal 



g above ; seeds naked. Read description of the order under Ej 



History and Habitat.— The Evening Primrose is common in the United State 
growing in fields and waste places generally, and flowering from July to Septen 
ber. It varies greatly in its growth, affording at least 5 distinct varieties, vti 
var. a grandiflora, a large-flowered form ; var. (3 muricata, with rough, bnst 
stem and pods; var. y canescens ; var. h hirsutissima, a particularly ha. ry font 



* Theonhrastus describes a plant whose dried root caught the odor of wine. Hence he called I **.«•». ™; 
H P a, tkera, catch. (Barton.) Or taking MM to mean a hunt or chase, it is alleged that the meanmg „ applicable to the 
belief that it was the root of this plant, or one of its botanical relath , that was eaten to provoke an appet.te for wme. 

This eenus is a large and varied one, containing 57 species, and 33 varieties, in North A.ner.ca alone. 



60-2 



and var. e cruciate, having small, linear petals, shorter than the stamens. The 
flowers open fully, after sundown, and remain so until the sun is well up in the 

d fall. Much has been written concerning the property 



inherent in the petals of many species of this genus, of emitting a "phospl 
escence" at night, the flowers being distinguishable at a goodly distance beyond 
non-refractory objects by their whitish luminosity. In regard to this phosphor- 
escence a word or two is in place. That the petals do emit light on a dark night 
is not fanciful ; still it is not due to a property of giving out spontaneous light 
(phosphorescence), but to a process of storing up sunlight during the day, and 
retaining it at night — a property identical with that exhibited by hepar sulphuris 
calcarea, and the sulphides of barium and strontium.* 

The young roots of the evening primrose are said to be edible and pleasant, 
either pickled or boiled, having "a nutty taste, quite similar to that of rampion 
{Campanula rapunculus), and are used in Germany and some parts of France, 
either stewed or raw, in salads, like celery." (Porcher.) Lindley states, that the 
young mucilaginous twigs are used in the same way. 

About the only previous use of this plant in medicine was a strong decoction 
of the dried herb as an external application in infantile eruptions, and as a general 
vulnerary. Dr. Winterburn-j- states it to be a curative in spasmodic asthma, per- 



t> 



table bladder, and chronic exhaustive diarrhoeas 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant, as it is coming 
into bloom, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by 
weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one -sixth part of it, 
and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole, it is poured 
into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, obtained from this mass by filtration, should have a clear red- 
dish-orange color by transmitted light, an odor similar to that of wet hay, a taste 
at first mucilaginous, then astringent and bitter, and an acid reaction. 




CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — (Enotherin. This body, claimed as a prin- 
e by Chicoisneau, is evidently an extract, which probably contains all of the 
principles of the plant except the acrid body, which is dissipated by heat. It has 
not yet been analyzed, but would doubtless show a resin, a bitter principle, and a 
special acid. Mucilage is present in large percentage. 

Potassium nitrate, K N O a . — Crystals of this salt are readily extracted from 
an alcoholic tincture of the root.J 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The brain symptoms following a dose of 60 
drops of the fluid extract of CEnothera in a woman of 40, as chronicled by Dr. 
Nute,§ are very interesting, and should stimulate a desire for a fuller proving. 



* Calcined oyster shells emit stored sunlight, on account of the sulphide of calcium in their composition. This fact 
is largely utilized in the manufacture of luminous clock-faces, match-safes, door-plates, and the like. These objects, when 
placed in the sunlight during the day, are visible at night. 

f "The Evening Primrose," a paper read before the Ills. Slate Horn. Soc'y. Am. Homoeopath, 1883, p. 3'7- 
% Claussen, Am. Jour. Phar., 1884, p. 365. \ U. S. Med. and Surg. Journ., vol. ix, p. 395- 



60-3 

This individual experienced extreme vertigo, inability to sit or stand erect, semi- 
unconsciousness, loss of muscular power, numbness and peripheral prickling, 
rigors, occasional muscular cramps in the abdomen and extremities, and great 
exhaustion. These symptoms were followed by a free movement of the bowels, 
and a copious discharge of urine. Dr. Winterburn* judges that the drug has a 
special action upon the pneumogastric nerve, and, reflexly, an irritative action 
upon its pulmonary and laryngeal branches. 



Description of Plate 60. 

i. Top of flowering plant; Chemung, N. Y., Sept. 4th, 1879 

2. Pistil. 

3. Fruit. 



* U. S. Med. and Surg. Joum. % vol. ix, j>. 395. 




61 

















.Tll.adnatdel.etpinxt. 



Opuntia Vulgaris, mm. 



* 



N. ORD -CACTACE/E. 

GENUS— OPUNTIA,* TO URN. 

SEX. SYST.— ICOSANDRIA MONOGYXIA. 



61 



OPUNTIA 



PRICKLY PEAR. 



SYN. 



TTIA VULGARIS, MILL. ; O. ITALIC A, TEN. ; O. HUMIFUSUS 
MARITIMA AND HUMIPUSA, RAP.: O. INTERMEDIA, SALM. 



CACTUS OPUNTIA, LINN. 
COM. NAMES— PRICED Y PEAR, INDIAN PIG. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH FLOWERS AND GREEN OVARIES OF OPUNTIA 

VULGARIS, LINN. 






Description. — This curious, low, pale, prostrate, spreading plan 



d as follows: Branches (?) more 



broadly 



the younger ones leafy, the older prickly; leaves minute ovate-subulate, appressed, 
deciduous, arranged spirally about the joints; axils more or less bristly with numer- 
ous short, barbed prickles ; spines rarely present, when found they are whitish in 
the north and yellowish southward, and vary from two-thirds to one and one- 
quarter inches long. Inflorescence consisting of a few sessile, solitary ilowers 
along the apical ridge of the joints ; flowers large, sulphur-yellow, not ephemeral ; 
perianth not united into a prolonged tube, but regular and spreading. Sepals ovate- 



tapering 



Petals ample, the inner roundish. Sla 



ous, shorter than the larger petal ; filaments glabrous ; anthers linear, versatile. 
Ovary i -celled, obovate ; style cylindrical, narrowed at the base; stigmas about 6, 
in two sets, clavate. Fruit an obovoid, nearly smooth, crimson, pulpy and edible 
berry, having a deep depression at the apex showing the scars of the perianth. 
Seeds numerous, flattish-reniform, with a rounded ridge extending over the arch 
opposite the hilum; embryo curved around the thin albumen; cotyledons large, 
becoming foliaceous. 

Oactacea.— This large and peculiar family of thick and fleshy plants is repre- 



d 



d in North America by 5 genera, containing in all 142 s 
vanVties Its characteristics are as follows : Stems glob 



(1 



gled, composed of numerous compressed joints. Leaves usually absent 



ted by spines, tho 



Flowers solitary, sessile. Sepals and petals 



similar and evolute, numerous and imbricated in several rows, all adherent to the 
ovary. Stamens numerous ; filaments long and slender, inserted into a ring formed 



'gmas nume 



by the union of the sepals and petals. Styles united , 

Fruit a berry seeds numerous, campylotropous, finally becoming separate from 

the placentae and loose in the pulp; placenta several, parietal ; albumen scanty. 



* A Theophrastian name for some species growing in the country of the Opuntiani, whose chief city was Opus, near Phocis. 



61-2 



The proven plants of this order are : the Jamaican Cactus grandiflorus, Linn. ; 
the beautiful Nijjht-bloominsr Cereus, whose ephemeral tlowers are remarkable for 



their exceeding size and fragrance ; Cereus Bonplandii, Parm. ; and C. serpcntinus, 
Haw. No other species are used in medicine, though many furnish both food and 
drink to those compelled to pass over the barren wastes which this order mostly 
habits, the pulpy fruits and succulent joints, deprived of their coat of mail, being 
acid and aqueous to a high degree. Mr. J. R. Dodge* speaks as follows of the 
species used by the American Aborigines : 

" Ecliinocactus Wislizeni. — A section of the stem is often employed as a cook- 
ing vessel. The seeds are small and black, but, when parched and pulverized, 
make good gruel and even bread. The pulp of the fruit is rather sour, and not 
much eaten. Travellers in passing through the cactus wastes often resort to this 
plant to quench their thirst, its interior containing a soft, white, watery substance, 
of slightly acid taste, which is rather pleasant when chewed. It is a common sight 
to see on each side of the road these plants with a large perforation made by the 
thirsty traveller. An Indian, when travelling, and wishing to make a meal, selects 
a large plant, three feet or more long and two in diameter, cuts it down and hoi- 
lows it out so as to form a trough ; into this he throws the soft portions of the 
pulpy substance which surrounds the central woody axis, and adds meat, roots, 
seeds, meal, fruits, or any edible thing on hand ; water is added, and the whole 
mixed together; stones are then highly heated and dropped into the mixture, and, 
as they cool, are taken out, licked clean, reheated, and returned to the cooking ves- 
sel, until the mixture is thoroughly boiled. This is a favorite dish with the Yabapais 
and Apaches of Arizona. The Papajo Indians pare off the rind and thorns of 
large plants of this species of cactus, letting it remain several days to bleed, when 
the pulp is pared down to the woody axis, cut up into suitable pieces, and boiled 
in syrup of the Cereus gigantcus or Cereus Thurbtri. If a kind of sugar which is 
made by the Mexicans is attainable, it is employed instead of the syrup, thus form- 
ing a good preserve. These pieces, when taken out of the liquid and dried, are as 
good as candied citron, which they much resemble in taste and substance. 

" Prickly pear {Opuntia Engelmani, O. vulgaris, O. Camanchica, O. Rafines- 
quii, O. occidentalis). — The fruit of these species of cactus is much eaten by all the 
Indians of New Mexico, Arizona, California and Utah, under the common Spanish 
name of tunas, great quantities being dried for use in the winter. These plants 
grow in arid desert localities which produce nothing better ; they are large and 
of a bright red to purple color; of a rather pleasant, sweet, somewhat acid taste, 
and have thin skins and rather large seeds, which are discarded. The skin is 
studded with bunches of very fine downy spines, which the Indians brush off with 
a bunch of grass. The Apaches use wooden tongs to gather the fruit, to prevent 
being scratched by these spines or the thorns of the plant. The Pawnees and 
Papajoes dry the unripe fruit of the Opuntia for future use, to be cooked with 
meat and other substances. The fresh unripe fruit is often boiled in water from 
ten to twelve hours, until soft, when it becomes like apple-sauce; then, being 
allowed to ferment a little, it becomes stimulating and nutritious. Some Indians 
roast the leaves of the Opuntia in hot ashes, and, when cooked, the outer skin, 



* V. S. Agric. Repts., 1870, 417-418. 



61-3 

with the thorns, is easily removed, leaving- a slimy, sweet, succulent substance, 
which is eaten. Hunger and destitution frequently compel Indians and white men 
to live for many days on this food. A yellowish white gum often oozes out of the 
leaves of the Opuntia, which is also eaten." 

History and Habitat. — This species is indigenous to the sandy fields oi the 
Atlantic and Pacific seaboards, as well as the arid lands of the southwestern por- 
tion of North America ; it is also found in Europe. It habits rocky places and dry 
sands, where it flowers in June and July at the north. 

The fruit is edible and at the same time a pleasant diuretic, though it render 
the urine a bloody tinge ; the taste is acid and cool, much resembling the Pome- 
granate. Rafinesque states * that the split joints make a good 



fo 



d, when baked, for chronic- ulcers, gout, and re( nt 



mnds ; the juice and gummy exudation, he says, is used in gravel. I >r. Porcher 

/s'l he is informed that a decoction of the joints is mucilaginous, and much us. 

Alabama as a demulcent drink in pulmonic and pleuritic affections. MeratJ 






d 



PART 



The fresh Rowers and green ovaries 



are chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two | irts by wei 

of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mix 1 with one-sixth part of it and the 

rest of the alcohol added. The whole is th n poured into a well-stopo< red vial, 
and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture, separated 
from this mass by filtration, should have a lightly opaque straw color by trans- 



d licrht ; a slight odor of the (low rs ; a bitterish and 



-^ 



d 



X \^ C-V V«* L- * V-/ l * • 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— An analysis of the fruit was made In M 



W. W. LiehtS and resulted in the determination ol 



C.H O. : citric 



acid mucilage, and 



fix 1 oil. a fat acid, alb 



and glucose were found, but no glucosid nor alkaloid. 
PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.-According to the experiments made by D 
rdick,|| Kunze and Fitch,f with doses varying from a small portion to a dracl 

the tincture, the effects are as follows: Mental disturbances; acute pa 



'f the eye; epistaxis ; nausea in both stomach and bowels as if d 



Id 



d. increased ; coldness ; and 



&'"& 



ab 



Description o; Pi.ati 6i. 



Jul 



i lope 



3. Stamen. 

4. Stigma, 

5. Fruit. 

6. See(! 

3, 4 and 6 enlarj. 



+ k>,sour South I- nd Fore % P . In t. H II. 

* Med. Flora, 2, 243. J **" So "'*: ' g g « m , / ,15. 

§ Am. your. Pkar n 1884. j, II « A 7°"'- °f ir * m « l8j ' 4 *' 1 





4 





.Ttl.adnatdel.etpinxt. 



ERYNGiUM YUCC&FOUUM , Michx. 



N. ORD.-UMBELLIFERiE. 



62 



GENUS.— ERYNGIUM,* TOURN. 



SEX. SYST.— I'ENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 






ERYNGIUM. 



BUTTON SNAKEROOT. 



SYN.— ERYNG-IUM YUCCJEFOLIUM, MICHX.; E. AQUATICUM, LINN. (IN 

PART ) . 
COM NAMES.-BUTTON SNAKEROOT, RATTLESNAKE MASTER, ERYNGO, 
CORN SNAKEROOT; (FR.) PANICANT D'EAU; (G-ER.) WASSERMANNS- 
TREU. 



t 



Description.— This peculiar, sedge-like perennial grows to a height of from 
i to 6 feet. Stem smooth, erect, and grooved. Leaves linear, six inches to two 
feet long, and one-half to one inch wide, taper-pointed, coriaceous, rigid, parallel- 
veined, gramineous, and remotely bristly-fringed upon the margins. Inflorescence 
in a terminal compound umbel, each peduncle bearing a compact head ; heads 
broadly ovate ; bracts entire, paleaceous, not spinous ; flowers inconspicuous, white, 
all fertile, closely sessile ; leaves of the involucels mostly entire, and shorter than 
the heads. Calyx 5 -toothed ; teeth persistent. Petals connivent, oblong, emargi- 
nate. Styles filiform. Fruit top-shaped, covered with little scales or tubercles, 
having no ribs and scarcely any vitte, the inner face of each mencarp flat or 
nearly so. 



UmbelliferfB.— This large and very natural order, of' herbs 



ted 



North America by 50 genera and 187 species, is characterized as follows: Stems 

Leaves alternate, mostly compound ; petioles sheath 



hollow and 



bellets 



ing or expanding at the base. Inflorescence in terminal, compound ^bels, often 
subtended by a whorl of bracts {involucre), usually also subtend- — 
iinvolucel) ; flowers small, in many genera dichogamous. Calyx adhere 
whole face of the ovary ; limb minute, entire or 5-toothed 



Petals 5 



nflexed at the point, imb 



Stamens 5, alternate with 



the petals, and inserted with them upon the disk. Ovary 2 -carpelled, ....mounted 
by the fleshy disk that bears the petals and stamens ; ovules 2, anatropous ; styles 

distinct or united at their thickened bases ; stig 



Fruit 



consisting of , coherent achenia (mericarps) which separate along the middle 
■nerval L-~«*rA and are usually suspended from the summit of a slender 



: m as £ stnssr sex*. ~~ > .* ~» - - 



f A much better 



62-2 

prolongation of the axis [carpophore) ; mericarps marked lengthwise by 5 primary 
ribs, and often with 5 secondary intermediate, in the interstices or intervals be- 
tween these ribs are commonly lodged few or many oil-tubes {vittce), which are 
longitudinal canals in the substance of the fruit, containing aromatic oil. Seeds 
suspended from the summit of the mericarp ; embryo minute; albumen hard. The 
flowers in this order are so minute, and so nearly alike in all genera, that the dif- 
ferentiation is usually, in great part, based upon the cremocarps. 

Besides the seven species treated of in this work, we have provings of the 
followino- plants: The Persian Ammoniacum {Dorema Am/uoniacum,Don.), a fetid, 
stimulating, discutient gum-resin ; the European Celery {Apium gravcolens, Linn.), 
which, though an acrid poison when growing in wet places, is a delightful salad 
when cultivated; the Thibetan Asafcetida {Mart hex Asafaelida, Falc), a fetid, 
stimulant, and antispasmodic gum-resin; the Central European Athamantha 
{Peucedanum Oreoselinum, Moench), an aromatic and powerful stimulant; the 
North European and Asiatic Water Hemlock {Cicuta virosa, Linn.), a dangerous, 
acrid, narcotic poison ; the European Sea Holly (Eryngium maritimum, Linn.), a 
sweet, aromatic, tonic and diuretic ; the Italian Giant Fennel {Ferula glauca, Linn.), 
a stimulating antihysteric ; the Mediterranean Fennel Seed (Foeniailum officinale, 
Allioni.), an aromatic stimulant and carminative ; the European and North Asiatic 
Cow-Parsnip, Branca Ursina {Heracleum Sphondylium, Linn.), an acrid vesicant; 
the subtropical Indian Pennywort {Hydrocotyle Asiatica, Linn.), noted as a remedy 
for leprosy, ichthyosis, and rheumatism; the European Masterwort {Imperatoria 
ostruthium, Linn.), a febrifuge, antiperiodic, and masticatory in toothache; the 
European Hemlock Dropwort (CEnanthe crocata, Linn.), a narcotico-acrid poison 
of great virulence ; the Sardinian Parsley {Petrosclinum sativum, Hoff.), a noted 
diuretic pot-herb; the European Water Dropwort {P hellandrium aquaticum, Linn.), 
which partakes of the poisonous nature of CEnanthe, but is less dangerous ; the 
Levantine Bibernell or Burnet Saxifrage {Pimpinella Saxifraga, Linn.), an astrin- 
gent, masticatory, also used to remove freckles ; the Central Asiatic Sumbul 
{Ferula Sumbul, Hook., f.), a Russian " specific " for cholera, that failed and was 
afterward used as an antihysteric, and remedy for hypersecretive mucous mem- 
branes ; the Northern Europe and Asiatic Caraway {Carum Carta, Linn.), a well- 
known aromatic stimulant and condiment ; and lastly, the European Water Pars- 
nip {Slum latifolium, Linn.), an acrid, narcotic poison. 

Many other species are used in general medicine.* The European lur- 
bith {Laserpithim latifolium, Jacq.), yields an acrid, bitter, caustic, and violently 
purgative gum-resin. The European genus Anthriscus, yields two species, A. 
sylvestris, Hoff., and A. vulgaris, Pers., that are acrid, narcotic poisons ; while A. 
Cerefolium, Hoff., is an agreeable pot-herb, called Chervil. The South Russian 
Cachrys odontalgica, Pall., is, as its name denotes, a remedy for aching carious 
teeth. The Indian and Levantine Fructus Ptychotis {Carum Ajowan, Bentl.), is 
carminative, and the oil antiseptic. The European and Levantine genus Jim- 

■ ■ - -^— ^^^^— — — *^™^^ 

* Concerning this order it is noteworthy, that those which grow near water are generally acrid, narcotic po ^ 
while those seeking dry soils are little else than carminative. 



62-3 



car- 



pinella yields the well known Anise (P. Anisum), an aromatic stimulant and 
initiative, as well as P. dissecta, Retz., and P. magna, Linn., which have properties 
similar to those of P. Saxifraga, mentioned above. The genus Ferula, which 
includes Narthex, yields the following substances, beside Sumbul and Asafcetida 
mentioned above : African Gum Ammoniacum from F. tingitana, Linn. ; Persian 
Galbanum is produced by F. Galbaniflua, and F. rubric aulis, Boiss. ; it saction is 
considered to be intermediate between asafcetida and ammoniacum. Asafcetida is 
also produced by F. Scorodosma, Bentl., and F. alliacea, Bois. \F. Asafostida, Linn., 
cannot be decided upon. It was founded upon Kaempfer's descriptions and frag- 
mentary specimens, neither of which are conclusive.— Bentley). The European 
genus, Pencedanum, contains, beside Athamantha, the following medicinal species : 
Sulphur-wort (P. officinale, Linn.), reputed diuretic and antispasmodic; Marsh 
Parsley (P. pa/ustre, Mcen.), a famous Courland remedy for epilepsy; and Dill 
{P. graveolens, Hiern.), a stimulant and carminative. The European and Asiati 
Coriander {Coriandrum sativum, Linn.), is an aromatic stimulant and carminative; 

the Levantine Cumin [Cuminum Cyminum, Linn.), a stimulant, carminative, and 
discutient. The European genus, Daucus, yields the common Carrot(A tarrota, 
Linn.), whose seeds are diuretic, and root a well known esculent; while the Sici- 
lian D. gummifer, Lam., and Corsican D. Gingidum, Linn., are supposed to yield 
the Bdellium of the old Pharmacopoeias.* Opoponax is a fetid deobstruent, and 

antispasmodic gum-resin, produced by the juice of Pastinaca Opopona. linn. 
The Alpine Lovage (Ligzisticum Icvisticum, Linn), is carminative, stimulant, diuretic 
and emmenagogue. The root of the European htraulia major, Linn., is acrid 

and purgative. The European Eringo (> rynginm campestre, Linn.), is considered 
by Boerhaave, the first of aperient, diuretic roots. It has been also recommended 
in gonorrhoea, hepatic and intestinal obstructions, and suppression of the menses, 
and considered aphrodisiac ; its scope is considered larger than that of the Sea 

Holly mentioned above. The Italian Bracala {Angelica nemorosa, Ten.), furnishes 
the Neapolitans with a remedy for the itch. Samphire, a saline aromatic, is the 
product of Crithum maritimum, Linn. Alexanders are the aromatic fruits of the 
European Smyrnium O/usa/rum, Linn., formerly used instead of celery. 

Asa Dulcis— in contradistinction to Asa Fetida— which enjoyed the hi-lv >t 
reputation among the ancients, as an antispasmodic, emetic, deobstruent, and 
diureticf is yielded by Thapsia garganica, Linn., or the nearly allied T. sylpkium : 
the resin of the root is said to be fully as active and thorough a vesicant as croton 
oil; it deserves a careful proving. Numerous other species have held a place in 
medicine, and deserve mention, but the above list covers their action. 

Beside the edible species already mentioned, carrots, parsnips, celery, and 

chervil, many other plants of this order are eaten. Prangos fabufaria, Lindl., is 

suggested by Royle to be the ±v?.<piov of the Greeks, mentioned by Alexander's 



* India Bdellium is re 
f This was the Laser 



rseraccae 
ical mm 



it had miraculous powers a igncd to it such ^ neutralizing the effects of , n, curing cnvcnomcu wu... .«.....* 
sight to the blind, and youth to the aged. So great * its reputation that the prince* of Cyrene .t to he struck 

the reverse of their coins; and the Cyrenian doctors were reckoned among the U t eminent in the world. Its value Wl 
estimated by its weight in gold. — Lindley. 



62-4 

historians as a highly nutritious food for cattle, and even man, of heating and 
fattening qualities. The American Aborigines use several species, prominent 
among which Mr. Dodge* mentions the following: 

"Dill (Peucedanum graveolcns, Wats.), called by the Snakes and Shoshone 
Indians Yampah. — This spindle-shaped root grows in low, timbered bottoms, and 
is esteemed as the best of its kind when used for food. It is analogous to the 
parsnip, and is an article of commerce among the Indians. The seeds are used 

to flavor soup." 

" Podosciadium Calif or ni cum, Gray. — The tubers of this species form one of 

the dainty dishes of the Oregon Indians. They are black, but when boiled like 
potatoes they burst open lengthwise, showing a snowy-white farinaceous substance, 
which has a sweet, cream-like taste, with a slight parsley flavor. It is an excellent 
root, the cultivation of which might prove useful among the whites." 

" Kouse root {Peucedanum ambiguum, Nutt.). — The root of this plant is dug in 
April or May when in bloom. It grows on hills and mountains which are so poor 
that grass will not grow upon them. When fresh it is like the parsnip in taste, and 
as it dies becomes brittle and very white, with an agreeable taste of mild celery. It is 
easily reduced to flour. When its brown epidermis is removed, innumerable small 
dots are revealed. Both the roots and the flour will keep several months. It is some- 
times called bread or biscuit root by travelers, and Kouse root by the Indians of 
Oregon and Idaho. The Canadians know it by the name of Racine blanc. After 
the bread has been made a short time, its taste is not unlike that of stale biscuits. 
When the roots have been pounded fine, the flour is pressed into flat cakes, one 
foot wide, three feet long, and from a quarter to half an inch thick, of an oblong 
rectangular form, with a hole in the middle by which they are fastened on the 
saddles when traveling. The cakes have a ribbed appearance, caused by being 
laid on sticks stretched over the tent fires, for the purpose of smoke-drying or 
baking the bread. When broken up the bread has a coarse, granulated appear- 
ance, especially when not ground very fine, and is very insipid." 

History and Habitat.— Eryngium Yuccaefolium is indigenous to North America, 
where it ranges from New Jersey to Wisconsin and southward. It habits damp or 
dry prairies and pine barrens, and blossoms in July and August. 

This species was valued highly by the Aborigines as an alexiteric, and, com- 
bined with Iris versicolor, as a febrifuge and diuretic ; since their time it has come 
into use by first the laity, then the physician, as a stimulant, diaphoretic, sialo- 
gogue, expectorant, diuretic, and alterative. A decoction of the root has been 
found useful in dropsy, nephritic and calculous disorders; chronic laryngitis and 
bronchitis; irritation of the urethra, vaginal, uterine, and cystic mucous mem- 
branes ; gonorrhoea, gleet, and leucorrhcea ; mucoid diarrhoea ; local inflammations 
of the mucous membranes ; exhaustion from sexual depletion with loss of erectile 
power, seminal emissions, and orchitis. By some physicians it has been preferred 
to Seneka snakeroot for its sphere, and by others it has been considered fully 
equal to Contrayerva. The powdered root is said to make a fine escharotic 

* U. S. Agric. Rep., 1870, pp. 405-7. 



62-5 



pplication to fungoid growths and indolent ulcerations, preventing gangrene, and 



them 



The plant is not officinal in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic Dispensatory the 
preparation recommended is Decoctttm Eryngii. 



USED 



AND PREPARATION. — The fresh root, gathered after the 
fruits are fully ripe, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two 
parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth 
part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, 
pour it into a well-stoppered bottle, and allow it to stand for eight days in a dark, 
cool place. The tincture, separated by decanting, straining, and filtering, has a 
clear reddish-orange color by transmitted light ; an odor much like that of an old 
chest that has been shut up with oil-cloth for some time; a bitterish, acrid, and 



terebinthic taste ; and an acid reaction, 
much like that following Senega. 



deep in the th 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — This root yields its properties to both water 
and alcohol, and probably contains an acrid, volatile oil, a bitter principle, and 
sugar. No analysis has been made of the root; the tincture, however, shows the 
presence of a small amount of resin. 

. PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — According to the experiments of Drs. C. II. 
McClelland, C. H. Coggs wells, and W. G. Jones, Kryngium causes, in doses of 
from 5 to 150 drops of the tincture : Depression of spirits ; vertigo and headache ; 
irritation of the palpebral mucous membrane, followed by purulent discharges; 
inflammation of the eustachian tube, followed by a discharge of fetid pus ; a 
similar condition of the nasal and pharyngeal mucous membranes; nausea and 
burning; in the stomach ; colic ; constipation, with tenesmus ; frequent desire to 



th a decrease in quantity daily passed 



the urethra, severe pain in left testicle, depression of sexual d« ire, followed by 
excitation, lewd dreams, pollutions, and discharges of prostatic fluid; a sensa- 
tion of dyspnoea, and constriction of the throat;* and slight increase in the heart's 
action. 



Description of Plate 62. 



1 and 2. Whole plant, from St. Augustine. Fla., Aug. 2d. 1886. 

3. Flower. 

4. Calyx and Styles. 
5 and 6. IVtals. 

7 and 8. Stamen-. 
9. Fruit. 
-9 enlarged.) 



«* This symptom followed my tasting the tincture for the above dccript n, and became, in half an h- r, so strong 
as to be decidedly uncomfortable. — C F. M- 



63. 





.TR.adnatdel.etpmxt 



PASTINACA SATIVA t Linn. 



N. ORD.-UMBELLIFER^E. 

GENUS.— PASTIN AC A* TOURN 

SEX. SVST.— PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 



63 



PASTINACA. 



PJRSJVIP. 



SYN.— PASTINACA SATIVA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES 

(GBR.) PASTIN AKE 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF PASTINACA SATIVA, LINN. 



Description.— This usually cultivated biennial herb grows to a height of from 

Root conical, long and slender, fleshy and succulent. Stem smooth. 



feet 



deeply and plentifully grooved. Leaves pinnately compounded of 3 to 8 pairs of 
shining leaflets; leaflets ovate or oblong, obtuse cut-toothed 



Umbels 



^rminal 3-lobed, all somewhat pubescent beneath ; petioles sheathed, 
and flat; involucre and involucels small or absent; flowers ^\\ perfect, none radiant 
Calyx-teeth obsolete. Petals yellow, roundish, entire, involute ; point broad and 
retuse Fruit oval, flat, with a thin, single-winged margin ; carpels minutely 
S-ribbed, 3 of which are dorsal and equidistant, 2 lateral and at or near the mar- 
long as the carpel, 1 in each sulcus, 2 in the commissure ; albumen 



gin 
flat 



History and Habitat.-The Parsnip is a well-known culinary root introduced 



from Europe. It nas now run wild in fields and waysides .... 
n A .ocfprn narts of the United States, where it flowers from J 



Octob 



The root is succulent, nutritious, sweet and in its cultivated state very pleas- 
ant to many, but when wild or in its second year's growth, ,t ,s rank and aend 
posonous, causing emesis and inflammation of the 4"?%™**^* 
flatulent colic and diuresis. The seeds have been used ,n agues, w.th what cura- 

" Ve In 'Z noTof Ireland a hind of beer is made by brewing the roots with hops 
a good wine is also made in some places from them; and by d,sf llauon a sort of 
rum is produced similar to that of the sorghum product. 



PART 



The roots of the second year's growth 



thofeof ^ inZduals, are prepared and macerated as in the previous pla. 



The 



suiting nnctuic 1=. aw*— - 

gummy, has a peculiar honey-like odo 



ng but slightly tinged with yello 



* Pastus, nourishment. 



63-2 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— No analysis has yet been made to determine 
an active principle. Sugar abounds in the root, also starch and a gummy 
extractive. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Several cases of poisoning are recorded from 
the use of the wild or old roots. The symptoms following their ingestion are : 
Illusions of sight, dilated pupils, vertigo, difficult breathing, weak, slow pulse, and 
quiet delirium dependent upon the visions. In Dr. Pupcke's cases, where seven 
children ate of the cooked wild roots* "all labored under 'delirium tremens,' they 
were in constant motion, talked incessantly, without knowing what they said, and 
fancied they saw objects which had no existence ; they fought with each other, 
and occasionally had attacks of convulsive laughter; they rejected everything that 
was offered them, and were obliged to be restrained by force/' 

All the symptoms of the drug point to severe gastric irritation, with reflex 
action upon the brain and spinal cord. 



Description of Plate 63. 



1. Summit of a wild individual in young fruit, Bingbamton, N. Y., June 26th, 1885 

2. Part of stem. 

3. Face of flower. 

4. Petal. 

5. Stamen. 

6. Ripe pistil. 

7. Root. 

8. Seed. 

9. Section of a carpel. 
(3-6 and 8-9 enlarged.) 



* Pkarm. Jour., 1848, 184. 










»- 




TCt.ad nat.del.et pinxt 



ARCHAN6ELICA ATROPURPUREA , Hoffm. 



N. ORD. UMBELLIFER^. 

GENUS.— ARCH ANGELICA,* HOFFM 

SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 



64 






ANGELICA 
ATROPURPUREA 



GREAT ANGELICA. 



SYN.— ARCHANGELICA ATROPURPUREA, HOFP.; ANGELICA ATROPUR- 
PUREA, LINN. ; A. TRIQUINATA, MX. ; IMPERATORIA LUCID A, NUTT. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON ANGELICA,! HIGH ANGELICA, MASTERWORT.t 
(GER.) PURPURFARBIGE ANGELICA. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT ARCH ANGELIC A ATROPURPUREA, HOFF. 



Description. — This strong-scented, perennial herb grows to a height of from 
4 to 6 feet. Root somewhat conical. Stem very stout, smooth, dark-purple, and 
hollow. Leaves 2 to 3 ternately-compound ; leaflets 5 to 7 pinnate, ovate, sharply 
cut-serrate, acute, and pale beneath, the three terminal ones often confluent and 
somewhat decurrent at the base. Inflorescence a globular compound umbel. In- 
volucre little or none ; involucels of very short, subulate leaflets. Calyx with very 
short teeth. Petals ovate, entire, with the sharp tips inflexed. Fruit smooth; 
carpels somewhat compressed, furnished with 3 rather prominent dorsal ribs, and 
the two lateral ones prolonged into marginal wings; vttta not on the pericarp, 
but surrounding the seed and adherent to its surface ; seed convex upon the back 
and flattish upon the face, very loose in the pericarp. Read description of the 

order under 62. 

History and Habitat.— The Great Angelica is indigenous to North America, 
from Pennsylvania and Wisconsin northward, where it habits low grounds along 

streams, and flowers in June. 

When fresh the roots are poisonous, and are said to have been used for 
suicidal purposes by the Canadian Indians; when dried, however, they lose this 
quality, and are then ^considered carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue and stimu- 
lant. The dried root was often used, especially in combination with other and 
better-known diuretics, in anasarca and various diseases of the urinary organs ; 
and alone in flatulent colic and suppressed menstruation. Dr. Schell claims^ that 



* This name alluded to its supposed high angelic properties. 
f The common Garden Angelica is A. archangelica. 



f The common Garden Angelica is a. arcmamgw. 

% The true Masterwort is the European Impcratoria ostruthium, Linn.; the Cow Parsnip, Heracleum lanatum, Linn., 



is often wrongly called by this name. 



Mi 



64-2 

doses of 1 5 to 20 grains of the dried root will cause a disgust for all spirituous 
liquors. The stems were often made into a candied preserve in some sections 
of the country — a practice now nearly extinct. Its uses, all in all, have been 
greatly similar to those of the Garden Angelica {Angelica officinalis, Hoff. ; A. 
archangelica, Linn.). 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole plant, when in seed, is 




chopped and pounded to a pulp, and treated as in the preceding species. The 
tincture, after filtration, has a clear greenish-orange color, a somewhat terebinthic 
odor, a sweetish taste, and neutral reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — This plant has not been specifically examined 
for the determination of its principles. Its oils, however, may be, in all probability, 
compared with those of Angelica archangelica. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Uninvestigated. 



Description of Plate 64. 



1. Whole plant 9 times reduced, Binghamton, N. Y., July 6th, 1885 

2. Portion of upper stalk, showing petiole- 

3. Flower (petals removed). 

4. Pistil. 

5. Horizontal section of fruit. 

(3-5 enlarged.) 























r 










til M wt deist lint 



&THUSA CYNAPIUM , Linn 






N. ORD.-UMBELLiFERiE. 

GENUS— /ETHUSA,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 



65 



iETHUSA. 



FOOL'S PARSLEY. 



SYN.— JETHUSA CYNAPIUM, LINN.; CICUTARIA TBNUIFOLIA, RAIL; C. 
FATTJA, LOB. ; CORIANDRUM CYNAPIUM, CRANTZ. 

COM NAMES.-FOOL'S PARSLEY, DOG'S PARSLEY, DOG POISON, GARDEN 
HEMLOCK, LESSER HEMLOCK, SMALL HEMLOCK; (FR.) LA PETITE 
C!IQT7E- (GER.l KLEINER SCHEILING, HUNDSPETERSILIE. 



A-] 



» 



Description.— This fetid annual herb attains a growth of from 8 inches to 2 
feet. Stem erect, unspotted, striate, and fistulous. Leaves dark green, 2-3-ter 
nately compound, many cleft ; divisions pinnate, wedge-lanceolate, obtuse. ( moel 
terminal and opposite the petioles ; rays very unequal ; involucre none ; tnvolucels 
one-sided, ,-leaved, the leaves erect while the buds are immature, but become long, 

full flower and fruit. Flowers white; calyx teeth 



d pend 



of 




obsolete ; petals obovate, appearing emarginate, or even obcordate by the mil 

the tip. Fruit ovate-globose, not much if at all flattened -■ -" • ' 

ore 2-parted ; mericarps, each with 5 thick, sharply-keeled ndges ; ffflft single 
the deep intervals, and 2 in the commissure at its base. 

History and Habitat.-The Fool's Parsley is indigenous to Europe and Siberia 
from whence it has been introduced into this country where ,t "°w grow^suU 
sparingly, along roadsides and waste places about cultivated grounds, ,n New 
England" and from there to Pennsylvania, flowering in July and Angus 

S On account of the many cases of poisoning by the madvertent :«£**£ 
herb for parsley, from which it is easily distinguishable very Jflfc use has been 
made of it by physicians. By the early writers ,t is so often confounded ,uth 

^ . , . . a-cc u ♦■« tM rp its historv. The hrst author to cnarac 

Con 11m that it is verv difficult to trace its instuiy. 

ionium, tnat it is very terrcstns mmore ; it is also 

terize it was Hermolaus Barbarus, who called it uemm ,. f • 

mentioned by Matthiolus, Jonston, Jungius Mailer, and oth ,ers al 1^^ '* 
_i:_ ^cJL M ,u_ «,*-! Tts action has been generally considered like that ot 



effects 
but m 



and its principal, if 



some forms of 



Lomum, but muaer, anu « *"-£'>. mentioned n the U. S. Ph.. nor is it fou 
obstinate cutaneous disorders. It is not mentions 



in the Eclectic Dispensatory 



* AMm, aithmso, to set on fire; »*'"*"* p^Tnlleous «Lu" «* ^wers, and the leaf-section. « 
t ^thusa has much darker-green foliage than Parsley, 



much more acute. 



65-2 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant, when in flower 



and fruit, is treated as directed under Eryngium (62). The resulting tincti 
a clear, orange-brown color by transmitted light ; a fetid, disagreeable od 
acrid taste : and an acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Cynapin. This alkaloid was discovered by 
Ficinus, who describes it as crystallizing in prisms that are soluble both in alcohol 
and water, but not in ether, and as having an alkaline reaction, and forming a 
crystallizable salt with sulphuric acid.* Walz describes an alkaloid, resulting as 
a volatile oily liquid, in which he is upheld by the experiments of Bernhart,f who 
succeeded in isolating a like substance, which he describes as having a strong 
alkaline reaction, an exceedingly penetrating, offensive odor, and as being soluble 
in alcohol. The body seems, as yet, to have received no further investigation. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The following excerpt, from one of the promi- 
nent botanical journals,^ being of late date, serves to introduce this rubric: 

"'Fool's Parsley' not Poisonous. — For several centuries the plant /Ethusa 
Cynapium, L., has been the object of suspicion, and classed among poisons by 



botanists and toxicolog 



But now Dr. John Harley, of England 



forward and presents a vindication of what he 



d ha 



plant.' In the St. Thomas' Hospital Reports, he relates a number of facts to prove 
the correctness of his conclusions. The juices of the plant, from the root as well 
as from the leaves, were obtained by expression just before flowering, and also 
after the plants had reached maturity and set fruit. Being thus provided with a 
supply of material, representing the active properties of the plant, he exhausted 
it upon four patients, — one a little girl, four years old, who took the extract in quan- 
tities ranging from 2 drachms to 2 ounces; himself, who took it in quantities 
ranging from 2 to 4 fluid ounces ; and two other adults, who were the subjects of 
spasmodic wry-neck. These two took one or other of the juices, in doses ranging 
from 1 to 8 fluid ounces. Effects were anxiously looked for, but absolutely none 
followed in any of the cases. Dr. Harley therefore feels compelled to assert that 
/Ethusa Cynapium of Sussex, Essex, Kent, Surrey, and Hertfordshire, is not only 
absolutely free from the noxious properties attributed to it, but that it is pleasant 
to sight, smell, and taste, and, in the absence of the more fragrant and succulent 
plants, might well be used as a pot-herb or salad. He is satisfied, further, that 
s conclusions are independent both of locality and season, and that the only 
influence which these conditions have on Fool's Parsley, as on hemlock (Conhtm 
maculatum), is to increase or diminish its succulency. Dr. Harley, some years 
ago, made some observations on the last-mentioned plant, and came to the same 
conclusion in regard to its innocuous nature that he has concerning that of the 
y Ethusa. In connection with this, it may be stated that Conium maculatum, in 



h 



rthern latitudes — Russia for exampl 



tak 



impunity, although precau 



d 



first boil it in several waters. This subject of the harmlessness, 
imditions, of plants reputed to be poisonous, recalls to mind the 




* Wittstein. f Arch, de Phar., i8So, rr 7 {Am. Jour. Phar., 18S0, 20 4 ^. % Bull. Torr. Club, 1881, 9- 



65-3 

statement of Linnaeus, in his Flora Lapponica, that the Norlanders prepare from 
the leaves of Aconitum Napellus a broth, which they eat without any injurious 
effects resulting therefrom." 

The following cases of poisoning by the drug, serve, however, to show its 
action upon the system : 

" A boy, six years of age, having eaten some of this herb, by mistake for 
Parsley, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, commenced immediately to cry out in great 
pain, and complained of great cramps in the stomach. Whilst taking him home 
the whole body became excessively swollen, and of a livid hue ; the respiration 
became difficult and short, and he died toward midnight. Another child was 
poisoned in the same manner, but he was fortunate enough to vomit up the herb 
This, however, did not prevent many symptoms manifesting themselves ; he talked 
wildly, and in his delirium he thought he saw numbers of dogs and cats."— (Orfila 

vol. ii, p. 324.) 

"Gmelin has related the case of a child who died in eight hours, in conse- 
quence of having eaten the y^thusa. The symptoms were spasmodic pains in the 
stomach; swelling of the belly ; lividity of the skin; and difficult breathing." 

[Chris., p. 365.) 
" A woman gave two of her children soup, in which some of this was boiled. 

They were both seized with severe pain in the abdomen, and next morning there 



\ 



perfect 



J 



spasmodically fixed ; ab 



tumid; vomiting of a bloody mucus, and constant diarrh< a; cold extremities 
convulsions ; and death in twenty-four hours. Post-mortem appearance: redness 
of the lining-membrane of the oesophagus, and slight vascular congestion of 
stomach and duodenum."— (Medic. Jahrbuch) 

"Another child, who had eaten the bulbs by mistake for young turnips, was 
suddenly seized with pain in the abdomen, followed by nausea, without vomiting; 
could not swallow ; vacuity; inability to answer questions ; lower jaw fixed ; insen- 
sibility and death an hour after the commencement of the symptoms."— {Med. 
Times, August 23, 1845 



a 



A healthy, strong man, about thirty-five years of age, a publ 



handful of Fool's Parsley, with nearly the same quantity of young lettuce, about 
1 o'clock p. m. ; in about ten minutes he was affected with a pain in the stomach 
and bowels, attended with a rumbling. He walked out in the fields, but was 
seized with such languor, weariness, and weakness, that lie supported himself with 
difficulty. He was much troubled with giddiness in the head ; his v,s,on was con- 
fused, and sometimes objects appeared double. At 7 o'clock he got an emetic, 
which brought up, he supposes, all the Fool's Parsley, but none of the 1 ttuce; 
this relieved him of the unpleasant symptoms in the stomach but the other sen- 
sations continued, and he passed a restless night. Next day he had mu h pa 
his head and eves, which last were inflamed and blood 



He h; 1 (lift- 



bed 



SHCJ1U1?S in his face, which were painful and inflamed, but they were 
d flew from place to place. On the Saturday his ey. were highly 



flamed, painful, and entirely closed by the surrounding inlUmmation. He 



65-4 

bled, which crave him much relief in his face and eyes. From this time until the 
Monday, he continued to get better, but had, even then, pain, heat, and inflamma- 
tion of the eyes, with cedematous swelling of the cheeks ; his remaining symptoms 

off gradually." — (Lowe,) 



Riviere relates that a person died after taking this plant. " 1 1 



t> 



black ; a brownish serosity was found in the stomach ; the liver was hard, of a yel 
low color; the spleen livid; but the body was not at all emphysematous." 

The symptoms of poisoning by this drug show, according to Schulze, that it: 
chief action is upon the medulla spinalis. 



On Animals. — Seven ounces of the juice of the leaves were g 



£> 



dog, and the oesophagus tied. Twenty minutes thereafter the dog became sick ; 
in half an hour it did not seem to affect him much, when suddenly he stretched 
out his limbs and lay upon his stomach ; in a few minutes he tried to arouse him- 
self, but his efforts were in vain. The muscles of the limbs, particularly of the 



d their fu 



posterior, refused to obey the will, but the organs of 
tions ; the pupils were scarcely dilated ; the pulsations of the heart were slow and 
strong. This state lasted a quarter of an hour, and then the extremities were 
agitated by convulsive movements ; the animal threw himself from one side to the 
other, his senses began to be enfeebled, and the oesophagus and fauces were 
spasmodically contracted. This state of stupor increased, and the animal died an 
hour after taking the poison. On opening the body the heart was found to be 
contracted, and the left ventricle contained fluid and black blood ; the lungs were 
a little less crepitant than natural. The stomach was found full of the poison, but 
there was no alteration of the digestive canal. 



Description of Plate 65. 



1. End of flowering plant. 

2. Bract of the involucel. 

3. Flower. 

4. Stigmas. 

5. Fruit. 

6. Dorsal view of a mericarp. 

7. Commissural view of same 

8. Section of same. 

(2, 4, and 6 enlarged.) 



* Orfila, vol. ii, 323. 



ft f fe« 




<Sm. 



ad nat.del.et pinxt 



THASPIUM AUREUM Var APTERUM, Gray 



N. ORD.-UMBELLIFERiE. 

G ENUS. -THASPIUM,* NUTT 

SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 



66 







a; 



MEADOW PARSNIPS. 



SYN.— THASPIUM AUREUM, NUTT.; ZIZIA AUREA, KOCH.; SMYRNIUM 

AURBUM, LINN. ; SMYRNIUM LUTBUM, MUHL. ; SMYRNIUM ACU- 
MINATUM, SMITH; SISSON TRIPOLATUM, MICHX.; SISSON AU- 
REUS, SPRENG. 

COM. NAMES.-MEADOW PARSNIP, GOLDEN MEADOW PARSNEP, GOL- 

tatpxt AT.T?YA-NrnTf'T?« POTT-Nr-nWRART: (GER.1 GOLDEN PASTINAKE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT THASPIUM AUREUM, NUTT. 



Description.— This erect, perennial herb attains a height of from i to 3 feet 
Root tap-shaped, 2 to 4 inches long by % to # of an inch in diameter, yellow 
internally. Leaves 1- to 2-ternately parted or divided; lower leaves on lon K 
petioles, sometimes simple or more or less cordate ; upper leaves sessile or nearly 
so; leaflets 1 to 2 inches long, oblong-lanceolate, cut serrate, the bases elongated 
cuneate. Inflorescence axial or terminal compound umbels, on long, naked pedun- 
cles; involucre inconspicuous or absent; pedicels 10 to 20 elongating in fruit; in- 
volucels minute, few-leaved; flowers deep, orange-yellow. Calyx teeth obscure. 
Petals oblong, terminated by an inflexed tip. Fruit oval-oblong, somewhat flat- 
tened or laterally contracted; ridges 10- winged; transverse section orbicular ; villa 
solitary in each sulcus, and 2 in the commissure. Read description of the natural 
order, under Eryngium, 62. 

History and Habitat— The Meadow Parsnip is quite a common indigenous 
plant on the moist banks of streams, and in open, wet woods, where it flowers in 
June and July I find no mention of this plant in medical literature. The genus 
is spoken of by RafinesqueJ as vulnerary, antisyphihtic, and sudorific. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant (the prover 
used only the root) is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two 
parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp rmxed thoroughly with one-sixth 
part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred *- -"- -" 



ppered bottle, and allow it to stand eight days in a dark 



cool place. 



* A play upon the genus Thapsia, named from the Isle of Thapsus. 

f I have retained the name under which the plant was proven. See second synonym. 

% Med. Bot., vol. ii, p. 267. 



66-2 



The tincture, separated from this mass by straining and filtering should 



e 



deep brownish-orange color by transmitted light no distinguishing odor, a slightly 



bitter taste, and strong acid 



thing like the impression left by tincture of 



furry sensation upo 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION 



I'll 



general action of the Umbelliferae, and act specificall) 
^thusa. 



Meadow Parsnip appears to uphold 



a similar manner to 



The symptoms of 



E. E. Marcy 



proving the 



< 



those of a nerve irritant. Tl 



being taken is that by Judge Gray of a \ 



g under the 
)ly report of 



of D 



lady who ate a large 



q 



s 



any farther 



followed immediately, ejecting the root in 



In thi 
ard off 



* 



i. 



Description of Plate 66. f 

\a to \b, upper part of plant, Ithaca, N. Y., June 3d, 1880 

2. Flower (enlarged). 



Mat 



f This Plate has been titled Thaspium aureum, var. a per turn ; but the seed, the only characteristic of var. aperiam, 



having been omitted, it reverts to its proper tkle 



1. e 



Thaspium aureum, Xutt. 



Shortly after taking note of the physical properties of the tincture here recorded,— during which I made many futile 
attempts to detect a characteristic odor and taste, and took probably about io minims,— the tongue felt fuzzy and numb. 
This sensation was followed by a feeling as if the tongue had been scalded with hot tea ; my eyes began to water and 
smart; I ceased writing, and threw myself upon my lounge (12 M.); my face then began to feel suffused with blood and 
soon became hot, especially the cheeks and forehead; drowsiness followed, and I fell into a distressingly dreamy sleep, 
lasting an hour. When I awoke (1.30 P. IL) all symptoms had passed away except the scalded sensation of the tongue, 
which lasted fully an hour longer. 




























film 



adnatdel.gfpinxf 



ClCUTA MACULATA , Linn 



N. ORD -UMBELLIFER^E. 

GENUS.— CICUTA,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 



67 



CICUTA MACULATA. 



WATER HEMLOCK. 



SYN.— CICUTA MACULATA, LINN. ; CICUTA RI A MACULATA, LAM. ; SIUM 
DOUGLASII, (?) D. C. 

COM. NAMES— AMERICAN WATER HEMLOCK, SNAKEWEED, BEAVER 
POISON, MUSQUASH ROOT, SPOTTED COWBANE, DEATH OP MAN, 
CHILDREN'S BANE; (FR.) CIQUE DAMERIQUE; (GER.) AMERIKA- 
NISCHER WASSERSCHIERLING. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOTS OF CICUTA MACULATA, LINN 



Description. — This poisonous marsh perennial attains a growth of from 3 to 
6 feet. Root a fascicle of several oblong, thick and fleshy tubers. Stem stout and 
smooth, fistulate, streaked with purple (not maculate), or when growing in open 
places deep purple, and in shady situations wholly green. Leaves bi-ternately 
compound, the lower on long petioles; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, pointed, and 

• martins mucronately coarse-serrate, the veins ending in the 



metimes lobed 



tches. Inflorescence in long peduncled, axillary umbels; involucre few leaved 



involucels 5 to 6 leaved ; leaflets linear ; flowers white. Caly 



5-toothed; teeth acute. Petals obcordate, with an inflexed, pointed tip. Fruit 
aromatic, almost globular, geminate, and a little contracted at the sides. Carpels 
with 5 strong, flattish ribs, the lateral ones marginal ; vitta large, single in the 
intervals, double in the commissure ; seeds terete. Read description of the order 
under Eryngium, 62. 

History and Habitat— The Water Hemlock is indigenous to the United 
States from Florida and Mississippi northward, where it grows in wet places, and 

flowers in June and July. 

Cicuta had until the publication of Dr. Bigelow's work.f been considered 



more as a poison than a drug, a few practitioners only using very small d 
as a substitute for conium, and some of the laity, little knowing its toxic prope 

Ran 



ties, as a gargle in sore throat 



roots w re eaten by 



ch Indians as were tired of life and desired a speedy demise. Later the po 
dered leaves were employed to a limited extent to alleviate the pain of scirrh 
cancers. Cicuta plays no part in any system of medicine except the homoeopath 



The ancient Latin name, in reference to the hollow stems of this genus, the name Cicuta designating the holl,.v 



joints of reeds from which pipes were made. 



Med. 



67-2 



The specific name macula la is badly chosen, as the stems, as far as I have 
observed, are never spotted, nor do I find any record of such a marking having 
been noticed; Dr. Bigelow modestly offers the name fasc/cu/a/a, which is true of 
the roots, and should be adopted, being much less like that of conium. Great 
similarity is said to exist between this species and the European C. virosa. Not 
having had an opportunity to examine the latter. 1 am at present unable to differ- 
entiate between them. According to descriptions, C virosa has not a fasciculate 
root, and its umbels are larger in every way and much denser. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh roots, chopped and pounded 
to a pulp, are treated as in the preceding drug. The resulting tincture has a clear 
yellowish-amber color by transmitted light, the peculiar odor of the fresh root, a 
sweetish taste, and an acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL 



Dr. Bieelow's examination of the root is t 
pt so far made toward an analysis ; he procured a volatile oil and 



yellow, inflammable resin. Mr. J. E. Young succeeded in obtaining a volatile alka- 
loid from the fruits, which he regarded as identical with coma. A glance, however, 
at the chemistry of C. virosa will not be out of place here : 

Cicutina.— This volatile alkaloid found in all parts of the plant by Wittstein, 
Polex, and others, remains as yet very imperfectly investigated ; it is simply men- 
tioned by Wittstein as having been obtained in an aqueous solution. 

Oil of Cumin. — This compound of several hydrocarbons, first obtained from 
the fruit of Cuminum cymitmm, Linn., is proven by Trapp to be identical with the 
oil of this species. Two of the hydrocarbons are identified as follows : Gotten, 
C 1( H lfi (Van Ankum), boils at i66 c (330.8 F.), is dextrogyrate, sp. gr. at 18" 



(64.4 F.), 0.87038, and is soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform ; Cymol, 
C 10 H 14 , a colorless oil of great refractory power and the odor of lemons, having a 



p. gr. at j 5 (59 F.) of 0.86, and a boiling point at 172 (341-6° F 

Cicutoxin.— This amorphous, resinous body, in all probability identical with 
that found by Bigelow in the root-juice of C. maculaia, was isolated and named by 
Trojanowski. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Many cases of poisoning from the root of 1 11s 
species have been reported, all showing, by the symptoms, that cicuta pro 
great hyperaemia of the brain and spinal cord. 

The following case, reported by letter to Dr. Bigelow by Dr. R. Haze 1 

all the symptoms noted by observers in other cases : A oy 



c 



(18 



:n of certain tuberous roots, gathered in a recently-ploughed field, suppo 
them to be artichokes, but which were identified as the roots of Cicuta macu • 
His first symptom was a pain in the bowels urging him to an ineffectual 
at stool, after which he vomited about a teacupful of what appeared t0 ^___ 



* Bigelow, Am. Med. Bot., vol. iii., iSi. 



67-3 

recently-masticated root, and immediately fell back into convulsions which lasted 
off and on continuously until his death. The doctor found him in a profuse sweat 
and "convulsive agitations, consisting of tremors, violent contractions and distor- 
tions, with alternate and imperfect relaxations of the whole muscular system, 
astonishing mobility of the eyeballs and eyelids, with widely-dilated pupils, stridor 
dentium, trismus, frothing at the mouth and nose, mixed with blood, and occasion- 
ally violent and genuine epilepsy." The convulsive agitations were so powerful 
and incessant, that the doctor " could not examine the pulse with sufficient con- 
stancy to ascertain its character/' At the post-mort m no inflammation was 

observed, the stomach was fully distended with flatus, and contained "about 
three gills of a muciform and greenish fluid, such as had flowed from the mouth ; 
this mass assumed a dark green color on standing/' 



Description of Plate 67. 



K. Part of flowering branrh, Binghamton, N. Y, 9 July ad, J 885 

2. Leaf. 

3. Flower, showing cal \. 

4. Face of flower. 

5. Petal. 

6. Pistil and « alyx. 

7. Stamens. 

(3-7 enlarged) 





ft- 




^m. 



ad naf.del.et pinxt. 



COMUM MACULATUM, Linn 



N. ORD -UM'BELLIFERiE. 

G KNUS.— C ONIUM,* LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 



68 



CONIUM. 



POISON HEMLOCK. 



SYN.— CONIUM MACULATUM, LINN. ; C. MAJOK, BAUH.; CORLANDRUM 

CICUTA, CRANTZ.; C. MACULATUM. ROTH.; CICUTA MACULATA, 
LAM. (not Linn.); C. VULGARIS MAJOR, PARK.; CICUTARIA VULGA- 
RIS, CLUS. 

COM. NAMES.— WILD OR POISON HEMLOCK, STINK-WEED,t SPOTTED 

POISON PARSLEY, HERB-BENNET; (PR.) GRAND CIQUE, CIQUE OR- 
DINAIRE ; (GER.) SCHIERLING. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH PLANT, EXCLUDING THE ROOT, OF CONIUM 

MACULATUM, L. 



Description. — This large, unsavory, biennial herb, grows to a height varying 
from 2 to 6 feet. Root fusiform, sometimes forked. Stem erect, hollow, smooth, 
and striate, stout below, corymbosely branching above, the whole dotted and 
splashed with crimson beneath the white, pulverent, easily detached coating that 
pervades the whole plant except the leaves and flowers. Leaves generally large, 
decompound, somewhat deltoid in outline; common petioles with broad striate 
sheathing bases ; segments lanceolate pinnatifid ; lobes bright green, acute and 
regularly serrate. Inflorescence terminal, flat-topped, compound umbels ; involucre 
about 3-leaved ; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, deflexed ; involucels about 5-leaved, 
shorter than the umbellets, and situated to the outside of them ; leaves lanceolate ; 
rays numerous, straight ; flowers small, white. Petals obtuse or somewhat obcor- 
date, the apices incurved. Calyx teeth obsolete, the limb forming a thickened 
crowning ring in fruit. Stamens but slightly longer than the petals ; anthers white. 
Fruit orate, turgid, laterally flattened, the crown retaining the divergent styles, 
each of which, together with its dilated base, greatly resembles the depicted head- 
gear of the medieval court jester. Carpels with 5 prominent, nearly equal, papil- 
lose ribs, the lateral ones marginal ; vitta none ; seed with its inner face marked 
by a deep and narrow longitudinal sulcus. 

History and Habitat.— Conium is indigenous to Europe and Asia. It, how- 
ever has become thoroughly naturalized in this country, where it grows in waste 
places, usually by river-sides. It blossoms during July and August. 



* **,«.„ koneion; from «**, tones, a top, judged by Hooker to be so named on account of tbe whirling vertigo 

caused by the poison. 

f A name more commonly applied to Datura Stramonium. 



68-2 



The history of this fetid, poisonous plant, dates back to about the fifth cen- 
iry before Christ. From the careful obsen itions of many pharmacographists 
nd historians, there seems little doubt that the Grecian State potion used at 



Athens as a mode of execution of thos condemned to death by the tribunal of 




Areopagus, was principally, if not wholly, composed of the fresh juice of the leaves 

and green seeds of this plant. It is the x&vetov which destroyed Thermanes, one of 
the thirty, Phocion, and Socrates, whose disciple he had been. Plato, in describing 
the potion, does not give it a specific name, nor mention its source, but terms the 
potion <papuaxor, which means any strong drug, and not necessarily a poisonous 
one. In the writings of Eratosthenes also, it appears that the words xiveiv xaveiov 



mean to drink poison, and tcaveiov ftertttoora, having drunk poison, ^lian states 
that Cean old men, who, when they had become useless to the State, and tired of 
the infirmities of life, invited each other to a banquet, after which they drank 
xcdi'Eiov and died together. Although none of these accounts give the derivation of 
the potion, and notwithstanding the fact that Dioscorides' description of the plant 
is too general to distinguish the umbelliferous species he refers to, yet there are 
important reasons why we should feel perfectly satisfied that the Grecian xuvetov 
was the Conium of our materia medica : first, Sibthorp says * that Conium grows 
plentifully between Athens and Magara, and that no other plant of near so violent 
qualities grows in Greece; secondly, Cicuta virosa — supposed, by those who doubt 
Conium being the origin of the potion, to be the xcjveiov — does not grow in Greece. 
The cicuta of later writers, is a Latin name, applied by the Romans to any and 
all poisonous umbelliferse, and even to other widely separate toxic plants ; this 
term was unknown to the Greeks ; thirdly, Dr. J. H. Bennett's case of poisoning 
by Conium gave symptoms almost identical with those given in the description of 
the death of Socrates ; fourthly, later provings of Conium on man and animals, 
all point to it as being answerable to the symptoms mentioned. Cicuta causes 
convulsions even to opisthotonos, and sudden stiffness and immobility of the limbs ; 
while Conium causes creeping muscular paralysis, with mayhap slight trembling, 
but no spasm ; lastly, the words of the man who prepared the potion : " We only 
bruise as much as is barely sufficient for the purpose," would seem to. indicate a 
simple ; a man who spoke so clearly and definitely would hardly have used the 
word " bruise " had opium been added to the preparation, as some of the upholders 
of Cicuta claim, in trying to explain why spasms did not occur in this case. 

The first use of Conium in medicine is that of Dioscorides, who used it as a 
collyrium mixed with wine, and as a cataplasm in herpes and erysipelas. PUny 
states f that the leaves keep down all tumors; and Anaxilaus claims that 
anointing the mammse they ceased to grow. AvicennaJ praised it as an agen 
for the cure of tumors of the breasts. It remained, however, for Baron Storck 




t 



ntroduce Conium into more general use; he found it effectual 



<r 



scirrhus, ulcers, cancer, and many other chronic forms of disease. Bayle § collected 
from various sources 46 cases of cancerous disease cured, and 26 ameliorated y 
the use of this drug. Conium has been recommended in jaundice, tic-douloureux, 




* Prod. Flor. Gr., i, 187. f Nat. JJist., b. xxvi, c. 16. ♦ Lib. ii, 662. \ Bib. Therap., &, 618 



68-3 

syphilitic affections, enlargement of glands, especially those of a scrofulous nature, 
as a sedative in mania, chorea, epilepsy, laryngismus stridulus, pertussis, and various 

forms of nervous diseases. 

Like all other drugs used by the dominant school of medicine then and now. 
many physicians failed to get any effect whatsoever from this drug in the diseases 
specified by Storck and others ; so frequent were the failures that most careful 
and protracted experiments in gathering, curing, preserving, and preparing the 
drug were resorted to, analyses were made, essays written, and finally serious 
doubts expressed as to Baron Storck's cases;* without once a thought that it 
might be adaptability to his cases, and not pi 



drug 



known to us as homoeopathists that Baron Storck had 



peculiar notion " as to the adaptability of drugs to diseased conditions, a W 
y like the law that guides us to-day.f I can personally testily t the u 
: well-marked case of mammary scirrhus, by Conium. The- case is as loll 



of 



Mrs B complained to me of having experienced, for some months p; har| 

stitching pains in the left mamma, extending thence in all directions, but especialh 

through to the shoulder-blade, and upward and outward into the axilla; th 




tches would awaken her at night, causing her sleep to be interfered with sen- 

On examining the breast I found the nipple retracted and surrounded by 

lodular lump, just movable, and about the area of a silver dollar. Her 

mother died of "a cancer of the breast" several y, irs before, 1 pr cribed 

Conium in a potency, one dose per d 



hard 



W 



d away, four months after, the " turn..." wa> much sofl r 

:'mppleless r cu PP ed. The remedy was then stopped, and upon e imimng 

day (nearly four years after the first dose). I find no vestige of the grc 
atever, the mamma appearing entirely normal. 

Concerning the root of this virulent plant, Lepage J corroborat- 



th 



Torfila, that the amount of alkaloid therein is very small this account , for 
1 wniU1 ' - -- - • rate halt an ounc< , and 



the following experiences : Ray relates . 

Mr Healv four ounces without experiencing any remarkable effect 



C 



"Mr. Al 



ed this (eating the roots) in every season 



, he v «r and n m J P ts of our island, without feeling any ma, rial differe. 



f 



* Woodville says (M*d. *«., i. l«>. ( ^ f ^ I)n , Mci ,„. uilh wh on, he lived ha 

or confined to the neighborhood in which ne . ^ _ _ The general ineflkicne I n- 

of intimacy and friendship. [ Ab,U * i,n Pf^^ u first to suppo that this plan., in ll. ™ '• 

lock experienced in this country, »ndu l-h>- ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ , ^ , . „.. cparcl by 



lock experienced in this couuuy, ' ' s|a1 , t0 , „ .,orck he 

Berlin, differed widely from ou.s, and th « be n - ^ ^ 



|« 



F, to London, nut m. S P™ ~ i~ _ , ha , ,, J J, r. fh * \**m 

t He a , Baron Storck's use of - ***£ ^ f ^ y/ ^, 

\ Phil. Trans., xix, 634. « 



& 



• 



68-4 

stalks, many there be who do eat it, both green ;ind also boiled or stewed between 
two platters." Notwithstanding all this, many children have been poisoned from 

the roots. 
Conium is officinal in the U. S. Ph., as Abstraction Cam*; Extraction Conii 

Alcoholicum ; Extract** Conii Fluidum, and Ti tu a Conii. In the Eclectic 
Materia Medica the preparations are : Extraction Conii Alcoholicum ; Un 
Conii and Emplastrum Belladonna Composition 

PART USED AND PREPARATION— The entire fresh plant, with the excep- 
tion of the root, should be gathered while the fruits are yet green, and prepared 
as in the preceding drug. The resulting tincture should have a clear madder 
color by transmitted light, and give an odor somewhat similar to that of the 
bruised leaves, a taste at first sweetish, then similar to the odor, and an acid 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Conia,\ C,H,,N. This volatile alkaloid was 



discovered by Giseke in the leaves and fruit of this plant; Geiger, however, was 
first to purify it. Conia is a limpid, colorless, oily liquid, having the specific 
gravity of .89, and boiling at i63.°5 (;?28. 3 F.). It possesses a nauseous and 
sharp taste, and a disagreeable odor. It is soluble in cold water, in which solution 
it becomes turbid on the application of heat. 

Methylconine, CH..NCH,. This alkaloid is also sometimes present in 



conium. It bears great resemblance to conia. 

Conydrine.t CH 17 ON. A crystalline alkaloid melting at I20.°6 (249 F 



and boiling at 225 (437 F.). 

Paraconine, CH..N. This fourth alkaloid, isomeric with conia, differs from 



it only in being atertiary base devoid of rotary power. Paraconine is liquid, and 
boils at i6o°-i70° (320°-338° F.). {Ut supra, Schorlemmer 



Oil of Conium, C 8 H 16 N 2 0. A pale, yellow oil extracted from the seeds. This 
oil is also formed when nitrogen trioxide is passed into conia and the resulting 
liquid decomposed by water. 

Conic Acid.— This body, yet uninvestigated, exists in all parts of the plant 
and holds in solution the alkaloids present. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— No more fitting introduction to the action of this 
virulent spinal irritant cofild be written than the description, in Plato s "rnse , 
of the death of Socrates: "And Crito, hearing this, gave the sign to the boy wo 
stood near ; and the boy departing, after some time returned, bringing wit 
the man who was to administer the poison, who brought it ready bruised in r 
And Socrates, beholding the man, said : « Good friend, come hither ; you are exp-- 




.^nced in these affairs— what is to be done ?' ' Nothing,' replied the man 
when you have drank the poison you are to walk about until a heavine 

* Rosin, Belladonna, Conium, and Iodine. f Conine, Conicina, Conein, Conun, onicin. 

% Conydrina, Conhydria, Conhydrin. 






1 



68-5 



place in your legs ; then lie down — this is all you have to do.' At the same time 
he presented the cup. Socrates received it from him with great calmness, without 
fear or change of countenance, and regarding the man with his usual stern aspect 
he asked : ' What say you of this potion ? Is it lawful to sprinkle any portion of 
it on the earth, as a libation, or not?' ' We only bruise,' said the man, ' as much as 
is barely sufficient for the purpose.' ' I understand you,' said Socrates; 'but it is 
certainly lawful and proper to pray the gods that my departure from hence may be 
prosperous and happy, which I indeed beseech them to grant.' So saying, he 
carried the cup to his mouth, and drank it with great promptness and facility. 

"Thus far most of us had been able to refrain from weeping. But when we 
saw that he was drinking, and actually had drank the poison, we could no longer 
restrain our tears. And from me they broke forth with such violence that I cov- 



ered my face and deplored 



weep for bis fate so much 



for the loss of a friend and benefactor, which I was about to sustain. But C 



nable to restrain his tears, now broke forth 



fee ted 



all who were present, except Socrates. But he observing us, exclaim' 1, ' What is 

it you do, my excellent friends? I have sent away the women that they might not 
betray such weakness. I have heard that it is our duty to die cheerfully, and with 
expressions of joy and praise. Be silent, therefore, and let your fortitude be seen 
At this address we blushed, and suppressed our tears. But Social >, alter walking 
about, now told us that his legs were beginning to -row heavy, and immediateh 
lay down, for so he had been ordered. At the same time the man who had iven 
him the poison examined his feet and legs, touching them at intervals. \i ! ngth 
he pressed violently upon his foot, and asked if he felt it. To which Socrates 
replied that he did not. The man then pressed his legs and so on, showing us 
that he was becoming cold and stiff. And Socrates, feeling it himself, assured us 
that when the effects had ascended to his heart, he should be gon< . And now the 
middle of his body growing cold, he threw aside his cloth- , and spoke for the 
last time ■ < Crito we owe the sacrifice of a cock to jEsculapius. 1 hscharge tins, 

^* ;* ™t' <Tt shall be done,' said Crito; 'have you anything else to 



d neg 



say 



?' He made no reply, but a moment after mov< I, and his eyes became fixed. 
And Crito, seeing this, closed his eyelids and mouth." 

Another case very similar to this was met with by Dr. J. II. Bennett.* A man 
ate a large quantity of Hemlock plant by mistake for parsley ; soon a .erwards 
there was a loss of power in the lower extremities, but he apparently suffered no 
pain. In walking he staggered as if he was drunk ; at length h.shmbs refused to 
support him, and g he fell. On being raised, his legs dragged after h„n or when 

his arms were lifted they fell like inert masses, and renamed immovable there 
was perfect paralysis of the upper and lower est, mines w.th.n two hours after he 

had Taken the poison. There was a loss of power of d,glut,u„n and a part* 
aralysis of sensation, but no convulsions, only alight occasional motions of the left 

e, thTpupils were fixed. Three hours after eating the hemlock the resp.ratory 

movemem had ceased. Death took place i. Are, and one-.p.arter hours. It 









* Med. and Surg. Jour. Edin., 1845. « r >9- 



£> 



68-6 

was evidently caused by gradual asphyxia from paralysis of the muscles of respi- 
ration, but the intellect was perfectly clear until shortly before death. 

The sequence of symptoms would seem to show in all of the many cases of 
poisoning by this plant that the drug acts primarily upon the spinal cord, causii 
a paralysis first of the anterior then posterior branches, and that from below 
upward until the medulla is reached. 

On Animals. — Linnaeus states that sheep will eat of the leaves, but horses 
and goats refuse them. Ray says that the thrush will feed upon the seeds, even 
when grain is plenty. Orfila* found that the powder and extract were generally 
harmless when given to animals, but that the juice or leaves of the fresh plant 
produced the most violent symptoms and death. Moiroudf gave a decoction of 
four ounces of the dried plant to a horse which had eaten three and a half pounds 
of the plant without effect. It caused dejection, stupor, dilation of the pupils, 
trembling, spasmodic trembling of muscles, grinding of teeth and copious sweats. 
It would seem, from experiments upon animals, that Conium is more poisonous 
to carnivora than to graminivora. 



Post-mortem. — In Dr. Bennett's case, there was slight serous effusion beneath 
the arachnoid membrane. The substance of the brain was soft on section ; there 
were numerous bloody points, but the organ was otherwise healthy. The lungs 
were engorged with dark-red fluid blood ; the heart was soft and flabby. The 
mucous coat of the stomach, that contained a green, pultaceous mass of the herb, 
was much congested, especially at the cardiac extremity ; here there were numer- 
ous extravasations of dark blood below the epithelium, over a space about the 
size of the hand. The intestines presented patches of congestion on the mucous 
coat. The blood throughout the body was fluid and of a dark color. 



Description of Plate 68. 



i. Top of a flowering branch divested of three of its umbels, Binghamton, N. Y., June 29th, 1884 

2. Stalk at the root. 

3. Flower. 

4 and 5. Stamens. 

6. Young fruit. 

7. Section of ovary. 

8. Pollen, x 250. 

(3-6 enlarged.) 



* Tox. Gen., ii, 309. 



f Pharm. Vet., 359 



69 




^.m.jdnatdel.etpmxt 



ARALIA RACEMOSA Linn. 



N. ORD.-ARALIACE^E. 

GENUS.— A RA LI A,* TOURN. 

SEX. SYST. -PENTANDRIA PENTAGYNIA. 



69 



ARALIA RACEMOSA. 



SPIKENARD. 



SYN.— ARALIA RACEMOSA, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.-SPIKENARD, AMERICAN SPIKENARD, PETTYMORREL, 

LIPE-OF-MAN, PIGEON- WEED; (FR.) NARD DAMERIQUE; (GER.) 
AMERIKANISCHER ARALIE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF ARALIA RACEMOSA, LINN. 



Description. — This aromatic perennial attains a growth of from 2 to 5 feet.-}* 
Root large, thick, spicy-aromatic; bark thick, whitish internally. Stem ligneously 
herbaceous, smooth, bifurcating, much branched, and devoid of prickles. Leaves 
very large, odd-pinnately compound; leaflets ovate-cordate, doubly-serrate, 
acuminate, slightly downy ; stipules wanting, or represented by a serrate stipular 
membrane at the bifurcation of the branches and sometimes at the bases of the 
petioles. Inflorescence numerous axillary, compound, racemose panicles, or thyrsi. 
Flowers monceciously polygamous or perfect. Calyx coherent with the ovary ; 
teeth 5, short, projecting upward between the petals. Petals 5, epigynous, obovate 
acute, reflexed-spreading, caducous. Stamens 5, epigynous, situated opposite the 
calyx teeth ; filaments slender; anthers 2-celled, opening longitudinally. Ovary 
globular, 5-celled, somewhat 10-ridged ; ovules anatropous, suspended, 1 in each 
cell ; styles 5, closely clustered, sometimes united at the base, or in the sterile 
flowers entirely united ; stigmas capitellate, or simply a stigmatic surface to the 
apex of each style. Fruit globular, aromatic, baccate drupes, retaining the per- 



d 



bry 



Araliaceee. — Many characters of this natural order are identical with the 
preceding (Umbelliferae), its distinguishing points are: Herbs, shrubs, or trees. 
Leaves sometimes simple but mostly compound or decompound. Inflorescence 



icled or racemose umbels ; fit 
vx : limb very short or wan tin 



Petals 5, not in flexed. Stamens 5. F) 



berry or drupe with usually more than two cells ; carpel 
generally sarcous. 



alb 



This family affords, beside the two species represented here, the following 



ed in medicine and the arts: The common Ivy {Hedcra J lix) 



time held in great repute as 



of d 



to the 



* Derivation unknosvn. 



f J. F. James mentions a plant 7 to 8 feet high, with leaves 3 feet long, and fruit 15 to 18 inches, in Rot. Gaz., 



1882, p. 122. 



69-2 

effects of "heady 



its blackish 



m m y 



ed as a constituent of 



Lam 



ishes (Griffith) ; the Amboyian Hedera umbellifera (Aralia umbellift 



yields a powerfully aromatic camph 



resin 



d th 



■ebintJiacea one resembling turpent 



Th 



Am 



Cey 



H. 



aromatic tonics Fal 



Sarsaparilla {Aralia nudicaulis) and the Angelica tree (Atspinosa) have just been 
dismissed from the Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Among the edible plants 
of this family are the Chinese Diamorphantus edulis, Gunnera scabra, and G. macro- 
cephala. The useful species of Panax are noted under the next drug. 



Spikenard is indigenous to Canada, and the United 



History and Habitat.— 
States southward to the mountains of South Carolina and westward to the Rockies. 

rocky but rich banks of well shaded streams, and flowers 



It 



grows 



along the 



in July. 

Concerning the previous use of this species, which was not so extensive as 
that of A. spinosa, nudicaulis, and hispida, Rafinesque says :* " A. racemosa is used 
by the Indians as carminative, pectoral and antiseptic, in coughs, pains in the breast 
(chest), and mortification ; the root with horse-radish is made in poultice for the feet 
in general dropsy. The juice of the berries and oil of the seeds is said to cure ear- 
ache and deafness, poured in the ears." Culpepper says rf "It is good to provoke 
urine, and cureth the pains of the stone in the reins and kidneys." In domestic 
practice it has been made into a composite syrup with the root of Inula helenium, 
and used as a remedy in chronic coughs, asthma, and rheumatism ; a tincture of 
the root and fruit has also been used as a stomachic. 

No preparation of this plant is now officinal in the U. S. Ph. or Eclectic 
Materia Medica. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root, the part used is larg< 
and thick, the bark is about T 3 g inch in thickness, white internally and shows 01 
section, many yellow resin cells, it readily peels off the ligneous layer surround 



ing the main bulk of the root. The central porti 
with scattered bundles of woody fibre and surrou 
inch thick. 

The 



is 



mewhat dense, dotted 



ded by a lig 



sheath 



tincture is prepared by chopping and pound 



th 



: root to a pu 
and filtering. 

ghtly brownish-orange liquid by transmitted light, having the 



macerating it for eight days in two parts by weight of 



It 



acid 



somewhat terebinthic odor of the root, a bitter astringent 



d 



CHEMICAL CONST 
far as I can determine 



The 



No analysis of this plant has been published 



of A. spinosa, by H olden, % Elki 



and 



Lilly,|| will give us some idea of the probable nature of the phytochemistry of this 



species 



Med. 



Herbal. 



% Am. your. Phar., 1880, p. 390. 
|| Period, cit,, 1882, p. 433. 



\ Idem, p. 4° 2 - 



69-3 

Araliin. — This sa/>omn-\\ke glucoside was discovered by H olden and puri- 
fied by Lilly. It results as a slightly acrid, inodorous, whitish powder; soluble in 
water, insoluble in cold, strong alcohol, ether, and chloroform. Its watery solution 
yields a dense, persistent froth on agitation. It precipitates whiter from its 
solution in boiling alcohol when cold. Boiled with very dilute hydrochloric acid, 
it breaks down into glucose and Araliretin (Holden), a white, insoluble, tastele S 
and odorless, amorphous product. 

Alkaloid. — Elkin announced an alkaloid principle separable as a yellowish, 
amorphous, semi-transparent, bitter mass, soluble in water and ether, and answer- 
ing to Mayer's test. Lilly failed to procure this precipitable body, but isolated 
a " bitter principle" having all its characteristics except that it was crystalline 

Oil of Aralia (Elkins, Lilly).— An aromatic, somewhatc amphoraccous, and 



body, having the characteristic odor of the root. 

An acrid resin, soluble in alcohol and ether, insoluble i 
glucose ;fj pictin ;-ft gum ;f fat ;* and starch.fj wen- also deft 






i 



PHYSIOLOGICAL 



he only account of th action of this d 



that we have, is a proving by 1 >r. Sam'l A. Jones, .„ \-m Arbor, * m *hom a dose 

of 10 drops of the tincture caused a severe asthmatic fit, characterised 1 In 

wheezing respiration; obstructed inspiration; a sense of impending suffo a 

down during the attack; profuse night sweat during q» 



d inability 



nau^i prostration; and difficult expulsion of smalt wfl s.«..l :.., on, ,„, ■ 1, 

the abdominal sense of oncoming diarrhoea. I have had the plewure o, ,n 
drop doses of the dncture prompdy relieve a shn.lar ca , m my , m . teOce, n 

a half hour, and exert a beneficial effect in wardmt; off recumng a.iai U 



>Ks< kii'iioN 01 Plati 69. 

,. Portion of a fruiting stem, binghamton, N. Y., O .2. .882 

2. A leaf, half natural si/e. 

i. A flower. , 

4. Bird's-eye view of flower after removal of the anthers. 

5. Styles. 

6. Stamen. 

7. Pollen x 300. 

8. Section of the root. 

(3-6 enlarged.) 




* Holden, he. cit. 



f Elkins, loc. at. % I,li y« '*■ * 




". 




Id. ad nat.del.el pinxt. 



ARALIA QUINQUEFOLIA, Gray. 



N. ORD.-ARALIACEiE. 

GENUS.— ARALIA. 

SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 



70 



GINSENG. 



JIM- CHEN, 



SYN.— ARALIA QUINQUBFOLIA, GRAY; A. CANADENSIS, TOURN.; PA- 
NAX QUINQUEPOLIUM, LINN. ; P. AMERICANUM ' * "~" T 



CHINENSIBUS, JARTOUX. 



QUINQUE FOLIUM, WOOD 



COM. NAMES.-GINSENG, TARTAR-ROOT, FIVE-FINGER, RED BERRY, 



MAN 
ZEL. 



AMERIQUE; (GER.) KRAFTWUR 



A TINCTURE 



QUINQU 



Description.— This herbaceous perennial grows to a height of about i foot. 
Root large, sometimes forked, but generally consisting of a fleshy, somewhat fusi- 
form body, from the larger end of which is given off an irregular, cylindrical, knotty 
portion, narrower at its abrupt juncture with the main root, and showing th 
of previous stem-growths. Both parts 



dioeciously-p 



kled, closely above 
an/Trarcely" bd<£.~ 'stem simple^ erect; leaves 3, palmately 5 -divided ; leaflets 
obovate, thin, serrate, and pointed, in two sets, 3 large and 2 small, all long 
petioled Inflorescence a single terminal, naked, peduncled umbel; flowers few, 

Calvx-limb very short, obscurely 5-toothed ; teeth trian- 

gular acute. Petals 5, spreading, ovate-oblong. Styles 2 to 3. erect or spreading. 
Stamens 5. Fru.t a cluster of bright-red, 2-celled, more or less remform, fleshy 
berries, each retaining its calyx-limb and styles ; endocarp thin 

This portion of the genus Aralia is the genus Panax" of L.nnteus. It has 
many characters, which have given rise to opportunities for fornung disnnct g enera 
from its species, though its close resemblance to the Arahas serves to hold ,t there. 

History and Habitat.-The American Ginseng grows in the rich, cool woods 
of central and northern North America, where it flowers > in July. 

There is great similarity in the American and Chmese individuals of this 
soecies but the place of growth or mode of drying seems to more or less affect 

species, duc 1.11c pi'- 5 .,..<■ .1 ... „r the. ...pf,, W«<s of the 



lly if th 



the properties of the roots, especially 11 u.c «— ■- - -_--— , , , 

Oriental product can be credited. Father jartoux, who spent much time, and had 

specia privileges accorded him in the study of this plant, remarks, that so high is 

t he d in" s eL by the natives of China that the physicians have written volumes 

uponltlvtrLs, and deem it a necessity in all their best prescriptions, ascribing 

Z^M^». « ™«d yi »th. Chine* -> Tartar specie »ere omiJcred panacea 



70-2 



to it medicinal properties of inestimable value, and a remedial agency in fatigue 
and the infirmities of old age. So great is the plant esteemed in China that the 
Emperor monopolizes the right of gathering its roots. The preparation of the best 
roots for the Chinese market is a process which renders them yellow, semi-trans- 
parent, and of a horny appearance ; this condition is gained by first plunging them 
in hot water, brushing until thoroughly scoured, and steaming over boiling millet 
seed. The root thus prepared is chewed by the sick to recover health, and by the 



healthy to increase their vitality 



both mental and bodily 



fatigue, cures pulmonary complaints, dissolves humors, and prolongs life to a ripe 
old age, — for all of which the root has often brought in the markets ten times its 
weight in silver. Father Jartoux * finally became so satisfied that the use of the 
root verified all that was said of its virtues, that he, in his own case, adds testimony 
as to its relief of fatigue and increase of vitality. Those roots that are bifurcated 
are held by the natives to be the most powerful ; it was to this kind— which they 
considered to resemble the human form — that they gave the name Jin-chen, like a 
man. Strange as it may seem, the American Indian name of the plant, garant- 

oquen, means the same. 

The plant is becoming rare in this country, and in fact wherever it is found, 
on account of the value it brings in the markets. In 1718 the Jesuits of Canada 
began shipping the roots to China ; in 1 748 they sold at a dollar a pound here 
and nearly five in China; afterward the price fluctuated greatly on account of a 
dislike in China of our product ; and finally its gathering has nearly ceased, though 
fine sun-dried roots will now bring nearly a dollar per pound at New York. 

Panax was dismissed from the U. S. Ph. at the last revision, and is simply 
mentioned in the Eclectic Materia Medica. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The genuine Chinese or the American 
root, dried and coarsely powdered, is covered with five times its weight of alcohol, 
and allowed to stand eight days, in a well-stoppered bottle, in a dark, cool place, 
being shaken twice a day. The tincture, poured off and filtered, has a clear, light- 
lemon color by transmitted light, an odor like the root, a taste at first bitter then 
dulcamarous, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS — Panaquilon, C 12 H, 5 9 .— This peculiar body 
having a taste much like glycyrrhizin but more amarous, may be extracted fro 
the root. It results as an amorphous, yellowish powder, soluble in water an 
alcohol, but not in ether, and precipitable by tannin. It breaks down under the 
action of sulphuric acid, which, in extracting three molecules of water, causes 1 
give off carbonic dioxide and yield a new body as follows : 



> 



Panaquilon. Panacon. 

Q 2 H 25 9 = C0 2 + (H 2 Q) 3 + C n H 10 O 4 - 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Ginseng causes vertigo, dryness of the m " c0 ^ 
membranes of the mouth and throat, increased appetite, accumulation of a u 



* Phil. Trans., 28. 239. 



70-3 

with tension of the abdomen, diarrhoea, decreased secretion of urine, sexual excite- 
ment, oppression of the chest and a dry cough, increased heart's action and irr u- 
lar pulse, weakness and weariness of the limbs, increased general strength, followed 
by weakness and prostration, somnolence, and much chillin is. 



Description of Plate 70. 



t and 2. Whole plant, Pittsburgh, Pa., June 28th, 1885 

3. Section of flower. 

4. Part of calyx, a petal and stamen. 

5 and 6. Fruit. 

7. Section of rhizome. 

(3, 4, and 6 enlarged.) 













N. ORD.-CORNACE^. 

G NUS-CORNUS,* TOURN. 

SEX. SYST.— TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



r-f 



71 



CORNUS FLORIDA. 



FLOWERING DOGWOOD. 



CORNUS FLORIDA, LINN. ; BBNTHAMIDIA FLORIDA, SPACH. 

COM. NAMES.— FLOWERING- DOG-WOOD, DOG TREE, BOX TREE, 

ENGLAND BOXWOOD, CORNEL, BITTER REDBERRY; (FR.) COF 
LIER A GRANDES FLEURS; (GER.) GROSSBLUTHIGE CORNEL. 



NEW 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK OF CORNUS FLORIDA, LINN. 



Description. — This small but beautiful forest tree, grows to a height of from 



feet: its 



d 



but if transplanted when young to open places, it grows into a beautiful full, 
umbrella-like tree, with an immense spread of branches. Bark greyish, cracked 
into small, more or less rectangular pieces ; that of the branches is smooth, 
red, and shows strongly the scars of previous leaves. Inflorescence terminal, 
peduncled, involucrate, greenish heads; involucre white and showy; lobes 4, peta- 
loid, obcordate or furnished with deep notches, having a discolored and thickened 
margin. Flowers perfect, appearing with the leaves; calyx tubular ; lobes 4, minute, 
triangular and somewhat obtuse ; petals 4, oblong, obtuse, spreading, but at length 
recurved in such a manner as to cause each flower, when magnified, to bear great 
resemblance to a plain Ionic capital. Stamens 4, erect; filaments slender and 
filiform; anthers oval, versatile, 2-celled. Style erect, slender, clavate, shorter 
than the stamens ; stigma terminal, obtuse. Fruit a few oval, red drupes, contain- 
ing each a 2-celled and 2-seeded nutlet. 

Cornacese. — This small order is composed of shrubs or trees (rarely herbs) 
having the following characters : Leaves mostly opposite, rarely alternate ; stipules 
none. Inflorescence cymose, or (in two species of Cornus) capitate and subtended 
by a showy, white involucre ; flowers perfect or polygamous. Calyx tubular and 
coherent with the ovary ; limb minute, 4-toothed. Petals valvate in the bud, equal 



number to the calvx teeth 



Stamens 



and alternate with them ; in the perfect flowers they are borne on the margin of 
an epigynous disk ; filaments usually ascending, sometimes erect. Ovary 1 to 
2-celled ; ovules one in each cell, anatropous, hanging from the apex of its cell ; 
styles united into one. Fruit a 1 to 2-seeded drupe ; seeds oval ; testa coriaceous ; 
albumen sarcous ; embryo axial, nearly the length of the albumen; cotyledons 

foliaceous. 



* Cor mi, a horn, alluding to the density of the wood. 



71-2 



This family is represented by only two genera, Comas and Ny. 

\g dioecious and partly apetalous flowers. 

Beside die three species treated of in this work, the following ar 



The 



European and Asiatic Cornellian Cherry (Comus mas, Linn.), the fruits of which 
were formerly fermented as a beverage, and are now used in Turkey in the concoc- 
tion of a kind of sherbet; and the North European Lus-a-chrasis (C. succica, Linn.), 
the berries of which are claimed by the Highlanders to have the power of enor- 



mously 



the 



ppetite 



Th 



stolonifera, Michx. ; C. sanguinea, L 



berries of the Red O 
, are claimed by Murk 



* 



Dogwood (C. 
to yield about 



third their weight of a pure, limpid oil, resembling olive, and fit for tabl 



for burning 



History and Habitat 
f North America from tr 



The flowering dogwood is common in the deep wood 

ide southward, eastward, and westward 
-e it extends from Florida westward fc 






— 

it is especially common in the South, whe 

the Mississippi. Its principal central localities are the States of N 



Jersey 



Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, where it flowers in May, generally from the 
15th to the 2 2d, and fruits in September. A peculiar feature in the blossoming of 
this species is the great regularity in time of appearance of its short-lived bl 



so 



ch 



is this that th 



d 



ways planted their corn 



whe 



the 



blossoms appeared 



Notwithstanding the small diameter of the trunk of the dogwood 



polish 
wood. 



quite valuabl 



account of its great den 



and 



ptibility of 



has been used for every purpose generally filled by the European Box 

>, rules, etc., etc. Th< 



ch as engravers' blocks, cog-wh 



forks, spoon 



s 



have long been used as a dentifrice ; of this use Barton says : f "The Y ou 



branches stripped of their bark, and rubbed with their ends against 



the 



th 



wh 



The Creol 



negroes 



wh 



dogwood twig 
the striking whiteness of these, which I have freque 



in constant practice of using 



render them extremel) 

Virginia, in great numb 

cleansing their teeth ; 

observed, is a proof of 

of these twigs to the g 

The bark of the root afforded the aborigines a scarlet pigm 



habit Norfolk, in 



in 



fficacy of this practice. 



The application of th 



also useful in preserving 



them hard and sound 



M 



The previous medicinal use of dogwood bark dates from the discovery of th 
ntry, as it was then used by the Indians, who .called the tree Mon-ha 



schi, or Hat-ta-wa-no-min-schi by the Del 
astringent, and sligl 



_. The bark has proven tonic, 

beino- a stomachic tonic and anti-periodic, said 



possess an action very like that of Peruvian bark, and differing from tn 



only in quantity of 
cinchona bark, and B 



Eberle 



% that 35 grains equal 



%o grains 



of 



may be asserted 
within the limits 



yet there has not been discovered w 

vegetable so effectually to answer the purpose of Peruvian bark in the manag 



th entire safety, that as 

f the United States any 

ement 



f intermittent fever as Comus florida 



The dose of 



dried and powdered 



* Jour, de Pharm.^ 10. 



f Med. Bot., i„ 55. 



% Therapeutics, i., 3°4 



\ Collections 



71-3 



bark is placed at from 20 to 30 grains, and caution is necessary against its being 
too fresh, as it then disagrees seriously with the stomach and bow Is. The bark 



is also considered a tonic, s 
phlegmonous erysipelas, and 



d antiseptic poultice for indol 



The officinal preparation of the U. S. Ph. is Extraction Cornus Fluidum; in 
the Eclectic Materia Medica the preparations are: Deeoctutn Cornus Florida, 
Extractum Cornus Florida, Extractum Cornus Florida Fluidum, and Pilula 
Quinice Composite* 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fr sh bark, especially that of the 
root, is to be chopped and pounded to a pulp and weigh 1. Then two pans by 
weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth pan of it, 
and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, pour it into 
a well-stoppered bottle and allow it to remain eight days in a dark, cool plac 

The tincture separated from this mass by filtration, presents a magnificent 
clear, crimson color by transmitted light. It has a vinous odor, a sharply . itrin en 
cinnamon-like taste, and a strongly acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Comic Acid. This acid was discovered by 

Carpenter (1830), who judged it alkaloidal and gavoit the name Cornin, Gei rt 

(1836) investigated the principle and d termined it to be a crystalline acid; hi 
observations were corroborated by FreyJ (1879). It crystallizes in n irly white, 



forms, very bitter and solubl 



The crystals d< liq 



when exposed to the air, and when subjected to heat upon platinum foil they melt 
readily, become black, and finally burst into a flame and burn without residue. 

Oil of Cornus. — The ripe berries, when boiled and pressed, arc said to yi Id 

a limpid oil; this body is uninvestigated. 

Tannic, 1 " 45 and gallic acid/ ' a neutral resin crystallizing in shining needles. 1 * 
gum, 134 extractive, 1235 fatty matter, 2 oil, 2 wax, 2 red coloring matter, 2 '*• cornic 
acid,* 846 and a bitter principle, 3 have been determine. 1. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The fresh bark in doses of from 20 to 40 grain 
causes increased action of the heart, heat of the skin, and severe pain in the bov 
The American Indian, true to the principle that seems to have guided him in the u 
of all medicines, used the bark for fever and colic. The symptoms so fa 
oped in proving are: sensations of fullness of the head with h< lache; nau 
vomitino-: violent pain in the bowels with purging; and inert ed bo 



d 



followed by hot 



6 Dr. Chas. A. Lee sums up the action of the dru 



s follows: 7 "The physiological effects of Cornus bark are : incn ised frequ* ilC] 
f oulse. exalted temperature, diaphoresis, sensation of fulln or pains in the 



cxtrac 



f M. Geiger, Ann. der Pharm., XIV., 2< 

% Am. Jour. Phar., 1 879, 39°- 

1 Walker, Inaug. Diss. * Cockburn, Am. [ 

4 Geiger, I. c. 5 Frcj L c 



294 



Jew 



Mtd. 



71-4 

head, and, if the dose be too large, gastric derangement. Of these the most 
strongly marked are the increased temperature of the skin, and the general per- 
spiration. Some experimenters have observed a constant tendency to sleep, 



which has continued for 



This does not indicate any specifi 



properties, but is the result of the cerebral fullness. Whether the remote effects 
are owing to sympathy, propagated from the gastic centre, or are the direct effects 
of the introduction of the active principles into the blood, is not certainly known ; 
although the latter is most probable, since the cold infusion or the alcoholic extract 
produces the same effects. But whatever doubt there may be in regard to its true 
mode of operation, it is very evident that the bark has properties calculated to 



O 



the vital forces, and the organic nervous energy, without unduly 



the circulating system 



Description of Plate 71 



1. End of a flowering branch, Newfield, N. Y., May 15th, 1880 



2. Flower. 



^ 



. Section of calyx and ovary. 



4. Fruiting branch. 



(2 and 3 enlarged.) 





8 



: 




XCt.ad natdel.et pinxt 



CORNUS ClRCINATA, L'Her 






N. ORD. CORNACE^. 

GENUS.— CORN US. 

SEX. SYST.—TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA 



72 



CORNUS CIRCINATA. 



ROUND LEAVED DOGWOOD. 



SYN.— CORNUS CIRCINATA, L'HER.; C. RUGOSA, LAM.; C. TOMENTULOSA, 
MICHX. 

COM. NAMES.— ROUND LEAVED CORNEL OR DOGWOOD, ALDER DOGWOOD, 
PENNSYLVANIA DOGWOOD, GREEN OSIER, SWAMP SASSAFRAS; (FR) 
CORNOUILE A FEUILLES RONDIE; (GER.) RUNDBLATTERIGE CORNEL. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK OF CORNUS CIRCINATA, L'HER. 



Description. — This shrubby species grows from 6 to 10 feet high. Stem 
erect ; bark greyish, verrucose ; branches green, opposite, straight, and slender — 
the younger ones bright green splashed with red, those of the previous year 
somewhat crimson and more or less warty. Leaves all opposite, round 



acuminate, woolly b 



ribs and veins 



teeth 



prominent below and correspondingly indented above. Inflores 

open, more or less flat, spreading cymes; flowers white. Calyx 

Petals ovate-lanceolate, at length spreading. Stamens longer than the_ petals. 

Style about two-thirds the length of the stamens ; stigma cap 



1 



i 



f soherical, light blue d 



f 



the oedicel and whe 



History and Habitat.— The Round Leaved Dogwood grows in copses where 
the soil is rich, being indigenous from Canada to the Carolinas, and west to the 
Mississippi ; flowering in the north in June. 

The medicinal use of this species is far less extensive than the last, preceding. 
The Drs Ives claim * that the bark is tonic, and astringent to a far greater 
degree than any other species of the genus, and that it resembles Cinchona lance- 



folia (Pale B 



hand 



chronic dyspepsia [«V] and diarrhoea. An ounce of the bark 



ghborhood of 150 grains of 
r, and more bitter than that of C.florida. 
Cornus circinata was dismissed from the U. S 



far greater in quan- 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark is gathered and treated 



as in the preceding species 



* Dr. A. W. Ives, N. Y. Rep., 1822; Dr. E. Ives, Trans. Am. Mai. Assoc n, iii, 312. 



72-2 



The tincture resulting is clear, and of a slightly brownish-orange color. Its 
odor is very like that of Rhubarb ; its taste sharply astringent and bitter, and its 

reaction acid. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Cornin. This acid differs from that of C. 
florida only in the fact that it remains associated with tannin in spite of most care- 
ful re-crystallization, and other means of purification* 

The other constituents mentioned in the preceding species are all, without 
doubt, duplicated in this. Gibson isolated sugar, coloring-matter, cornin and 

tannin. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Here again great similarity exists between the 
species. C. circinata causes drowsiness and depression of spirits ; congestion of 
the head; nausea and faintness ; flatulency; copious bilious stools and urine, with 
yellowness of the sclera, face and hands; coldness of the extremties; itching, red 
rash, upon the whole surface, especially the trunk, with flashes of heat and chill, 
followed by perspiration. 



Description of Plate 72. 

1. End of a flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., June 16th, 1885 

2. Flower. 

3 and 4. Stamens. 

5. Stigma. 

6. Portion of the stem, showing mode of branching. 

7. Part of a fruiting cyme. 

8. Seed. 

(2-5, and 8 enlarged.) 



* Robert Gibson, Jr., Am. Jour. Phar., 1880, 433. 




73. 







(ETtl.adnat.del.etpinxt 



C6RNUS SERICEA, Linn 






N. ORD. CORNACE^. 



73 



GENUS.— CORN US, TOURN 



SEX. SYST.— TETRANDRIA MONOGYXIA. 



CORNUS SERICEA. 



SILKY DOGWOOD. 



SYN. — CORNUS SERICEA, LINN.; C. AMOMUM, DU ROI; C. CYANOCAR- 
PUS, MOEN.; C. LANUGINOSA, MICHX.; C. OBLIQUA, RAF. 

COM. NAMES.*— SWAMP OR FEMALE DOGWOOD, SILKY OR BLUEBERRY 
CORNEL, KINNIKINNIK; (FR.) CORNOUILLE SOYEUX; (GER.) SUMPF- 
CORNEL. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK OF CORNUS SERICEA, LINN 



Description. — This water-loving shrub grows to a height of from 6 to 12 feet. 
Branches spreading, dark-purplish (not brilliant red) ; branchlets silky-downy. 
Leaves narrowly ovate or elliptical, pointed, smooth above, silky-downy below 
and often rusty-hairy upon the ribs. Inflorescence a flat, close, woolly-pubescent, 
long-peduncled cyme ; flowers creamy-white. Calyx teeth lanceolate, conspicuous. 
Petals lanceolate-oblong, obtuse. Stigma thick, capitate. Fruit pale blue, globose. 
Read description of Cornaceae, p. 71. 

History and Habitat.— The Swamp Dogwood is indigenous to North America, 
from Florida to Mississippi and thence northward, where it grows in wet places, 
generally in company with Cephalanthus and Viburnum dentatum. It flowers 
northward in June, and ripens its azure fruit in September. 

The use of this species in general medicine has mostly been as a substitute 
for Cflorida, than which it is less bitter, while being more astringent. The Cree 
Indians of Hudson's Bay call the plant Milawapamule, and use the bark in decoc- 
rinn *c nn emetic in coughs and fevers. They also smoke the scrapings of the 



wood and make a black dye from the bark by boiling it with iron rust.f A 
favorite tobacco mixture of the North American Indians, called Kinmkmmk, is 
composed of scrapings of the wood of this species, mixed with tobacco in the pro- 



f about one to four. A good scarlet dye is made by boiling th 



th 



* 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh bark, including that of the 
is treated like that of the first-mentioned species ; the resulting tincture has 

The names Red Willow, Red Osier, Red Rod, and Rose Willow, are often given to this species, but they shoul.l 



only designate C. stolonifera, Michx. 

f E. M. Holmes in Am. Jour. Phar., 1884, 617. 



73-2 

a beautiful madder color by transmitted light, an odor greatly like that of sugar- 
cane when the juices are slightly soured, an extremely astringent and bitterish 
taste, and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— At present we can only call attention again 
to this rubric under C. florida. The bitterness, however, of this species is less 
than its congener, while its astringency is greater. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — This species seems to act stronger upon the 
heart than C. florida, and to cause more cerebral congestion. 



Description of Plate 73. 



1. End of a flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., June 20th, 1885 

2. Flower. 

3. Stigma. 

4. Fruit. 

(2 and 3 enlarged.) 








Kb ■ » 



^.adnatdeJetpinxt TR]6STEUM PERFOUATUM, Linn 



N. ORD.-CAPRIFOLIACE.E. 

Tribe-LONICERE/E. 

GENUS— TRIOSTEUM,* LINN. 

SEX. SYST.-PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



74 



TRIOSTEUM. 



FE YER- WOK T. 



SYN.-TRIOSTBUM PERFOLIATUM, LINN. ; TRIOSTEUM MAJUS, MICHX 
COM. NAMES.-FEVER-WORT, OR ROOT; HORSE-GENTIAN, OR GINSEN 

WHITE GINSENG; TINKER WEED, OR DR. TINKER'S WEED; Bi 
TARD, FALSE, OR, WILD IPECAC ; f WILD COFFEE ; SWEET-BITTE 
CINQUE ; (FR.) TRIOSTE ; (GER.) DREISTEIN. 






A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF TRIOSTEUM PERFOLIATUM, LINN. 



sim 



Description. — This coarse, leafy, perennial herb, grows to a height of from i 
feet. Root thick and sarcous, sub-divided into several horizontal sections ; stem 
)le, hollow, glandularly pubescent; leaves opposite, ample, ovate-spatulate, 
sinuate, acuminate, abruptly narrowed and connate or almost perfoliate at the 
base, prominently reticulate veined and downy pubescent upon the under surface, 
and hairy above. Inflorescence, axillary whorls at the middle of the stem ; flow- 
ers i to 6, dull or reddish purple, sessile. Bracts linear; calyx persistent; lobes 
linear-lanceolate, foliaceous. Corolla elongated cylindro-tubular, curved, gibbous 
at the base, scarcely longer than the calyx lobes, viscidly pubescent ; limb more or 
less equally 5-lobed. Stamens 5, inserted upon the tube of the corolla ; filaments 
hairy; anthers sagittate. Ovary generally 5-celled, each cell l-ovuled; ovules 
suspended ; style filiform, hairy ; stigma 3 to 5-lobed. Fruit drupaceous, dry, 
orange-colored; nutlets 3-angled and 3-ribbed, 1 -seeded; e n do car p osseous, testa 

membranaceous. 

Caprifoliacese. — A large family of shrubs and a few perennial herbs. 
Leaves opposite and destitute of stipules when normal. Floiuers generally 
5-merous, regular, or sometimes in the corolla irregular, hermaphrodite ; calyx 
adnate to the ovary ; corolla with its lobes imbricate in aestivation. Stamens as 
many as the lobes of the corolla, alternate with them, and inserted upon its tube. 
(Exc. Adoxa and Linnaea.) Ovary 2 to 5- or, by abortion, 1 -celled ; ovules anatro- 
pous, when only one then suspended and inverted ; raphe dorsal Embryo small 
in the axis of the fleshy albumen. 

The following remedies belonging to this family are of special interest to us 



* Tpeig, treis, three; dtrriov, osteon, a bone; the fruit having three nutlets, shortened from Triosteospermum, Dill. 
f Applied also to many species of Euphorbia, and to Gillennia trifoliata, Moench. (Rosacea?.) 






74-2 

beside the two under consideration: the European Moschatel {Adoxa Moschatel- 
lina, Linn.), also found in Arctic America and sparsely in the Rocky Mountains; 
the European Elder {Sambucus nigra, Linn.), a native also of Asia and Northern 
Africa; and the European Fly Woodbine {Lonicera Xylostcum, Linn.). Two 
American species were proven too late for representation in this work, they are 
the Snowberry {SymphoricarpHS racemosus % Michx.), a > iluable remedy in vomiting 
pregnancy, as many 

Cranberry {Viburnum opulus, Linn.), now proving valuable in many forms of 
uterine affections and puerperal diseases. 

Outside of our Materia Medica the order contains: The Dwarf Elder {Sam- 
bucus ebu/us, Linn.), probably the most active of that genus ; and the Bush Honey- 
suckle {Diervilla trijida, Mcench.). 



suffering ladies have testified in my practice; and the High 



History and Habitat. — The feverwort is indigenous to North America from 
Canada southward and westward to Alabama, growing on open woodlands in lime- 
stone soils ; not really plentiful in any locality. It blossoms in June, and ripens its 
characteristically arranged fruit in September. 

It was in all probability the Southern species T. augusfifo'iwn, Linn., that was 
principally used as an emetic in earlier days, and this is doubtless the plant sent to 
Pluckenet as Dr. Tinker s Weed, and gravely commented on by Poiret as follows :* 
" Ses racines et celles de l'espece precedente passent pour emetiques ; le docteur 
Tinker est le premier qui les a mises en usage, et qui a fait donner a cette plante 
par plusieurs habitans de l'Amerique septentrional le d' herbe sauvage du doc- 
teur Tinker!' Triosteum is stated by Rafinesque to have been one of the abo- 
riginal medicamentse, called Sincky. A decoction is said to have been used by 
the Cherokee Indians in the cure of fevers (Porcher). The bark of the root has 
long been esteemed as an emetic and smoothly-acting cathartic, the former in doses 
of from 40 to 60 grains, the latter in half that amount; its cathartic action was 
claimed to be fully as sure as jalap. Dr. J. Kneeland calls attention to this plant 
as an application to painful swellings, regarding which he says :f " My attention was 
first called to it by a gentleman of observation and intelligence, who derived his 
knowledge of its value indirectly from the Onondaga Indians. So strongly did he 
back his claims with facts on cases of whitlow or felon, successfully treated, that I 
applied the bruised root, moistened, to the first well-marked case of onychia or 
felon which came to me for treatment. The young man upon whose hand it was, 
had not slept much for two nights. The whole hand was much swollen ; the middle 
finger, tense and throbbing, was the centre from which the pain and swelling 



extended. It had been poulticed and thoroughly soaked in weak lye for three 
days, and still grew worse. We applied the Triosteum, and nothing else. After 
six hours' application he slept ; the throbbing and tensive pain gradually dimin- 
ished after the first application ; in two days' time the swelling disappeared from 
the forearm and hand ; in four days the finger affected, the whole palm, and the 
centre of the dorsum of the hand peeled, and complete resolution took place, no 



* Bigelow, Am. Med. Bot., 1, p. 90. 



Mat 



74-3 

pus having formed. In another case, wherein it was tried, only two applications 
were required to relieve the pain and throbbing, and complete resolution fol- 
lowed." Dr. Mulenberg says* that the dried and toasted berries of this plant 
were considered by some of the Germans of Lancaster County, Pa., an excellent 
substitute for coffee when prepared in the same way ; having reat respect for 
German taste I tried an infusion, but came to the conclusion that it was not the 
Lancaster County Germans' taste that I held in regard. 

Triosteum is one of the drugs dismissed from the U. S. Ph.. at the last 



revision. 



PART 



The fresh root, < i the red in A 



is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight ol 

alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed well with one-sixth part of it, and the rt I of tin 
alcohol added. After first stirring, the whole is poured into a w< -11-stoppen I bottle 
and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture thus formed after filtration has a l> mtiful, char, i Id ish-O range 
color by transmitted light, a bitterish odor and taste, and an acid r iction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS— The only anal) i thus far made of the root 
is that by Dr. John Randall, communicated to the Linn. ran Society of New Eng- 
land. His conclusions were that no pure resin xists in the plant nor did he deter- 
mine a volatile oil or free acid. The leaves under his manipulation yielded the 

most extract, and the root more than the stems. The sensible qualities of the root 

however, he found to be essentially different from those of th< herb. Water yield 
a greater quantity of extract than alcohol. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — In Dr. Williamson's proving of the drug the 
prominent effects were: Nausea; vomiting; copious watery stools apparently pro- 
ceeding from the small intestines, accompanied by stiffm s of the lower extrem- 
ities and cramps in the calves; aching in the bones; coldness and stiffness of the 
feet, and general perspiration.f 



Description ok I'i.aii 74. 

« 

1. Top of plant, Binghamton, N\ V., June 15th, 1884. 

2. A portion of the middle of the flowering plant. 

3. A flower. 

4. Opened corolla. 

5. Pistil 

6. Stamen. 

7. Pollen, x 200. 

8. Fruit. 

0. Seeds. 

(3-6, 8 and 9, enlarged. ) 






^ ^ mM . n d A , f Allen. /->m. Pure Mat. J 10, p 3 

* Barton, Med. Bot., I, p. 63. » » ~» * 








75 



















































^ *\ 






2 









6 











m.adnal.del.etpinxt. 



Sambucus Canadensis, Linn. 






N. ORD.-CAPRIFOLIACE^E. 

Thbe-SAMBUGE/E. 

GENUS.— SAMBUCUS,* TOURN. 

SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA 



75 



SAMBUCUS CANADENSIS 



ELDER. 



MARSH 



SYN.-SAMBUCUS CANADENSIS, LINN.; S. NIGRA, 

S. HUMILIS, RAP.; S. GLAUCA, GRAY (NOT NUTT.). 

COM. NAMES.— ELDER BUSH, ELDER BERRY; (FR.) SUREAU DU CANADA ; 
(GR.) CANADISCHE HOLLUNDER. 



A TINCTURE OF THE BUDS, FLOWERS, SHOOTS, AND LEAVES OF SAMBUCUS 

CANADENSIS, LINN. 



Description. — This common, glabrous, suffrutesc 



growth of from 6 to 10 feet. Stems 



dying down to the ground, or persistent for a few years ; bark verrucose ; pith 
dense and bright white after the first year. Leaves compound, imparipinnate ; 
stipules rare; leaflets 5 to 11, mostly 7, petiolulate, from ovate-oval to oblong- 
lanceolate, serrate, acuminate, the lower sometimes with a lateral lobe ; stipcls not 
uncommonly present, narrowly linear, and tipped with a callous gland. Inflor- 



escence 



terminal, broad, flat, or depressed, 5-rayed, compound cymes; //< 

white, and sickishly odorous. Calyx minute, 5-lobed ; lobes 



(1 



what deltoid, acute. Corolla rotate, or somewhat urceolate ; limb broadly spread 
ing; lobes 5, obtuse. Stamens 5, alternate with the lobes of the 
attached to the base of its tube. Stigmas 3 ; styles capitate. Fruit a baccate, 
sweet and juicy, dark-purple drupe, never red, but later becoming black: bloom 
slio-ht. Nutlets 3, small, i-seeded, punctate-rugulose ; seed suspended ; testa mem- 

■ ■ 

branaceous. 

History and Habitat.— This species is indigenous to North America, where it 
extends from New Brunswick westward to Saskatchewan, southward to Honda 
and Texas, and to the mountains of Colorado, Utah, and Arizona. It grows in 
rich alluvial soils, blossoming in July and fruiting in September 

Our species is not sufficiently distinct from the European S nigra, Linn., from 
which it differs only in being less wood) 



flowers and 
cific. does 



The bracteate inflorescence, considered 



not seem to be a constant feature. The American species was intro- 



duced into England in 176 



* Wttn, sambuke, an ancient musical instrument, said to have been made of the wood. 




75-2 

The pith of the Elder has many offices to fill in the arts and manufactures; 
the berries make a really pleasant wine; and, among the poorer class of people 
must be more from necessity than choice), they are made into pies, like the 

huckleberry. 

In domestic medicine this plant forms almost a pharmacy in itself, and has 

been used substantially as follows: A decoction of the flowers and leaves, or an 

ointment containing them, was used as an application to large wounds to prevent 

deleterious consequences from flies ; the leaf-buds proved themselves a violent 

and unsafe cathartic ; the flowers, in a warm infusion are stimulant, excitant, and 

sudorific ; in cold, diuretic, alterative, and laxative (Elderblow Tea) ; they were 

also employed, in ointment, as a discutient ; the inner bark is a severe hydrogogue 

cathartic, emetic, deobstruent, and alterative, valuable in intestinal obstruction and 

anasarca ; the berries proved aperient, diuretic, diaphoretic, and cathartic, valuable 

in rheumatic gout, scrofula, and syphilis — the juice making a cooling, laxative 

drink. 

In pharmacy the leaves have been used to impart a clear green tint to oils, 
etc. {Oleum Viride, Ungtientum Sambuci folioruni), and the flowers for perfumes. 

Sambucus Canadensis (flores) are officinal in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic 
Materia Medica the preparations are : Aqua Sambuci, Syrupus Sarsaparilltz Com- 
positus* Unguentum Sambuci, and Vinum Sambuci.^- 



PART USED AND PREPARATION. — Equal parts of the fresh flower-buds, 
flowers, young twigs, and leaves are taken, and treated as in the preceding drug 
(p. 74-3). The resulting tincture has a clear orange-brown color by transmitted 
it : it retains the sweetish odor and taste of the flowers ; and has an acid 




reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Vibumic Acid. This body, identical with 
valerianic acid,J was proven to exist in the bark of this species by C. G. Traub, 
who succeeded in obtaining its characteristic odor, and valerianate of zinc after the 
addition of the sulphate of that metal. 

Oil of Sambucus.— This volatile body, found in the flowers of S. nigra, was 
proven by Traub to also exist in the bark of this species. It is described as a thin, 
light-yellow body, having the odor of the flowers, a bitter, burning, afterward cool- 
ing taste ; becoming of a butter-like consistence, and solidifying at o° (32 r.) to 
a crystalline mass. 

Tannin, sugar, fat, resin, and a coloring-matter were also determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Dr. Ubelacker's experiments with from 20 to 
50 drops of the tincture gave the following symptoms of physical disturbance : 
Drawing in the head, with anxious dread: flushed and blotched face; dryness 



See p. 92-2, foot-note to Syrupus Aralhe Compositus, as the syrup is now called, 
f This so-called Hydragogue Tincture contains Elder-bark, Parsley-root, and Sherry 
% See p. 155-3. 
\ Am, Jour, Phar., 1881, 392. 



75-3 



ind sensation of swelling of the mucous membranes of the mouth, pharynx, la 
L nd trachea ; frequent and profuse flow of clear urine ; heaviness and constri 
»f the chest; palpitation of the heart; pulse rose to 100, and remained until 
piration ensued ; sharp, darting rheumatic pains in the hands and feet ; exhau 
nd profuse perspiration, which relieved all the svmotoms 



Description of Plate 75. 



1. End of flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., July 20th, 1 5. 

2. Flower, showing 1 alyx. 

3. Face of flower. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Pistil. 

6. A portion of fruiting 1 ynu*. 

7. Seed. 

(2-5 and 7 enlarged.) 



=4- 



76 










2 



<§Ttl M rttfi pinxt GEPHALANTHUS OCCIDENTAUS, Linn 



N. ORD.-RUBIACE^E. 



GKNUS.-CEPHALANTHUS,*LINN 



76 



SEX. SYST.— TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



CEPHALANTHUS. 



BUTTON BUSH. 



SYN.— CEPHALANTHUS OCCIDBNTALIS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— BUTTON BUSH, BUTTON- WOOD,f CRANE WILLOW, POND- 
DOGWOOD, SNOWBALL,! GLOBE FLOWER;^ (PR) BOIS DE PLOMB, 
CEPHALANTHE DAMERIQUE; (GER.) KNOPPBUSCH, AMERIKAN- 
ISCHE WEISS3ALL. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH BARK OF CEPHALANTHUS OCCIDEN TALIS, LINN. 



Description. — This smooth or pubescent|| shrub attains a growth of from 5 to 
15 feet. Stem diffusely branching ; bark smooth and reddish on the branchlets, 
rough and yellowish on the stems; branches opposite. Leaves large, opposite, and 
ternate, both arrangements often appearing upon the same branch, petiolate, 
ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, pointed, dark-green, and smooth ; stipules interme- 
diate, ovate, sometimes toothed. Inflorescence dense, axillary and terminal, globu- 
lar heads ; peduncles longer than the diameter of the heads ; floivers creamy-white, 
sessile upon a globose, hirsute receptacle. Calyx tube inversely pyramidal ; limb 
4-toothed. Corolla slender, tubular, or funnel-form ; margin 4-toothed ; teeth erect, 
imbricate in aestivation. Stamens 4, hardly exserted. Style filiform, greatly exserted ; 
stigma capitate, globose. Fruit small, dry, pyriform, 2 to 4 celled, cleaving from the 
base to form 2 to 4 1 -seeded divisions; seeds pendulous, crowned with acork-like 
arillus ; embryo straight in the axis ; albumen somewhat cartilaginous ; cotyledons 

leaf-like. 



It is char- 



North America, but yields many valuable d 
acterized as follows: Herbs or shrubs. Leaves opposite, entire, or sometimes 
whorled and astipulate ; stipules intermediate and connective. Calyx coherent 
with the ovary. Corolla regular, tubular. Stamens as many as the lobes of the 
corolla and inserted upon its tube. Ovary 2 to 4 celled. Seeds anatropous or am- 



ph 



vian 



Calisaya, widd), red bark (Ci»cko*a succiruba. Pay.), Columbian bark (C„ 



*: T ' * \ ' a-^.A/t/> a h eid • avQo; % anthos. a flower. 

S^Si^S the s^ore, a la rg e tree growing a,on f Hvers { P^us occi^is, Linn.). 
\ The true snowball is Symfhoricarpus racemosus, Mich. (Capnfohace, >. 
\ The true globe flower is Trollius laxus, Salisb. (Ranunculacea). 

|| Var. pubescens, Raf. 






Rubiacese — This large and important order has but few representatives in | 









The important medicinal plants of this family are : The cinchonas or Peru- 
barks i.e. pale bark {Cinchona officinalis, Linn), Calisaya bark {Cinchona 









76-2 

cordifolia, Mut), lancifolia bark {Cinchona land folia, Mut.), crown bark {Cinchona 
condaminca, D. C. var. crispa and var. Chahuarguet a) % gray bark {Cinchona mi- 
crantha, Ru.et Pav.), and many minor species; Gambier, or pallid catechu {Un- 

caria Gambier, Rox:), coffee {CoJ/ca Arabica, Linn.), ipecacuanha {Ccphcelis Ipe- 
cacuanha, A. Rich.), Cainca {Chiococca raccmosa. Linn), madder {Rubia tindoria, 
Linn.), bitter bark {Pinckncya pubcns, Mich), cleavers {Gallium aparinc, Linn) 
and others of minor import. 

History and Habitat.— The button bush is indigenous to the United States 



d Canadas, growing as far south as Florida and Louisiana, and west to M 
habits the borders of wet places, and flowers from July to August. The flo 



f cephalanthus, especially those of 



duals, are pi 



odorous, the perfume being likened to that of jessamine. Rafinesque mentions 



f this species, the only one apparently deserving special d 



& 



nation being var. macrophylla, Raf., distinguishable by having larger leaves, and 
an hirsute corolla; he stations this plant in Louisiana. 

The medical history of Cephalanthus is not important ; it has been used with 



dited 



d remittent fevers, obstinate coughs (Ell 



palsy, various venereal disorders (Merat), and in general as a tonic, laxative, and 
diuretic. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh bark of the stem, branches, 
and root* is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by 
weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, 
and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, pour it 
into a well-stoppered bottle, and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the above mass by filtration, has a light, clear, 
orange-brown color, by transmitted light, a bitter, astringent taste, and an acid re- 



action. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — An analysis of the bark by E. M. Hattanf 
yielded : 

An uncrystallizable bitter principle, soluble in both water and alcohol. 

A fluorescent body, forming apicular crystals, soluble in water and alcohol. 

Two resins (uninvestigated), and tannin. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— We have a proving of this drug by Dr. E. D. 
Wright,J but it is not complete enough to give us an idea of the action. It would 
seem, from the close resemblance and botanical relation of this plant to the 
chonas, that a more thorough proving might develop in it a very useful add 



■ • 



dies 



Description of Plate 76. 



1. End of flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., June 18th, 1883. 

2. Flower (enlarged). 



The bark of the root apparently contains the greatest proportion of the bitter principle of the plant. 



t Am. Jour. Phar. } 1874, p. 357. 



% Am. Horn. 06s., i«75, P- l p* 




c* 



c 




CO 




UJ 

a. 

cc 






UJ 




p I 






a 



? 



^ 



CO 




N. ORD-RUBIACE^E. 

GENUS.-M ITCH ELLA,* LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— TETRANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



77 



MITCHELLA. 



PAR TRID GE-BERR Y. 



SYN.- MITCHELLA REPENS, LINN.; MITCHELLA UNDULATA, S. & Z. ; 

SYRINGA BACCIPERA, ETC., PLUK. 

COM. NAMES.— PARTRIDGE-BERRY, SQUAW-BERRY, SQUAW- VINE, TWO- 
EYED CHEQUER-BERRY, REEPING CHECKER-BERRY, WINTER- 
CLOVER, DEER-BERRY. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT, MITCHELLA RJ PENS, LINN 



Description. — This pretty little plant, creeping about in the moss at the foot of 
forest trees and decayed stumps, attains a growth of from 6 to 14 inches. Root 



J. 



.-> 



js 



cylindrical, branched, horizontal, and noduled at the insertion of the tufted 
site rootlets. Stem glabrous, branching widely, and rooting at each axilla, 
orbicular-cordate or oval and subcordate, sometimes havii 
midrib; dark, evergreen, slender, petioled ; stipules minute, somewhat 
awl-shaped. Inflorescence terminal ; flowers in pairs with united ovaries, some- 
times solitary and double (fig. 3) ; the flowers on one plant may have included 
stamens and an exserted style, while another show an included style and exserted 
stamens. This fact has led Mr. Thos. Meehanf to consider the species dioecious. 
The first form, he alleges, to be that of the female; the last, the male plant. A 
far as my observation extends, I have as yet been unable to discover a plant that 
bore no fruit, and all parts examined appear to be fully developed internally as 
well as externally. Peduncle short, or, in the double form, almost wanting. Calyx 
4-toothed. Corolla slender, funnel-form ; limb 4-lobed ; lobes spn uling or reflexed, 
densely clothed with white hairs upon the upper face and in the throat and tube 
of the corolla. Stamens 4 ; filaments inserted upon the corolla; anthn 



.-> 



Style single filiform ; stigmas 4, linear. Fruit a fleshy, edible, gl 
double drupe, retaining the persistent teeth of both calices, and remaining fre h 
oh the plant all winter; nutlets 8 (4 to each ovary), small, seedlike, and bony. 
Read description of the order, under Cephalanthus, 76. 

_ „ The Partridge-berry is indigenous to North America 

fromXTanadas to the extreme southern limits of the United States and ha 
been found in Mexico and Japan. It grows in moist woods, e penally those 
abounding in evergreens. It flowers in July 



History 



* In commemorat 



ion of Dr. John Mitchell, an early ami excellent American botanist. 



f Am. Jour. Phar., l868, p. 554- 



77-2 

Mitchella is one of the many plants used by the American Aborigines as a 
parturient, frequent doses of a decoction being taken during the few weeks just 
preceding confinement. It has also been found to be a valuable diuretic and 
astringent, and to have an especial affinity to various forms of uterine difficulties. 

The plant is not mentioned in the U. S. Ph. In the Eclectic Materia Medica 
its preparations are : Extraction Mitchella and Syrupus Mitchella Compositus* 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant is chopped and 
pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, 
the pulp well mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After a thorough mixture, the whole is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and 
allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated by filtering the mass, should have a deep orano-e-red 
color by transmitted light, an odor between that of Scotch snuff and oil of winter- 
green, an astringent taste, and an acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— No analysis has been made, as far as I can 
determine, of this plant. The tincture, made as above, contains a large percent- 
age of tannin, and a resin precipitable by water. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The symptoms, as recorded by Drs. F. C. 
Duncan and P. II. Hale,f show that Mitchella causes a general congestion, with 
dryness and burning of the mucous membranes of the alimentary tract. The 
clinical results would seem to show a tonic action upon involuntary muscular 



fib 



The drug merits more extended proving 



Description of Plate 77. 

Whole plant (somewhat reduced) ; Pamrapo, N. J., Ji 

2. A pair of flowers (somewhat enlarged). 

3. A double flower (somewhat enlarged). 



* Mitchella, Helonias, Viburnum op., and Caulophyllum. 



Med. 



78 





2 




^m.adnaldeletp.nxt EUPATORIUW PURPUREUM L.rifl 



N. ORD -COMPOSITE 

Tribe.-EUPATORIACE/E. 



78 



GENUS.— EUPATORIUM,* TOURX 



SEX. SVST.— SYNGENESIA iEQUALIS. 



EUPATORIUM PURPUREUM 



PURPLE B ONE SET. 



SYN.-EUPATORIUM PURPUREUM, TRIFOLIATUM, AND MACULATUM 



VERTICILLATUM, MUHL. ; E. TERNIPOLIUM 



COM. NAMES 



WORT, OR HEMP-WEED 



JOE-PYE,t OR JOPI-WEED; TRUMPET- WEED ; QUEEN OP THE 



MEADOW 
HANP. 



WASSER 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF EUPATORIUM PURPUREUM, I, 



Description. — This common herb varies greatly in form and foliage, the type 
being very tall and graceful. Stem rigidly erect, 6 to 1 2 feet high,§ stout, simple, 
and either hollow or furnished with an incomplete pith ; it is punctate in lines and 
purple above the nodes, or often covered with elongated spots (£. maculala, Linn.). 
Leaves verticillate, mostly in fives, nearly destitute of resinous punctae, oblong- 
lanceolate, acutish or acuminate, coarsely serrate, roughish and reticulate-veiny ; 
petioles distinct or merely represented by the contracted bases of the leaves. 
Lnflorescence a terminal, dense, compound corymb; heads very numerous, 5 to 
io-flowered. Lnvohicre flesh-colored, cylindrical; bracts thin, membranaceous, 
somewhat scarious when dry, and faintly 3-striate, obtuse; they are closely imbri- 
cated in three rows, the exterior successively shorter. Receptacle flat, not hirsute. 
Style bulbous at the base, much exserted. Achenia smooth, glandular. 

Eupatorium. — This vast genus contains in North America alone 39 species 
and 16 distinct varieties ; other species are found in South America, Asia, Africa, 
and Europe. It is composed mostly of perennial herbs, but contains a few annuals, 
and shrubs in warmer regions. Leaves mostly opposite and simple, resinous and 
bitter, rarely alternate, whorled, or divided. Heads small, homogamous, discoid, 
and corymbosely-cymose or paniculate, rarely solitary; involucre cylindrical or 
somewhat campanulate ; scales numerous, purple, blue, or white, never really 
yellow, though sometimes ochroleucous. Flowers hermaphrodite and homochro- 

• corolla tubular and regular, 5-toothed ; anthers included, not caudate ; 



mous 



receptacle naked and flat. Style cylindraceous, branched, the branches exserted, 

less thickened upward and very minutely pubescent. Pappus a single 



more or 



* Mithridates Eupator, king of Pontus, who was first to use the plant as a remedy. 

f An Indian by this name cured typhus in New England, with this plant, by powerful sweating. 

t The Queen of the Meadow is more properly Spiraa salicifolia, Linn. (Ko.acese). 

I The individual represented in the plate was nearly 10 feet high, growing in an open, rich field. 



78-2 

series of slender but somewhat stiff and rough capillary bristles. Achenia 5-angled, 

not striate. 

The species of this genus used in medicine are, beside the two under consid- 
eration, the American E. aromaticum, Linn., sessilifolium \ Linn., tencrifolium, Willd., 
and ageratoides, Linn., all considered tonic, diaphoretic, and antiperiodic, the latter 
being the supposed cause of the " trembles " in cattle ; E. rotund if olium, Linn., a 
palliative in consumption ; the Texan viata (E. incaniatum, Walt.) is said to be 
diuretic, and is used for flavoring tobacco ; while E.fa-nicidceum, Willd., leucolepsis, 
T. & G., and hyssopi folium, Linn., are considered to be antidotes to the poisonous 

The European E. cannabinum, Linn., is 

of 



bites of reptiles and stings of insects. 



diuretic, emetic, and purgative ; the South American E. glutinosum is one 
the sources of the substance known as Matico\* the Jamaican E. nervostim is 
regarded as an almost certain cure for cholera, typhus, typhoid, and small-pox ; 
while the Brazilian aya-pana (E. ayapana, Vent.) is an aromatic tonic and febrifuge, 
and is considered a sure remedy — if timely used — for antidoting the effects of the 
bites of poisonous reptiles and insects ; this last is said to be the most powerful 
species of the genus, and as such, it should be carefully proven. 

Oompositse. — This immense and purely natural order, consists of herbs, and 
rarely shrubs and trees ; it comprises one-tenth of all known phaenogamous plants, 
and one-eighth of those of North America, where it has 237 genera and 1610 



species, of which 1551 are indigen 
such, even by general observation ; 



Its members are 



distinguished 



but many of the genera and sp 



require 



: and careful study for their identification. 

Since this work was begun, and too late for revision, Prof. Asa Gray 



phenomenal volume,-)- including this order, appeared. In his careful and laborio 
revision of the order many changes were instituted in the arrangement and nam 
of the tribes and genera, making the following table necessary to an understandii 
of the order as it stands at present : 



New Arrangement. 



Tribe. 



Eupatoriaceae. 

Asteroideae. 

Inuloideae. 



a 



Helianthoideae 



a 



Anthemideae. 



tt 



tt 






This Work 



Genus. 



78, 79. Eupatorium. 

80. Erigeron. 
89. Graphalium. 

81. Inula. 

82. Ambrosia, 

83. Helianthus. 

84. Anthemis. 

85. Achillea. 

86. Tancetum. 



Old Arrangement. 



Tribe. 



(Same.) 



a 



Senecionideae. 

Asteroideae. 

Senecionideae. 



tt 



it 



it 



it 



New Arrangement. 



Tribe. 



Anthemideae. 
Senecionideae 



tt 



Cynaroideae 
Cichoriacae. 



a 



a 



tt 



This Work 



Genus 



87, 88. Artemisia. 

90. Erechthites. 

91. Senecio. 

92. Arctium. 

93. Cichorium. 

94. Prenanthes. 

95. Taraxacum. 

96. Lactucca. 



Old Arrangement, 



Tribe. 



Senecionideae. 
(Same.) 



a 



Cynareae (Lappa) 



(Same.) 



tt 



(Nabalus) 



n 



tt 



* The officinal matico, however, is derived from Piper angustif olium, R. & P. (Piferacese) 
f Synop. Flora of N. A. 



78-3 



Description.*— « Flowers in an involucrate head on a simple receptacle. 
5-merous, or sometimes 4-merous ; with lobes of the epigynous corolla valvate in 
the bud ; stamens^ many as corolla lobes and alternate with them, inserted on the 
tube ; anthers connate into a tube (syngenesious); style in all fertile flow rs 2-cieft 
or lobed at the summit and bearing introrse-marginal stigmas; ovan 1 -celled* a 



single anatropous ovule erect from the base, becoming an exalbuminous seed with 
a straight embryo, the inferior radicle shorter and narrower than the cotyledons 
the fruit an akene. Tube of the calyx wholly achate to the ovan its limb none, 
or absolute, or developed into a cup or teeth, scales, awns, or capillary bristle 
Corolla with nerves running to the sinuses, then forking and bordering: th lobes. 



rarely as many intermediate nerves. Anthers commonly with sterile tip or append- 
age; the cells introrse, discharging the pollen within the tube; this fore* I out by 
the lengthening of the style, which in hermaphrodite and male flowers Is commnnl; 
hairy-tipped or appendaged. Pollen-Brains globose, echinulati •metim .month, 
in Cichoriace^e 12-sided. Leaves various ; no true stipules. Devtlopntcttt of the 
flowers in the head centripetal; of the heads when clustered or a' »ciat< I. more 
or less centrifugal, i.e., heads disposed to be cymose. Juice watery, in une 

resinous, in the last tribe milky. 

" Heads homogamjus when all its flowers are alike in ex ; heteror (intone when 
unlike (generally marginal flowers female or neutral, and central hermaphn lite or 
by abortion male); androgynous when of male and female flower! >uo/t ous or 
dioecious when the flowers of separate sexes are in dill rent head Ither on une 
or different plants ; radiate when there are enlarged ligul ate flowers in the margin 
wholly ligulate when all the flowers have ligulate corollas, dii I when there are 
no enlarged marginal corollas. When these sist they are sometimes '.ill. 1 the 
ray ; the other flowers collectively occupy the disk. The head (compound flow* r 
of early botanists), in Latin capilnlu/n, is also named anthodium. Its involucre 
(periclinium of authors) is formed of separate or sometimes connate r liiced leave 
i. e., bracts (squamce or scales); the innermost of th< e bracts subt nd the outer- 
most or lowest flowers. The axis within or above these is the re ptacle (cliuan- 
thium), which varies from plane to conical or oblong, or even 1 ylindri. al or ubti- 
late. When the receptacle bears flowers only it is naked, although the unlace 
may be alveolate, foveolate or merely areolate, according as the insertion of th 
ovaries or akenes is surrounded or circumscribed by honeycomb like or i r 
elevations, or, when these project into bristl B, slender t« th or shreds, it i mbril 
late; it is paleaceous when the disk flowers are subtend din bracts; th se usually 
chaff-like, therefore called palea, chaff, or simply bract si the r ceptacle. In plao 
of calyx-limb there is more commonly a circle of epigynous bristl , hail .r awn 
the pappus, a name extended to the calyx-limb of whatever form or . xtun ,ts 
parts are bristles, awns, palae, teeth, etc., according to shaj j and texture. Coroll < 
either all tubular (usually enlarging above the insertion of the stamens ,nto th 

throat and 4 to 5-lobed at summit, mostly regular), or the marginal on 

shaped, i.e., ligulate, the elongated limb {ligule) being explanate, and 3 to 5 tomh- I 

* I use Prof. Gray's full description of the order from the volume above rei to, Vol. I., pt. z, 48. 



ape 



78-4 

c. Such are always female or neutral, or, when all the flowers of the head 
have ligulate corollas, then hermaphrodite. Anthers with basal auricles either 
rounded or acute, or sometimes produced into tails {caudate). Branches of the style 
in female flowers and in some hermaphrodite ones margined with stigma, i. e., stig- 
matic lines, quite to the tip ; in most hermaphrodite flowers these lines shorter, 
occupying the lower portion, or ending at the appendage or hairy tip." The 
largest subdivision or series of this order is the Tu 1 I u li f lo km, wherein the her- 
maphrodite flowers have tubular and regular flowers. The Labiatifloiue have 
corollas of all, or only of the hermaphrodite flowers, bilabiate. The LlGULlFLOR* 
have all flowers hermaphrodite and all corollas ligulate. 

Beside the 19 medicinal species treated of in this work, and those spoken of 
under the description of the genus Kupatorium, we have provings of the follow- 
ing : Wyethia ( Wyethia, Helcnoides, Nutt.) ; the New Zeyland Puka-puka {Brachy- 
glottis repens, Forsk.) ; the Arctic American Grindelia {Grindelia squarrosa, 
Dunal.); the European Mountain Arnica {Arnica montana, Linn.); the Spanish 
Pellitory {Pyrethrum Parnethium, Linn.); the European Coltsfoot {Tussilago Far- 
fara, Linn.); and the Italian Sweet-scented Coltsfoot {T. fragrans, Linn.); the 
European Daisy {Bellis perennis, Linn.); the South European Marigold {Calen- 
dula officinalis, Linn.); the Blessed Thistle {Car dims Benedictus, Linn. ; Centaurea 
Tagana, Willd.); Chamomilla, the German Chamomile {Matricaria Chamomilla, 
Linn.); and Cina, the European Wormseed {Artemisia Cina, Berg.; A. santonica, 

Linn., Artemisia Contra.).* 

Outside of our materia medica many valuable, and secondary, drugs are used ; 
prominent among them we find : the American Daisy-fleabane {Erigeron hetero- 
phyllum, Muhl.), a reputed remedy for gravel, hydrothorax, and gout; and E. 
Philadelphicum, Linn., a powerful emmenagogue. The German Pellitory (Anacyclus 
officinarum, H.D.B.), a powerful irritant, sialagogue and stimulant. The East 
Indian Veronia anthehnintica y Willd., is considered a most powerful vermifuge ; the 
Indian Elephantopus scaber, Linn., is used on the coast of Malabar in dysuria ; the 
Mexican Xoxonitztal or Yoloxiltic {Piqueria trinervia, Cav.) is said to be a valuable 
antiperiodic. Many species of Liatris are considered powerful diuretics, especially 
L. squamosa, Willd., and L. odoratissima, Willd. The Brazilian Coracoa de % 



Mikania officinalis, Mart.) is claimed to be 



an 



d th 



South American M. Guaco, H. & B., and the Brazilian Erva da Cobra {M. opifera, 
Mart.), are considered efficacious antidotes to the bites of the cobra de capello, and 
those of malignant insects. The common European Fleabane {Pulicana dysen- 
terica, Gsertn.) is said to have once cured the Russian army of dysentery. I wo 
species of Bidens, viz. : the European B. tripartita, Linn., and the Carolinian B. 
Chrytsanthemoides, Michx., together with the South American Spilanthes oleracea, 
Jacq. {Bidens fervida, Lam.), produce acrid and copious salivation. The May- 
weed, ManUa cotula, D.C.), so common almost generally throughout the North 
Temperate Zone, is fetid and blistering, and causes copious vomiting and 



* Bentley and Trimen, in their work on " Medicinal Plants/' consider that the true source of Santonine is 
the Russian and Asiatic Artemisia pauciflora, Weber (A. Cina, Willk., not Berg.). 



from 



78-5 

diaphoresis; it should be proven. The Egyptian and Palestine Babounv or Ze um* 
{Santolina fragrantissima, Forsk.) is substituted in Cairo for chamomile, and used 
in eye affections. The Chinese and Japanese Artemisia Indian Wiikl.. is said to 
be a powerful deobstruent and antispasmodic. The East Indian Emila scnuhij 
D.C., is used in India as a febrifuge. Thus throughout the order almost ever) 
genus has its useful species, especially in their native localities. 

^ Among the edible vegetables afforded by the order, we find the Jerusalem 

Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosum, Linn.);* the Hurop< n alsify ( '/>, fog 
porrifolius, Linn.) ; Endive and Chiccory, mentioned under Cichorium lntybu 
93 ; and Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, Linn.). 



History and Habitat. — Eupatorium purpureum is indigenous to N .rth 
America. Its northern range extends from New Brunswick to kat.lx-uan 
thence it grows southward to Florida and westward to New Mexico, Utah 

and British Columbia. It grows in rich, low grounds, where it blossoms throu >ui 

the summer months. ■ 

The previous use of the purple flowen 1 bones- 1 was very similar to that i 
its congener, E. perfoliatum. It, however, ha proven especially valuabli as 

a diuretic and stimulant, as well as an astringent tonic. It proves useful in 
dropsy, strangury, gravel, hematuria, gout and rheumatism; seem in to e -it a 

special influence upon chronic renal and cystic trouble, especially wh< n th m 

excess of uric acid present (King). 

The preparations of the Eclectic Materia Mcdica are: Pccoi ttn Eupoioi 

Purpurei ; Infusum Eupatorii Purpurea and Infusum l : .pi^ n C mposi 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root hould be chop] d 

ded to a pulp and weighed. Then two j irts by weight of alcohol ire tak 



the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the r< I ot 



dded. After having stirred the whole well, pour it into a well stoppered bottl 
and allow it to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture separated from this mass by filtration has a clear, orange col 
by transmitted light. It is slightly bitter and astrin; u, has a omewhal ten 
binthic odor, and an acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Xo specific analysis to determine a pecial 

principle has been made of this plant. The chemistry of J perl itu.n probably 
applicable more or less to this species. 

Eupurpurin.— This so called oleoresin was pr :ipitated from a tincture of the 

jrrell. The body is thrown down when the alcoholic tinctur I poured 



by M 



of water and the alcohol is filtered of 



* The true artichokes, however, are, the succulent recc tele of the lih Eur 

Cardoons, i. e., the leafstalks of C. carunculus. 

t Epigia, Eupatorium purpureum, Aralia hispula, anH Ahhe* offic.nal 




3D ' IV! -7 Stti Ml . I 



flf^f! 



78-6 

dark 



h-brown mass, ha 



& 



a nauseous taste. 



d 



b 



known, the full action of 
soluble in water. 



principles of 



^ 



as far as 
! root not 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Eupatorium purpureum — in doses of from 10 
to 60 drops of the tincture — causes increased secretion of the glands of the mouth ; 
nausea; crampy pains in the stomach and bowels; aching or cutting pains' in the 
bladder with a sensation of fullness and soreness, and a constant desire to void 



th scanty discharge ; increased h 



d 



gen 



feeling all 



through the 



stem of languor, soreness, faintness, and weakness, with yawning 



and intense desire to sleep 



Description of Plate 78. 



1. Whole plant, 15 times reduced, Chemung, N. Y., September 10th, 1879 

2. One of the smaller branches of the corymb. 



* Mrs. Dresser's experience with the drug. 



Nirw 







79 














.TXL.ad natdel.et pinxt. 



EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM , Linn 






N. ORD -COMPOSITE. 

Tribe -EUPATORIACE/E. 

GENUS.— EUPATORIUM. 

SEX. SYST.— SYNGENESIA ^QUALIS. 



79 



* 



EUPATORIUM 

PERFOLIATUM 



BONE SET. 



SYN.— EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM, LINN. ; E. CONNATUM, MICHX. ; E. 

SALVLEFOLIUM, SIMS ; E. VIRGINIANUM, PLUK. 

COM. NAMES— BONESET, THOROUHWORT, AGUE-WEED, VEGETABLE 

ANTIMONY, INDIAN SAGE, PEVERWORT,* CROSSWORT, SWEATING 
WEED, THOROUGH- W AX ; t (FR.) EUPATORIE PERFOLIEE, HERBE 
PARFAITE, HERBE A FIEVRE; (GER.) DURCHWACHSENER WASSER- 



HANF. 



WHOLE 



Description. — This familiar plant grows to a height of from 2 to 4 feet. Stem 
stout, cylindrical, or somewhat terete, fastigiately branched above, and villous- 
pubescent throughout ; leaves connate perfoliate,* divaricate, narrowly lanceolate 
and acuminate; they are prominently one-ribbed, rugose, copiously studded with 
resinous dots, finely and closely crenulate-serrate, dark and shining green above 
and soft-pubescent or almost cottony beneath. Inflorescence a d« nse, somewhat 
convex, compound, capitate, corymbose cyme; heads small, very numerous; 
bracts narrowly-lanceolate, hairy, and furnished with slightly scarious, acutish 



flowers mostly 10; corolla tubular-campanulate ; teeth broadly 



tips ; 

Akenes small glandular, oblong-linear, smooth, and bluntly 5-angled ; pappus 

shorter than the corolla. The description of Eupatorium as given under the 
preceding drug should be read in connection with this. 

History and Habitat.— Boneset is a common plant, indigenous to North 
America where it ranges from New Brunswick to Dakota in the North, to Florida 
and Louisiana in the South. It grows in marshy places on the borders of lakes, 
ponds, and streams, where it blossoms from July to September. 

There is probably no plant in American domestic practice that has more 
extensive or frequent use than this. The attic, or woodshed, of almost every 
country farm-house, has its bunches of the dried herb hanging tops downward from 
the rafters during the whole year, ready for immediate use should some member 



* The true Feverwort with us is Triosteum perfoliatum (Caprifoliace*) 

t The true Thoroughwax is Bupleurum rotundifolium, L.nn. (Umbelhfene). 



\ 



7 9-2 

of the family, or that of a neighbor, be taken with a cold. How many children 
have winced when the maternal edict : " drink this boneset ; it'll do you good," has 
been issued; and how many old men have craned their necks to allow the nause- 
ous draught to the quicker pass the palate ! The use of a hot infusion of the tops 
and leaves to produce diaphoresis, was handed down to the early settlers of this 
country by the Aborigines, who called it by a name that is equivalent to ague-weed. 
It was first introduced, as a plant, into England in 1699; but was not used in 
medical practice, even in this country, until about the year 1800, but it now has a 
place in every work on Medical Botany which treats of North American plants. 

Eupatorium perfoliatum is diaphoretic only when given in generous doses of 
the hot infusion ; a cold decoction is claimed to be tonic and stimulant in moderately 
small, laxative in medium, and emetic in large doses. It is also said to be anti- 
dyspeptic and anti-rheumatic. It is prominently adapted to cure a disease peculiar 
to the South, known as break-bone fever (Dengue), and it is without doubt from 
this property that the name boneset was derived. This herb has also been found 
to be curative in intermittent fever, bilious fever, bilious colic, typhus, and typhoid 
conditions, influenza, catarrhal fever, rheumatism, lake fever, yellow fever, and 
remittent types of fevers in general. Many of the earlier works allude to this 
species as being diuretic, and therefore of great use in dropsy ; this is evidently 
an error of substitution, the previously described drug being the species used. 

Dr. Barton, who had made this species one in general use in his practice, 
observes as follows: "The late Samuel C. Hopkins, M.D., who resided in the 
village of Woodbury, N. J., and had an extensive practice in a range of fifteen or 
twenty miles of a populous tract of country, in which, from the low and marshy 
nature of the soil — exposure of many of the inhabitants holding fisheries, to the 
water and other pernicious causes — intermittent and typhus fevers were very 
prevalent, and the latter particularly malignant. The Doctor was among those 
partial to the sweating plan of treating this fever, and his unusual success in a 
multitude of cases for five or six years in succession, is strongly in favor of that 
mode of practice. The boneset was the medicine used in producing this effect. 
He prescribed it freely in warm and cold decoction, but preferred the warm. He 
assured me that in many instances his sole reliance was upon this plant, which was 
occasionally so varied in its manner of exhibition as to produce emesis, and fre- 
quently was intentionally pushed to such extent as to excite free purging. Its 
diaphoretic effect, however, he deemed it indispensable to ensure, and therefore 
preferred in general giving it warm." * 

My friend, Dr. Henry S. Sloan, of this city, relates his personal experience 
with this drug as follows : When a young man, living in the central part of this 
State, he was attacked with intermittent fever, which lasted off and on for three 
years. Being of a bilious temperament, he grew at length sallow, emaciated, and 
hardly able to get about. As he sat one day, resting by the side of the road, an 
old lady of his acquaintance told him to go home and have some thoroughwort 



* Barton, Med. Bot., ii, 136 



79-3 

" fixed," and it would certainly cure him. (He had been given, during the years he 
suffered, quinine, cinchonine, bark and all its known derivatives, as well as chola- 
gogues, and every other substance then known to the regular practitioner, without 
effect; the attacks coming on latterly twice a day.) On reaching home, with the 
aid of the fences and buildings along the way, he received a tablespoonful oi a 
decoction of boneset evaporated until it was about the consistency of syrup, and 
immediately went to bed. He had hardly lain down when insensibility and stupor 
came on, passing into deep sleep. On awaking in the morning, he felt decided^ 
better, and from that moment improved rapidly without farther medication, atnil 
flesh and strength daily. No attack returned for twenty years, when a short on< 
was brought on by lying down in a marsh while luintin 

From my own experience, as well as what 1 have learned from oth , I fe 
confident that as an "antiperiodic" this drug will b- indicat 1 much more fr 



<r 



f the :,2 






quently in the United States than quinine, and exhibit its peculiar action in 
curative manner, not palliative as is most common in th hit! r subs ince *in-n 
exhibited ex patria. I have observed that boneset acts more urely in intermitt At 
fever, when the disease was contracted near it il.itnt. /. ■ by str ams, p and 

lakes in the United States east of the S 5 W< ft longitudi 
north latitude. It may be stated that this is true of most plants used in nv 
and probably accounts for many failures of foreign drugs in domestic di 

witness Conium, Cinchona, etc., etc. 

The officinal preparation in the U. S. Ph., is Extra turn /:*&< i Hum. 

In the Eclectic Materia Medica the following preparations are re amended 



Extractum £«/>atom t Infusum EufatorU, and PiMa Aloes Camp 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.- rhr whole fresh plant, altered 

i .1.. i; n » <li-m-r 'I hr» rr«»it 



as it is 



coming into flower, is prepared as in the preceding dru; 






paq 



in 



thin layers it exhibits a deep, slightly orange-brown color 



by transmitted lig 



penetrati 



the 



and imparts a sensation to the tongue very similar to that of „, er ; « rcuu, 
peculiar odor of the plant, and has an acid react,.. n. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITDENTS.-/-«/><t/<»v^.-This glue id. ,vas M ted 

from a peS of the dried tops and Laves of this plan, l,y G. Utin * it was , 

from a percolate , ana |y S< ., referred to below, but was not isolat 1, b in 

appreciated m mo tof «£"££ K ^ is ,,,, cnl) , | M a rffchdj id 

spoken of as a ^'" r P™^^ ,„,, ,', oi lin, water, yielding a red pr .tat 

; P Sd b 2 SS-X acid, and a white p cipUate with the co,d acid. 1, 

'J phys ica, and che -W tpg-ft « ££--? »*. aci , iallic 

Bitter extractive; lannm. _ fM p 6 7 ^ 



amo 



acid-- Resin ;••' Gum ;" s ' : Sugar ;' » andabitt 



. ThK ret. only .0 d^ «hil. for *» r*. * I--*- ; 

.. . ~ , : •* 2 Anderson, /"<///?. 7^fJ. ' 




I Bigelow, ///w. 16* A *' l > 3S 

. Bkkley, «W. 1854, 459- f ^ ^u'i'y^/ **.«♦*. "♦* 



I^tin 



Tarpons 1859, / 



79-4 



determined. The last-named substance is spoken of by some observers as being- 
resinous, others as resinoid, and again as crystallizable. I judge it to have been 
in all the Eupatorine of Latin, either mixed with some part of the other constitu- 
ents, or more or less pure. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The symptoms shown by those who have par- 
taken of large doses of an infusion of the tops and leaves, show that this drug 
causes at first an irritation of the vaso-motor system, followed by a relaxed condition 
of the capillaries, and an increase of the heart's action, again followed by severe 
congestion and higher temperature. The symptoms are : Faintness, with loss of 
consciousness, ending in lethargic sleep ; pain, soreness, and throbbing in head ; 
soreness of eyeballs, with sharp pains and photophobia; buzzing in the ears; 
catarrhal influenza ; face red or sallow, and sickly in appearance ; tongue white 
cottony coated ; thirst especially preceding the stage of chill ; vomiting, especially 
as the chill passes off; violent colic pains in the upper abdomen; urine dark- 
colored and scanty, with frequent micturition; oppression of the chest with difficult 
breathing; stiffness, soreness and deep aching in the limbs, the long bones espe- 
cially, feel as if pounded or broken ; sleepiness, with yawning and stretching, from 
which the patient awakes with a severe headache ; skin bathed in copious sweat. 
The soreness and deep pains of Eupatorium are most general, and the skin feels 
numb and as if it would cleave from the bones. 

The adaptability of this drug to various forms of disease of paludal origin 



dily be understood 



Description of Plate 79. 



2. Flower-head. 

3. Floweret. 

4. Anther. 

5. Fruit. 

(2-4 enlarged.) 



J., July 






















■ 



/ 



fi 







i 
















/ 



'i 






\ ) 






.{ 




• 






(pin . i«i *h«w jwt 



8 



7 



I 






\ 



ERI6ER0N 




An 



*DENS£ . Lint 




N. ORD -COMPOSITE 

Tribe -ASTEROIDE/E. 



80 



GENUS.— E RIG E RON,* LINN 



SEX. SYST.-SYNGENESIA SUPERFLUA. 



ERIGERON 



CANADA FLEABAJVK 



SYN. 



5ANADENSE, LINN.; B. PANICULATUS, LAM.; 
STRICTUM, D. C.; SENECIO CILIATUS. WALT 



COM. NAMES, — CANADA FLEABANE, HORSE-WEED, BUTTER- WEED 
COLT'S TAIL, PRIDE-WEED, SCABIOUS; (FR.) ERIGERON DE CANADA 
(GER.) CANADISCHES BERUFKRAUT. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT, ERIGERON CANADENSE, LINN 



scales 



Description. — This common annual herb grows to a height of from i 
to 4 feet, according to the soil. Stem strict, striate, varying from sparsely 
hispid to almost glabrous; branches mostly superior, short, slender, ascending. 
Leaves all sessile, alternate, and more or less ciliate-hispid ; the lower often some- 
what spatulate, 3-nerved, and sparingly incised; upper leaves linear-lanceolate 
acute at each end. Inflorescence in a more or less dense terminal panicle ; hi d 
very small, cylindrical, many flowered, and radiate; the /ace flat or hemispl 
peduncles and pedicels short ; involucre almost glabrous ; 
nearly equal, little imbricated, all reflexed in fruit ; receptacle flat or convex, nak d, 
and pitted. Ray florets white, fertile, crowded in a single row, a little exserted 
and surpassing the branches of the style ; tube, elongated-cylindrical : liguU very 
short, ascending, 2-toothed. Disk florets bisexual; corolla tubular, mostly 4- 
toothed; filaments very short, filiform; anthers cylindrical, half exserted, not 
tailed, the connective prolonged at the apex; style short, branched; stigmas spread- 
ing. ' Achenia oblong, flattened, usually pubescent, 2-nerved ; pappus simple, a 
single row of capillary bristles. 



History 



Erigeron is indigenous to the eastern and central belt 
f NortnAmerica, where it is common in dry soils, from Canada to Texas ; from 
thence southward, through South America, as far as Argentine Republic. 



erable dock weeds sh< 



In part to recompense Europe for the mis 
have returned her this species, which has now spread through Asia to the sea. 
It is also introduced in South Africa, Australia, and many of the I aaf.c .slands. 
It flowers, with us, in July and August, maturing its profusion of parachute-hke 



seeds in autumn. 



* 



Hp, Er, «*«;*****- old man '' on acc °- ,nt ° f the hDa,y aPPCaranCe ° f ~ VCrnrl1 " d 



80-2 

The applicability of a decoction of this herb to many forms of diarrhoea was 
well known to the Aborigines, and is now used in that di ease by the Cree In- 
dians of Hudson Bay. It was introduced in the practice at the New York Alms- 
house, in 1872, by Dr. Gilbert Smith, for a type of diarrhoea that often prevailed 
there, and met with very great >ucce^ . 

The decoction has proven tonic, stimulant, astringent and diuretic, and been 
found useful in dropsies and many forms of urinary disorders, both renal and 

cystic, — such as gravel, diabetes, dysury, strangury, and urethritis; /:. heterophyl- 
lum, and Philadelphicum have, however, greater power than Canadense in this 
direction. The oil of the plant is acrid, and, though not astringent, is, ne\ rtheless, 
an extraordinary styptic ; it was introduced by Eclectic practice, and is an effi- 
cient agent in the treatment of hemorrhoids, passive hemorrhage, diarrhoea, dys- 
entery, hemoptysis,* hematemesis, hematuria, and menorrha^ia ; as well as an 



palliative in the treatment of sore throat, with swelling of the gland 



boils, tumors, rheumatism and gonorrhoea. The dose of the oil is from four to 
six drops in water, repeated not oftener than every hour, if much is to be required. 

The officinal preparation of the U. S. Ph., is Oleum Erigcrontis ; in the 
Eclectic Dispensatory, Oleum Erigcrontis and Infusum Erigerontis. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant, gathered during 
its flowering season, is treated as in the two preceding species. The resulting 
tincture has a clear, brownish-orange color by transmitted light; a somewhat 
aromatic odor; a slightly bitter and astringent taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— No analysis of the plant has yet been made 
that individualizes the bitter principle first separated by De Puy,f who also de- 
termined, in this species, gallic and tannic acids, and an essential oil, and proved 
that all the qualities of the herb were extracted by cold water or alcohol. 



Oil of Erigeron Canadense. — This body may be extracted by distilling th 



fresh herb with water. It 



pale yellow liquid, gradually 



becoming darker and thicker by age or exposure, and having an aromatic, persis- 

boils at 178 (3524° F -); has 



dor, an acrid 
gr. of from .845 to .850, and is readily solubl 



This 



*In the autumn of 1883,1 was called hastily to attend Miss X. I found her sitting upon the floor, her arm 

resting upon a chair and her head bending over a common-size Toot bath-tub, and every few moments a large 
quantity of bright red blood would gurglingly issue from her mouth. She had been spitting such quantities for over 
three-quarters of an hour, and the tub was over half-filled with foamy blood, and, I judge, a large quantity of saliva. 
I immediately mixed about a drachm of tincture of Erigeron in half a goblet of water, and gave her two teaspoon- 
fuls of the mixture every five minutes, while getting the history of the case. She had been subject to these hemor- 
rhages, which did not occur at the menstrual epoch, for some months past, though they were much le-s in quantity 
than the present one. Her family history was consumptive and hemorrhagic, and her physical strength always below 
medium. The hemorrhage now being arrested (after the second dose) leaving her terribly exsanguinated, I had her 
removed to her bed, and put her on light liquid food in large quantities. This treatment was followed by Erigeron in a 
potency for a month, one dose nightly, upon which her strength improved ; and, up to the last time I saw her, three years 
after, no subsequent hemorrhage occurred Her menstrual flux, which had been much too copious and early, was also 
corrected; and her general health, as she expresses, a thousand times better than at any time since her monthlies com- 
menced. 

f Inq. into Bot. His'., Chem. Prop., and Med. Qua/. Erig. Can., 18 15. 



contains less oxygen than that obta 



from E. heteropln 



80-3 

and consists 



mainly of a terpene (C 10 H 16 ), which, after distillation over soil 



boils at 17'' 



-/CO 



/ 



(348. 8° F.), and has a sp. gr. of 



(644° F.). 



:. : ". 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION,— The symptoms arising during th 
of Dr. W. H. Burt,f were mainly as follows: Cephallagia ; smartin 
roughness of the pharynx ; soreness of the throat ; abdominal distn 
increased urine ; aching of back and extremities ; and prostration. 



Description of Plate 80. 



1. 



Inflorescence, Binghamton, N. V., Aug. i8th, i88'» 

2. A portion of the raid-stem. 

3. Lower leaf. 

4. Flower-he;M. 

5. Ray-floret. 

6. Di>k-fioret. 

7. Srale of the involucre. 

8. Stamen. 

9. Fruit. 

(4-9 enlarged. ) 



* Am. Jour. Pkar. % 1883, 372 | BerukU, 188; 0- 

f Am. Uom. Obs., 1866, p. 357- 


















81. 





















GflH. ad nat.dal.et pinxt. 



Inula Helenium. Linn. 






N. ORD-COMPOSIT^E. 

Tribe -ASTEROIDE/E. 

GENUS.-INULA,* LINN. 

SEX. SYST.-SYNC, i:\ESI A, POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA. 



81 







A. 



ELECA MPANE.^ 



SYN— INULA HELENIUM, L, CORVISARTIA HELENIUM, MERAT. 

COM. NAMES.— ELECAMPANE, SCABWORT, (GER.) ALANT, (FR.) AUNEE 



TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF INULA HELENIUM, Z. 



Description.— This strikingly beautiful perennial attains a height of from 
feet. Root thick, mucilaginous, more or less tap-shaped, about 6 inches Ion 
to 2 inches thick in the largestpart, having a curled furrowcommencing ah 
ich from the stem end, and running nearly to the tip ; somewhat branchir 
branches o-enerally longer than the main root, but not so thick. The bar is 



i 



■^ 



hth 



d or flakev, showing upon section a thickness of fi 



f 



Stem erect, stout, rounded, 



Lea 



w^, .WN^uniw iv.t*^.....^ 



fibers, and dotted generally 

downy above, branching? n< 

a length of 18 inches and a breadth of from 4 to 6 inches; those near the root are 

ovate? petioled, the others sessile partly clasping ; all green above, and whitish 

downy beneath. Peduncles of the flower-heads are given off from the axils of 

the upper leaves, they are long, thick, sometimes furnished with a pair of small 

leaves midway in their length; such are " ' "" 



branches, and 



more 



than one flower-head on separate pedicles. / 



outer scales broadly ovate, sometimes leaf-like, the inner becoming at length 



linear. Flower-heads 



at or near the summit ol 



the plant- the somewhat convex, naked, flat receptacles measunng about i inch 
in diameter The heads are many-flowered, the ray-florets numerous and arranged 
o-enerally in a single series, pistillate, but often infertile; the rays ligulate, un- 
equally three-notched at the tip, and generally daspmg the pistil lonmnjj a 
tube Disk-florets many, tubular, perfect, the tube smoothed or I,., 1. Sta.uens 
five 'inserted on the corolla, their Anthers syngenesious mth two serrate tails at 

the 'base. Ovary oblong; Style a-cleft at the apex. Aehoua tere 
the sides smooth ; pappus simple, composed of bnstly hairs. A ge 
tion of the Composite will be found under Eupatonum purpureum. 



d 



lied to the same speaes. Medieval, EsULA. ,.,,„„,,„,« 

t A„te.Lin„.van name ENOI.A C.UWNi, from »!>•<* ElecanpM.. 



81-2 



History and Habitat.— Inula was one of the most famous of ancient medicines, 
d continued in vogue in the old school until very recent times. It owed th< 
putation it gained to its stimulant qualities. As far back as the Hippocratic 

; it is stated to be a stimulant to the brain, the stomach, the kidneys, and 



& 



the uterus. 



This plant is a native of Southern England, now thoroughly naturalized in 
Europe and our country. It grows here spontaneously in the Northern States, in 
damp places along road-sides, the borders of gardens and about the ruins of old 
buildings. It flowers in July and August, and is a strikingly beautiful plant, 
reminding one forcibly of its near relative, the sunflower. 

Inula is simply mentioned in the U. S. Ph. The Eclectic officinal preparations 
are: Dccoctum Hclcnii, and Extractum Helcnii AlcoJioiicuni. Inula is also one 
of the components of Syrupus Araliee Compositus. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh roots slathered j n autumn 



& 



of the second year's growth in preference, as the older ones are too woody) 

Dpped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by we 

[ are taken, and having mixed the pulp thoroughly with one-sixth part of 



the rebt of the alcohol is added ; after having stirred the whole well, and 



t> 






poured it into a well-stoppered bottle, it is allowed to stand eight days in a dark, 
cool place. The tincture is then separated by decanting, straining and filtering. 

Thus prepared it is, by transmitted light, of a clear amber color, has a 
decided bitter and astringent taste, and an acid reaction to litmus. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Inulin* C 6 H 10 CX. This amylose principle 
is found in the plants of many genera of the order Composite ; but as it occurs 
in greater percentage in this genus, I describe it here. It will be noticed that 
this substance has the same composition as starch, still, though it takes the 
place of that body in the roots of this order of plants, it acts in many ways 
entirely different; for instance, it dissolves readily in hot water, but forms a clear 
solution, not an opaline pasty mass, its reaction with a solution of iodine gives a 
brown, not a blue color. It does not form in the plant as granular shell-like 
bodies as does starch, but is in solution in the plant juice. Inulin maybe thrown 
down from its watery solution by alcohol, forming thus globular masses of white 
needle-like crystals, called in the dried plant " Sphaero-crystals." Upon boiling 
this substance with a dilute acid, it is rapidly converted into levulose, but not at 
lower temperature. It is considered by Kiliani to be an anhydride of levulose. 

Elecampane Camphor, formerly called Helinin, was given the composition 
C M H 28 O 10 . Kallen succeeded in resolving it into two crystallizable bodies which 
he describes as follows : 

Helinin, C G H 8 O, a principle devoid of odor or taste, crystallizing in needles 
and fusing at 230 F., and 

Alant-Camphor (Inulol, Inuloid, Elecampane-camphor), C 10 H 16 O, not sup- 
posed to be a pure substance; it has an odor and taste resembling peppermint, 
and fuses at 147.2 F. (Et supra, Wittstein.) 



* Alanin, Menyanthin, Elecampin, Dahlin, Datiscin. 






* t-3 

Synanthrose, C 12 H,,., O n . — This saccharose bodv occurs according to Schor 



lemmer in the tubers of Inula and other Composite. It is a non-crj Jline 

powder, light, deliquescent, and having no sweet taste. 

Inulic Acid.— Exists in larger quantities than inulol; it is probably the an- 
hydride of some acid peculiar to this plant. 

Resin.— A brown, bitter, nauseous acrid body, aromatic when warm, soluble 
in alcohol and ether; wax, gum. salts of K, Ca, and M , and a trace of \<>latil< 
oil have also been determined. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Inula has been held to be a stimulant to the 

secretory organs, but the effects produced — according to Fischer* — in those \vh< 
partook of the juice of the root, show the opposite effect ! His schema ol prOmin it 
symptoms is as follows: Confusion of the head, with nausea and verti o on stoop 
; burning of the eyeballs; dryness of the mouth ami throat increased peris 

c action of the intestines, with griping or tensive pain ; di jing (in the r im 



£> 



d female genitalia; much urging 
e lumbar region, with sleeplessiH 



The more minut< tion f 



the drug seems to fully carry out the above, which shows Inula to 1>< an 
diaphoretic, diuretic, or expectorant in a physiol* deal sen: 



Description of Pi \n 8i. 

i. Whole plant five times redi 1, from Wanly, \. V . \ugusl II i, itto, 

2. Flower-head. 

3. Disk dower (enlarged). 

4. Stamen (enl&rg I 

5. Ray-floret < nl. rged). 

6, on of the root. 

7. Seed. 



* Vidt Allen, M Ec Ma*. Med," * • V t p, 113. 




4 



82 








yf 







.111. . ad aat del.et pinxt. 



AMBROSIA ARTEMISIAEFOLIA, Linn 



N. ORD -COMPOSITE. 

Tribe . SENEGIONIDE/E. 

G KNUS.— AMBROSIA,* TOURN 

SEX. SYST.— MONCECIA l'ENTANDRIA. 



82 



AMBROSIA 

ARTEMISI^EFOLIA 



RAG -WEED. 



SYN. — AMBROSIA ARTIMISI^FOLIA, LINN.; A. ELATIOR, LINN.; A. 
ABSYNTHIFOLIA AND PANICULATA, MICHX.; A. HBTEROPHYLLA, 



MUHL , 

COM. NAMES 
OR BAST 



MONOPHYLLA, WALT. 

4.G-WEED, ROMAN WORMWOOD, CARROT-WEED, WILD 
) WORMWOOD. HOG 



WEED 



WEED. BITTER- 



WEED; (PR.) AMBROSIE; (GER.) TRAUBENKRAUT. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE HERB AMBROSIA ARTEMISLEFOI.IA, LINN. 



Description. 



from 



his annual, pubescent or hirsute weedy-herb, attains a growth 
Stem erect, at first simnle. then Daniculatelv branched. Leaves 



opposite and alternate, 
inflorescence often enti 
irregularly pinnatifid o 



h, bipinnatifid, or pinnatifidly parted, th 



f 



»oth above and pale or hoary beneath ; divisions 
Flowers unisexual on the same plant. Sterile 



heads numerous, gamophyllous, arranged in centripetal, racemose spikes, all more 
or less recurved-pedicelled and not subtended by bracts; involucre truncate, sau- 
cer-shape or campanulate, not costate but indistinctly radiate veined ; border irreg- 
ularly 4 to 6 toothed ; corolla obconical, the border 5-toothed ; stamens 5 ; filaments 

txed ; abortive 

Fertile heads 



bel 



short ; anthers deltoid, slightly united, their short appendages infl 
tyle columnar, the apex dilated and penicillate, strongly exserted. 

apetalous, glomerate in the axils of the upper leaves and 
spikes ; involucre open, nutlet-like ; corolla reduced to a ring aro 
the style ; style bilamellar, exserted: Akcnes turgid-ovoid, triangularly c 
short-beaked, and crowned with from 4 to 6 short teeth or spines ; papp 



s 



1 to 3 



male 



d the base of 



History and Habitat 



—This too-common, truly American weed, is indigenous 



from Nova Scotia to Saskatchewan, Washington Territory, and southward to Bra- 
It habits waste fields, roadsides, and dry places, and blossoms from the latter 



zil. 



of July to October. 
The former uses of th 



plant were but slight, its principal use being 



antiseptic 



a 



b 



emollient fo 
e for ouinin 



its bitt 



b 



fully 



aused its use in Maryland a 
A. Zabriskie. of Closter, N. J 



* 'Wfoeia, ambrosia, the food of the gods; the gods know win 






82-2 

claims it to be a successful application to the poisonous effects of Rhus if rubbed 
upon the inflamed parts until they are discolored by its juice. Being very astrin- 
gent, it has also been used to check discharges from mucous surfaces, such as 
mercurial ptyalism, leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea, and especially in septic forms of diar- 
rhoea, dysentery, and enteritis. It lays some claim also to being stimulant and 
tonic, and is recognized in the Mexican Pharmacopuia as an emmenagogue, feb- 
rifuge, and anthelmintic. Of late years much attention has been called to the 
species of this genus, especially this and A. trijida, as being, through their pollen, 
the cause of hay fever, many people affected with this troublesome disorder laying 
the charge direct ; certain it is that when the pollenation of the plant is begun 
the disorder generally commences in those subject to it, and only ceases when the 
plants are out of flower, unless the patient is able to sojourn to mountain heights 
out of the limit of their growth. We have had the pleasure of curing two patients 
of this disease, both of whom had asthmatic symptoms at the height of the trouble, 
with drop doses of the tincture tres in dies. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant, when in the 
height of its sexual season, should be carefully gathered to retain all the pollen 
possible, and macerated for fourteen days in twice its weight of absolute alcohol, 
being kept in a dark, cool place, well corked, and shaken twice a day. The tinc- 
ture thus prepared should, after pressing, straining, and filtering, have a clear 
orange-red color by transmitted light; an odor like chocolate; a similar taste, 
followed by bitterness ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— This plant has not yet been investigated as 
to its specific chemical nature ; Tannin, and an essential oil, itself uninvestigated, 
being all we possess of knowledge in this direction. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Ambrosia appears to have a decided irritant 
action upon mucous membranes, not only by its pollen directly applied, b 



gestion in infusion and 



and extended 



The plant certainly deserves thorough 



Description of Plate 82. 



Whole 



2. A leaf. 

3. Male involucre. 

4. Face of same, showing sterile flowers 

5. Sterile flower. 

6. Sterile style. 

7. Stamen. 

8. Anther. 

9. Female flower. 

10. Fruit. 

11. Horizontal section of akene. 

(3-1 1 enlarged. ) 



New Rem., 1879, 2 39- 



h:j 






TU.ailnat.del.et.pinxt 



HELIANTHUS ANNUUS. L.nn 



N. ORD.-COMPOSITiE 

Tribe.-SENEGIONIDE/E. 



83 



GENUS.— HELIANTHUS,* LINN 



SEX. SYST.-SYNGENESIA FRUSTRANEA. 



HELIANTHUS. 



5 UNFL O WER. 



SYN.— HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, LINN. 

COM. NAMES— SUNFLOWER; (GER.) SONNENBLUME 

SOL. 



TINCTURE OF THE RIPE ACHENIA OF HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, LINN. 



Description. — This commonly cultivated plant, springing from an annual 
>ot, attains a height of from 3 to 18 or more feet, and bears numerous large ftower- 
sads on long peduncles. Stem erect, rounded and rough, bearing opposta 
aves below and alternate ones above. Leaves petioled, broadly ovate or heart- 
laped, from 5 to 10 inches long, and 4 to 8 inches broad, rough and conspicuously 
■ribbed. Peduncles long, gradually thickening into a funnel-form base at the 
involucre. Involucre composed of ovate aristate, hirsute scales, imbricated in 






d 



several rows. Flower-heads many, nodding, bearing innumerable ray ai 
disk florets; they range from 6 to 12 inches in diameter with a flat or convex disk. 
Ray-florets numerous, ligulate and neutral. Disk-florets, all perfect and fertile, 
with short 5-lobed tubes, decemneurate. Pollen grains ovate, beset with nume- 
rous rows of spines. Ovary 1 -celled ; style invested with stiff 1 lire ; sH t ma 2- 
branched, with subulate appendages. Achenia ovate-oblong or cuneiform, somc- 
„,w ^.^.-anmilarlv romnressed. without margins, each achenium b< iring 2 ear- 



like chaffy scales, sometimes accompanied by an accessory pair, all of which fall 
away when the seed is ripe. A description of the natural order will be found 
under Eupatorium purpureum. 

History and Habitafc.-The sunflower is one of the natives of tropical 
America that has become popular in cultivation in many countries, both on ac- 



f 



s beautiful flowers, whose bright chrome rays, in their many modes of 



d reflexing in a circle about the hand 



attractive as a gard 



well as the many usi to which th< s< ds 



are put. 



From points where it is cultivated it ofte 



by spontaneous growth, blossoming from July until August. The white c 
pith of the stalk contains nitre; this fact has led to its use asad.uretic, and re 
1 , , r. ,t„~ „* o form of moxa. The leaves, when carefully cared for 



d it also as a form of 



* /iXio,-, the sun, S^;, a flower. 



83-2 

successfully dried, have been used as a substitute for tobacco in cigars, the flavor 
of which is said to greatly resemble that of mild punish tobacco. The seeds have 
been extensively used for fattening poultry : fowls eat of these greedily on account 
of their oily nature. How much a fact it may be that a growth of this plant about 
a dwelling protects the inhabitants against malarial influeno is not yet proven, 

though strongly asserted by many. An infusion of the stems is claimed to b< 



anti-malarial, and with some forms will probably prove such. A further proving of 
the tincture is greatly needed, as it would doubtless show an adaptability in this 
direction. Helianthus has no place in the U. S. Ph. In the Eclectic Materia 
Medica the infusion of the seeds is used as a mild expectorant, and the expressed 
oil as a diuretic. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. -The ripe seeds. The seeds when 
ripe are of a dark purplish color, more or less 4-sided and 4-angled by com- 
pression; they are about half an inch in length by one-eighth in breadth. The 
husk is whitish internally and the kernel sweet, oily and edible. The tincture 
is made by coarsely powdering the ripe seeds, covering the mass with five parts 
by weight of dilute alcohol, and allowing it to remain at least eight days in a well- 
corked bottle, in a dark, cool place, bdng shaken twice a day. The tincture is 
then decanted, strained and filtered. 

Thus prepared it is by transmitted light a very pale straw-color, has no char- 
acteristic taste, and has an acid reaction to litmus-paper. 



The analysis of this plant by \Y 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS, 
1879, was made exclusive of the seeds, and has therefore no interest to us. Th 
fruit contains by his analysis from twelve to twenty-four per cent, of fixed oil, hav- 
ing a light straw-color, mild taste, and watery consistence, its specific gravity 
being .926°. It becomes turbid at ordinary temperatures and solidifies at — 16 . 

Helianthic Acid.— C. H 9 4 , in the form of a slightly colored powder, has 
been extracted from the kernels; it is soluble both in water and alcohol. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Very little or nothing is known of the physio- 
logical action of this plant, which would necessarily be slight. It causes dryness 
of the mucous membranes of the mouth, throat, and fauces, excites vomit- 
ing, heat and redness of the skin, and some slight inflammation of the cuticle. 
A thorough proving of the whole plant is greatly to be desired, as without doubt 
another remedy would be found in it to add to our excellent list for intermittents. 



Description of Plate %$. 

1. Whole plant, seven times reduced, from a cultivated specimen. Binghamton, N. Y., Sept 8, 1S82 

2. Flower head. 

3. Floweret (enlarged). 

4. Young seed. 

5. Mature seed. 

6. Scale of involucre. 

7. Ray. 

8. Pollen grain x 200. 



84 





Fi 




h \g % 




.TXt . ad nat dei.et pinxt 



ANTHEMIS NOBIUS , L.nn 



N. ORD -COMPOSITE. 

Tribe-SENECIONIDE/E. 

GENUS.— A NTH EM IS,* LINN 

SEX. SVST.— SYNGENESrA SUPERFLUA. 



84 



ANTHEMIS NOBILIS. 



110 MAM CHAMOMILE. 



SYN.— ANTHEMIS NOBILIS, LINN. ; A. AUREA, D. C. ; CHAMOMILL A NO- 
BILIS, GODR.; CHAM^JMELUM NOBILE, ALL.; ORMENIS NOBILIS, 
GAY. 

COM. NAMES.— TRUE CHAMOMILE, GARDEN CHAMOMILE,! CORN FEVER- 



■ - 



FEW J; (FR.) CHAMOMILE ROMAINE ; (GER.) ROMISCHE KAMILLEN. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT ANTHEMIS NOBILIS, LINN. 



Description. — This 



great 



above the ground. Stems smooth or slightly pubescent, the sterile creeping, the 
fertile somewhat ascending; branches numerous, hairy. Leaves alternate, sessile, 
pinnately bi- or tri-ternately compound, and dissected into filiform segments. Heads 
heterogamous, many-flowered, and rather large, terminal and solitary upon the 
branches ; peduncles long, pubescent ; involucre hemispherical, consisting of 2 or 
3 rows of comparatively small, imbricated bracts, the outer successively shorter; 
receptacle oblong, with blunt, chaffy bracts subtending most of the florets. Disk- 
florets numerous, yellow, bi-sexual; corolla tubular, slightly gibbous below, enlarged 
above to bell-shaped, and having a few oil glands upon its surface ; limb 5-lobed: 

5 ; anthers tailless at the base ; style slender, bifurcated. Ray-fli 



to 20 white fertile; ligtdes 3-toothed at the apex; style-branches stigmatic 



their truncate, penicillate extremities. Akenes terete, glabrous, marked by 3 
distinct ridges upon their inner faces, the truncate summit naked ; pappus none, 
p nersistent base of the corolla, however, appearing like a coronal body of that 



nature. 



History and Habitat. — This European immigrant has, as yet, spread but 
little in this country, it being only occasionally found spontaneous near gardens. 

where it blossoms in July and August. 

On account of many species being nearly related to this one, and the ancient 
descriptions of so meagre a type, the history of this plant, which has without 
doubt been used as long as any other, is not traceable with any chance o correct- 
ness In later times, however, it has been regarded important, by both physicians 
and the laity, and judged more active than Chamomilla, which it greatly resembles 

* "Avow, anthemis, a Greek name for NIK allied plant, 
f Our Chamomilla is Matricaria Cham *Mo t Linn 
t Garden Feverfew is Main Parlhenium. 



84-2 

in its action. As a stomachic tonic and carminative, it has been found useful in 
atonic dyspepsia, gastro-intestinal irritation, intermittent and typhoid fevers, and 
colic, and is claimed to be an effectual preventive of incubus. A warm infusion 
acts as a prompt emetic, emptying the stomach without enervating the system. 

Fomentations of the steamed leaves make a kindly application in local pains, 
neuralgic, podagric, uterine, or abdominal. Hot infusions are sudorific and 
emmenagooue, but are very apt to cause profuse diarrhoea. The oil of the plant 



is considered anti-spasmodic, useful in hysteric complaints; stimulant, and anti- 
flatulent; and is often combined with purgative pills, to prevent griping. 

The flower-heads are official in the U.S. Ph.; in the Eclectic Dispensatory 
the preparations are : Extractum Anthcmidis, Extractnm Anthcmirfis Fluidum, 
Infusum Anthemidis, and Oleum Anthcmidis ; it is also a component of Vinum 
Symphytii Com po situ m . * 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh-flowering plant is treated 
as directed for the root of Inula.f The tincture resulting has a light, brownish- 
orange color by transmitted light; the pleasant, aromatic odor of the bruised 
plant ; a taste at first sourish and pine-apple-like, then bitter ; and acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — From various analyses, this herb has been 
found to contain a volatile and fixed oil, a resin, tannin, and a bitter principle 
judged by Fliickiger to be a glucoside. 

Oil of Anthemis. — This volatile body has a bluish or greenish tint, becom- 
ing brownish or yellowish by age. It has a specific gravity of about 0.91, is com- 
posed principally of the angelates and valerates of butyl and amyl, and yields 
the following bodies : 

Angelicaldehyde, C,H 8 0, and a hydrocarbon. C ro H w having a lemonaceous 
odor, and boiling at 175 (347 F.). 

Angelic Acid, C 5 H 8 2 . — According to the analysis of Fittig, this body, first 
discovered in Angelica Archangelica, exists in the oil of Anthemis, of which it 
constitutes nearly 30 per cent. It crystalizes in large, colorless prisms, having a 
peculiar aromatic odor, and an acid and burning taste. The crystals melt at 45 
(1 1 3 F.), boil at 191 ° (375.8° F.), and are soluble in both water and alcohol. By 
heating this body, with hydriodic acid and phosphorus, to 200° (392° F.), it is con- 
verted into valerianic acid. 



Tiglic Acid, C.H 8 2 .— This isomer of the above, and of Methylcrotonic Acid, 
was discovered in Croton Oil. It exists, according to E. Schmidt, in company 
with the above ; and it is more than possible that it is identical with it, its boiling 
point and that of its ethyl-ether being the same. (Fliick. and Han., Schorlemmer 
and Wittstein.^i 



* Comfrey Root, Solomon's Seal, Helonias Root, Chamomile Flowers, Colombo Root, Gentian Root, Cardamom 
Seeds, Sassafras Bark, and Sherry Wine. 

f Page 81-2. 



84-3 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— According to the experiments made with the 



Pa 



by Dr. Berridge, Anthemis causes the following 



d full 



the head, lachrymation, ra\vn« i of 



some abdo 



the stomach and desire for food, followed by qualmish 



U- iing of 



pa 



freeness of the bowel 



tude, and a g 



feeling of chilliness. 



reased urine : higher h irt's 



Description oi Plati \. 



i. End of a fertile branch, from an escaped garden plant 

2. Ray-floret. 






. Disk-floret. 
4. Stamen. 

5. Scales of receptacle. 

6. Stigmas. 

7. Achenium. 

8 and 9. Longitudinal section of akt in 

(t-genlarg I.) 




85. 



a m % 





2 




Xd.ad fiaf.del.et pinxt 



Achillea MiLLEF6uuM,Linn. 



N. ORD.-COMPOSITi-E. 

Thbe-SENECIONIDE/E. 

GENUS.— A C H I L L E A ,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— SYNGENESIA SUPERFLUA. 



85 



MILLEFOLIUM 



YARROW. 



SYN.— ACHILLEA, MILLEFOLIUM, LINN. ACHILLEA SETACEA, W. & KIT. 

COM. NAMES.-COMMON YARROW, MILFOIL, NOSEBLEED; (FR.) MIL- 

LEFEUILLE ; (GR.) SCHAFGARBE, SCHAFRIPPE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH PLANT ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM, LINN. 



Description.— This very common roadside herb rises to a height of from 
6 to 20 inches, from a slender, creeping, perennial root, which, beside a multitude 
of filiform rootlets, gives off several long, reddish stolons. The stem is simple or 
nearly so, erect, slightly grooved and roughly hairy. Leaves alternate ; those 
from near the root wide-petioled, 2 to 6 inches long ; those of the stem proper, 
shorter, sessile or nearly so, and all in their general outline more or less lanceo- 
late oblong, twice pinnately parted, the divisions linear, crowded and 3 to 5 cleft. 
Peduncles 3 or more ; pedicels many, forming small, crowded, flat-topped corymbs 
at the summit of the plant. Heads many-flowered, radiate. Involucre, of 2 to 3 



bricated rows of ovoid-oblong scales, with a p 



drib and b 



scarious edges. Rays 4 or 5, pistillate, with a short, obovate, reflated limb 

less 3-lobed. Disk-florets 8 to 12, bisexual. Calyx limb obsol 



more or 



f th 



Corolla tubular, the summit slightly inflated, 5-lobed, the lobes revolute, acute. 
Stamens 5, inserted upon the tube, and rising slightly above the face 
corolla. Anthers adnate, without tails at the base. Style long, upright, slender, 
rising above the anthers. Stigma 2-cleft, the divisions recurved and fringed at 
their tips Receptacle small, usually flat and chaffy. Achcnia oblong, flattened 
by compression, shining and slightly margined. Pa PP us none. For a descrip- 
tion of the natural order see Eupatorium purpureum, 78. 

History and Habitat. -Yarrow is an abundant weed in old, dry pastures, 
along roadsides and in fields in the northern parts of America, extending in r - 
country, as well as in Western Asia and Europe, high in the colder latitudes, 
came to us from Europe, being now fully naturalized The white or sometn 

oink flower-heads blos-m all summer. Among the Pah-Ute Indians, accord 



It 



Dr Edward Palmer, this plant is much used in decoction for weak and dis- 

Linnaeus says, that for a time the Swedes used Yarrow in 



ordered 



greate 



f hops in the manufacture of beer, and claimed the beer , thus brew*, o De 
„„, L_U-t Millefolium has been d.srmssed from the U. S. 1 h. In the 



Eclectic practice it is used in an infu 



. The virtue, of thU eenu, »* -id to hove boon ,li s c„v e ,«<I b, Achille,. 



85-2 



PART USED AKD PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant should b< 
o-athered when flowering begins, excluding all old and woody stems, and chopped 
and pounded to a pulp ; then in a new piece of linen press out thoroughly all the 
juice and mix it by brisk succussion with an equal part by w ight of alcohol. 
Allow the mixture to stand eight days in a dark, cool place, then filter. The 




tincture thus prepared should be by transmitted light ot a clear reddish-orange 
color; its odor peculiar, resembling that of malt yeast, pungent and agreeable, 
like the fresh plant; to the taste acrid and slightly bitter, and shows an acid 
reaction to test papers. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-^/////,-/;/ C 2(1 1 1^ N., O i:> . The body formerly 
designated by this name was a mixed alcoholic extract ot no definite character, 
containing all of the unvolatilized principles of the plant ; from this mass the true 
alkaloid was isolated by Von Planta and its composition, as above, determined. 
Achillein has no definite crystalline form ; it is soluble in water, alcohol and 
ether, and has a bitter taste. 

Oil cf Achillea.— This oil is readily obtained by aqueous distillation of the 
that from the flowers and green parts of the herb has a beautiful dark 
blue color and a specific gravity 0.92 ; that from the achenia is greenish-white, 
while from the root it is either colorless or slightly yellow. The oil from the green 
parts, if cold, is of a butter-like consistence, strongly odorous, and with a taste 
similar to that of the herb itself. 

Achilleic Acid.— A strongly acid, odorless, liquid body, with a density of 1.0148 
when fully concentrated, crystallizing in colorless quadrilateral prisms, soluble in 
water. {Etsupra, Wittstein.) 

The plant contains beside the above principles tannin and a resinoid body unin- 
vestigated. It is considered by Griffith that the plant as naturalized in the Northern 
United States is more active in its properties than its European progenitors. 

Yarrow seems to have a decided action upon 
the bloodvessels, especially in the pelvis. It has been proven to be of great 



PHYS 



haemorrhages, especially of the p 



hae 



rhage is caused by it. Its common European name, Nosebleed, was given from 
the fact that the early writers claimed haemorrhage of the nose followed placing its 
leaves in the nostrils ; this may have been either due to its direct irritation, or the 
use of Achillea ptarmica, its leaves being very sharply serrate and appressed- 
toothed. Millefolium causes burning and raw sensations of the membranes 
with which it comes in contact, considerable pain in the gastric and abdominal 
regions, with diarrhoea and enuresis. 

Description of Plate 85. 

1. Leaf from near the root. 

2. Flower-head (enlarged). 

3. Ray-floret (enlarged). 



J 



5. Disk floret and bract (enlarged). 

6. Stamens (enlarged). 



86 





















*: 








5 



^.m.Bdnatdel.etpinxt. 



Tanacetum 



VULGARE 



N. ORD.-COMPOSITiE 

Tribe.SENECIONIDE,€. 



86 



GENUS— TANACETUM,* LINN. 



SEX. SYST.— POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA. 



TANACETUM 



TANSY. 



SYN.— TANACETUM VULGARE, LINN. 

COM. NAMES.— TANSY OR TANSEY; (PR.) TANAISIE; (GER.) RAINFARN 



A TINCTURE OF THE LEAVES AND FLOWERS OF TANACETUM VULGARE, LINN. 



Description.— This robust, acrid-aromatic perennial, ^rows to a height of from 
2 to 3 feet. Stem erect, glabrous or somewhat pubescent, leafy to the summit 
Leaves alternate, 2 to 3 pinnately dissected, glandularly dotted : divisions very 
numerous, confluent, decurrent, incisely-serrate, with many small lobes interposed 
alono- the common petiole; teeth cuspidate, acuminate. Inflorescence capitate, in 

dense, terminal, corymbiform cymes; heads numerous, depressed-hemispherical, 

heterogamous ; involucre composed of several imbricated rows of dry, minute 

scales; flowers all fertile, the corollas sprinkled with resinous dots. Marginal 

florets terete, pistillate; rays inconspicuous, oblique, 3 -toothed. Disk florets 

densely crowded, perfect ; corolla tubular; border 5-toothed; anthers tailless, with 

broad obtuse tips. Style deciduous, the branches truncate with obscure, conical 

tips. Pappus a coroniform, dentately 5-lobed border. Ahenes 5-ribbed, with a 
large epigynous disk. 

History and Habitat— This common European plant has escaped from gar- 

dens in many places in this country, especially, however, in the more ea tern 
States, where it flowers from July to October. 

Tansy has been used in medicine, especially as a carminative tome, since the 
middle a<is, its use at the present time being almost entirely laic and among 
country folk. Bergiusf recommended a cold infusion of the tops as a tome in 
convalescence from exhausting diseases, dyspepsia, jaundice and periodic 1 vers. 

A warm infusion has been found to be antihysteric, antiflatulent carmmat^- and 

Simulant and largely used in amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea and abdomtna 1 cramps 
m Clark poke mgly of its relief of gout + _ Hoffman recomm nded the se^ 



doses as an anthelmintic not inferior to cina, for which action 
,. j .' .u- .w^rnpn as a fomentation. I )r. Clapp sp( ik 



ften applied to the abdome 



f 



" " ~ ~ \ ■ »H* mme of a ecnus of .mi B having the nature of Ml " I rU«t- 

* Altered from «•«»«««, atAanasia, not dying ; the name of genu 



ing " plant. 



% £ ■ PAj's. et Li/., .?, 



-. .9 



t Mat. Med., 664 



86-2 

the infusion as being almost narcotic, soothing nervous restlessness and often 
producing quiet sleep.* The hot infusion has also been considered diuretic and 
diaphoretic, and found useful in dropsy. A fomentation of the leaves is often 
used with salutary effect in swellings, tumors, local inflammations and dysmenor- 
rhea. The oil, in doses of from 10 drops to a drachm or more, is one of the 
most frequently-used abortives by ignorant people — a practice at all times serious 
and often dangerous; even if desisted in, after one or more attempts, the develop- 
ment of the foetus is very liable to be interefered with ; hemorrhage also often 
occurs — not so dangerous generally as that following the use of nutmegs, but 
very often serious. 

The leaves and tops are officinal in the U. S. Ph., — in the Eclectic Materia 
Medica the preparation relied upon is Infusum Tanaceti; it is also a component 
of Tinctura Lands Composita.^ 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— Equal parts of the fresh leaves and 

blossoms are to be treated as directed under Inula (page 81-2). The resulting 

tincture, after filtration, should have a clear greenish-orange color by transmitted 

light ; it should retain the peculiar odor and taste of the plant to a high degree; 
and show an acid reaction. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Oil of Tansy. This peculiar yellow, or 
greenish-yellow volatile oil, possesses fully the odor and taste of the plant; it 
is lighter than water, its sp. gr. being 0.952 ; it is soluble in alcohol, and will de- 
posit a camphor on standing. 



Tanacctin, C n H 16 4 .J — This bitter, amorphous principle is found principally 

in the flowers ; it is soluble both in alcohol and water — most readily, however, in 
the latter. 

Tanacctumtannic Acid, C 23 H 29 31 . — This specific tannin has also been iso- 
lated by Leppig ; § of its characteristics I am unacquainted. 

Leppig ^ also found in this species : a resin and gallic, citric, malic, oxalic and 
meta-arabinic acids. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Many serious, and not a few fatal, cases of 
poisoning, by oil of tansy, are reported, among which the following will show the 
sphere of toxic action held by this drug: A young woman had been in the 
habit of using tansy tea, made from the herb, at nearly every menstrual period, 



for diffi 



On this occasion about two and a half drachm 



f the oil was poured into half an ordinary tin cupful of water; this, with the 
eption of a small portion of the water containing about one-half drachm of 

taken at one dose. Convulsions were almost at once produced, and w 



Dr. Bailey was sent for the patient 



foaming at the mouth, and 



Catalogue, 800. 
t See foot-note, p. 33-3. 

+ O. Leppig, Chem. Zeitung, 1862, 328 {Am. Jour. P/iar., 1885, 288). 
Ibid, 



m 



86-3 

violent tonic spasms, with dilated pupils, frequent and feeble pulse. Constant 
kneading on the stomach had produced partial emesis, and then i| ac, mustard 
and large draughts of hot water, emptied the stomach. Two drachms of ma n< 
sia were then given, and a full dose of acetate of morphine : consciousnc then 
returned, no unfavorable symptoms followed, and, after thirty-six hour with- 
out additional medication she was entirely restored. * 

A married woman aged 28, accustomed to taking 5-drop doses without incon- 
venience, took from 15 to 20 drops. Shortly after, she complained of dizzin ss. 
agonizing pain in the head and burning in the stomach ; a sense of cold numbiu 



crept over her limbs, increasing until it amounted almost to paralysis : convulsion 
followed, during which she vomited twice, freely, and finally uttered a hriek and 
fell senseless to the floor. She continued in this comatose condition tor over an 
hour, when, on again vomiting, she recovered consciousness.^ 

A woman took half an ounce of the oil ; the most violent, r 



igid k 



spasms occurred once in about twelve minutes, coming on geneialh and in intl 
and continuing about one minute. They were attended with sli lit. il in) mo- 
tion of the arms ; it might be called a trembling. The arms were peculiarl) il 
fected, and invariably in the same way; they were thrown out forward ol in«l at 
right angles with, the body; the hands at the wrists bent at right un^'l with 
the fore-arm supinated, the points of the fi 



li 



straight and slightly bent at the metatarsophalangeal joints. Th. muscle 

respiration were strongly affected during each paroxysm : air was Ion < d fm.n 

chest slowly but steadily, and made a slight Kissing nois< I H ft '" 
tween the patient's lips. D 



of 



in 



usck wen 



tween me uaucius upa. ^ u ""& M *~ - • . 

perfectly flexible, and the transition seemed very .udden. he jaw. are. the 
only exception to this rule; they were, for the first hour and a quarter, rigid 
closed, and were with difficulty opened, but after that MKM* *d » th. e 

action as the rest of the body-when the spasms a re on th,, are* r,g,d f 

off, they were relaxed. After the patient grew w . b r. Ae s,, -us « 

frequent, but had about the same severity and length. Dead, ensued » hou ; 



eye was also so congested that it had a dark 



- 



sclerotic coat of the eye was also so congesieu u«t _ , . 

appearance, and was « «-^ "££? IZ ^ 2 * J 



Total 



A girl aged 21 years, took 

followed 



f 



1 body 



d by strong spasms 



hich the head was thrown hack, th «pira 



a Ia k^nt ricridlv - xtended, and the fingers c n 



; Dr . v. *. ■*»!.*. *■ t~ *:t;'Z. t A '"" "' s ' 



AfeJ. 

m. Obs., 1869 



86-4 



usually succeeded by tremulous motion often sufficient to shake the room, to- 
gether with very faint and very imperfect attempts at inspiration. The whole 
interval, from the commencement of the convulsion to the first full inspiration 

e to a minute and a half. Respiration was hurried, labored 



d from a minu 



stertorous, and obstructed by an abundance of frothy mucus, which filled the 
air passages and was blown from between the lips in expiration ; the breath had 
a strong odor of Tansy. Occasionally the tongue was wounded by the teeth, and 
the saliva slightly tinged with blood. Immediately after a convulsion the counte- 
nance was very pallid and livid, from the suspension of respiration, and the pulse, 
hich, during the spasm, was quite forcible, full and rapid, was now exceedingly 



m 



reduced in strength and frequency. The pulse and color then gradually returned 
until the next spasm came on. It was very common, a few seconds after the ter- 
nation of a convulsion, for the head to be drawn slowly backward, and the eye- 
lids at the same time stretched wide open, at which times the eyes were very bril- 
liant; pupils of equal size, widely dilated, and immovable; and the sclerotics injected. 
A little inward strabismus was noticeable, of the right eye, as was, also, occasionally 
slow, lateral, rolling motion of the eye-balls. The mouth and nose were at times 
drawn a little to the right side. In the intervals of the convulsions, the li 
were mostly relaxed, but the jaws remained clenched. The skin was warm, but 
remarkable as to moisture. The victim died in three hours and a half.* 



b 



On Animals. — Dr. Ely Van DeWarker records cases of the action of the 
oil upon dogs. In one case two drachms were given, causing salivation, vomiting, 
dilation of the pupils, muscular twitchtngs, followed by clonic spasms, and a cata- 
leptic condition from which the animal recovered. Recovery also followed a half 
ounce after the same class of symptoms, but, however, on repeating the dose, the 
already poisoned animal was plunged into a long and fatal convulsion. Post- 
mortem examination disclosed the cerebral veins and spinal cord itself highly 
congested, and serous effusions had taken place in the pia mater. The lungs 



were found to be engorged, the left heart empty, and the right distended with 




dark, liquid blood. Congestion of the kidneys had also taken place, and the 
bladder was found contracted.f 

The safe maximum dose of the oil is indeterminable, a few drops on 
sometimes proving serious. 

The symptoms occurring in a number of cases of poisoning and experiments 

consciousness ; vertigo 



substantially as follows : Mental confusion, loss of 



with cephalalgia; at first contraction, then wide dilation, of the pupils, staring 
immovable eye-balls; ringing in' the ears; face congested; roughness of the 



mouth and throat, difficult degl 



free vomiting 



burning of the stomach; sharp colic pains in the abdomen; diarrhoea; constant 
desire to urinate — urine at first suppressed, then profuse; respiration hurried 
and laborious; pulse at first high, then very low and irregular; numbness of 



J. < '. I ulton, Jr., M.I)., Am. Jour. Med. Sci„ 1852, p. 13 
f The Detection of Criminal Abortion. 



86-5 

the extremities; tonic and clonic spasms, and nervous tremblings; drowsiness 
and cold sweat. Death appears to ensue from paralysis of the heart and lungs. 



Description of Plate 86. 



i. Summit of an escaped plant, Binghamton, N. Y., July 21st. 1 86 

2. A flower-head. 

3. A flower-head, longitudinal section. 

4. A floret. 

5. Anther. 

(4 and 5 enlarged.) 













S" 





































/- 










.TQ. . ad nat del.et pinxh 



Artemjsia Vulgaris, Linn 









N. ORD.-COMPOSITiE. 

Tribe.SENECIONIDE/E. 

GENUS.-ARTEMISIA 

SKX. SYST.— SYNGENESIA SUPERFLUA. 



87 



ARTEMISIA VULGARIS 



MUGWOMT. 



SYN.— ARTEMISIA VULGARIS, LINN. ; A. HETBROPHYLLUS, NUTT. ; A 
INDICA CANADENSIS. BESS. 

COM. NAMES.— MUGWORT ; (FR.) COURONNE DE ST. JEAN; (GER.) BI- 

FUSS. 



A TINCTURE OF THE ROOT OF ARTEMISIA VULGARIS, LINN. 



Description.— This perennial herb grows to a height of from 2 to 3 feet 
Stem erect, furrowed, paniculately branched. Leaves mostly glabrous and gr« 11 
above, white-woolly beneath and on the branches, the lower laciniat the median 
pinnatifid, the upper lanceolate to linear; divisions often cut-lot* 1 or Im ar 

lanceolate. Inflorescence glomerate, in open, leafy panicles; heads numeroui 
small, ovoid, heterogamous ; flowers all fertile; involucre mostly oblon 
panulate; bracts scarious, sparingly arachnoid, but mostly glabra! C (la 



smoo 



Receptacle naked. Otherwise agreeing in minutiae of floret 



gans with the following sp 



History and Habitat.-The Common Mugwort is an I™'*™'/™ *££ 
... most of Us situations here, but is considered apparently ,nd.g enous a I 
Bay by Prof. Gray. It is naturalized in Cana a and £ t, S» re ,t 

freauents old fields and gardens, roadsides, and waste places. 



freq 

September till October 



Hippocrates very frequently mentions Artemisia as of use m pn 
Hippocrates y 4 J ^ ^ a fomentatlon for 

vaniatinns. UlOSCOnueb dim v^« 



ine evacuations, uiubtunu^-^ r China 

and hysteria-a practice then ^e jnong * — - ° „ 
physicians have urged the drug »fWW 



G 



lcians nave urgcu ..... «■-& . ■ , . .• e 

disrepute, being now very seldom, **«-*» £* ^ rdat , d 



That torturous, barbaric practic- 



/. CAinensis, used 



this plant, as it was one of the substances, tn _— 

in the manufacture of that pastile. believe, the only one r cognizing th 



The Mexican Pharmacopoeia 



drug. 



87-2 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root is chopped and pounded 
to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp 
thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. 
After thorough succussion, the whole is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and 
allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture thus prepared 
should, after straining and filtering, have a deep yellowish-brown color by trans- 
mitted light ; a characteristic, uncomparable odor — that of the bruised leaves ; an 
aromatic, slightly bitter taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — No analysis has, as far as we are able to 



ascertain, been made of this plant since Baierus found that by fermentation, dis- 
tillation, and mixture with water, a fragrant sapid liquor was obtained, with a thin 

fragrant oil upon the surface. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Mugwort is said to cause increase of epileptic 
spasms ; irritation of the nervous system ; profuse sweat, having a fetid, cadaver- 
ous odor, resembling garlic ; violent contractions of the uterus ; labor-like pains ; 



prolapsus and rupture of the uterus; miscarriage; metrorrhagia; and increase of 



lochial discharges.* 



Description of Plate 87. 



I. A portion of a panicle, from Salem, Mass., August 10th, 1885 



* Xoak and Trink 






88. 



■ 




























HI .ad nat.del.et pinxt 



Artemi'sia Absinthium, Linn 




N. ORD-COMPOSIT^. 

Tribe.-SENECIONIDE/E. 

GENUS.— ARTEMISIA,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA 



88 



absinthium; 



WORMWOOD. 



SYN.— ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM, LINN, ; ABSINTHIUM 
A. OFFICINALE, LAM. 

COM. NAMES.— WORMWOOD : (FR.\ ARSTNTTnn. /nraw 



WERMUTH 



A TINCTURE OF THE LEAVES AND FLOWERS OF ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM, LINN. 



Description. — This bitter, aromatic, frutescent perennial, attains a growth of 
2 to 4 feet. Stem stiff, almost ligneous at the base and paniculat ly branched 
branches of two kinds, some fertile, others barren. Leaves alternate 2 to 

■ 



ely parted, finely pubescent with close silky 



3 P 



I'P 



entire; leaflets oblong or lanceolate, obtuse and entire, sparingly toothed or 



sed. Inflorescence in long, leafy panicles; heads 



roga 



mous, on slender nodding pedicles; involucre canescent; bracts of two kinds, i to 
2 loose, narrow, herbaceous ones, and several that are roundish and scarious; 
florets many, all discoid, the central hermaphrodite, the marginal pistillate. Corol- 
las tubular glabrous ; limb nearly entire in the marginal florets, 5-toothed, and 
spreading in the central. Style 2-cleft, in the marginal florets bilamellar, with the 
inner surfaces stigmatic, in the central bifurcated with only the tips stigmatose, 
fringed or fimbriate. Anthers tipped with an acuminate appendage, not inflexed. 
Receptacle flattish, beset with long woolly hairs; akenes obovoid or oblong; pappus 



none. 



History and Habitat. — This European synonym of bitterness has escaped 
from gardens in many places in North America, especially, however, in Nova 
Scotia, New England, and at Moose Factory, Hudson's Bay. It blossoms with us 
from the latter part of July to October. 

Wormwood has been used in medicine from ancient times. Dioscorides and 
Pliny considered it to be a stomachic tonic, and anthelmintic. Boerhaave, Linnaeus, 
Haller, and all of the earlier writers speak of its good effects in many disorders, 
such as, intermittents, hypochondriasis, gout, scurvy, calculus, and hepatic and 
splenic obstructions. Bergius, in recounting its virtues, says it is "antiputredi- 



tacida, anthelmin 



The famous " Port 



* Artemisia, the Greek Diana, goddess of chastity, as the plant was thought to bring on early puberty. Pliny says 
the name is in honor of Artemisia, queen of Mausolus, king of Caria. 

f "Aipiy9i«y } apsinthion, the classical name of many species of the genus. 



88-2 

land powder," once noted for its efficacy in gout, had this drug as its principal 
ingredient. A decoction has ever been found a most excellent application for 
wounds, bruises, and sprains, relieving the pain nicely in most cases ; every reader 
will recall " wormwood and vinegar" in this connection. Latterly it has been 
found diuretic, discutient, and antispasmodic in epilepsy. 

The bitterness of the herb is communicated to the milk of cows who may 
browse upon it, and also to mothers' milk if the drug be taken. 

Brewers are said to add the fruits to their hops to make the beer more heady ; 
and rectifiers also to their spirits. Absinthe forms one of the favorite drinks for 
those who love stimulating beverages ; it is compounded of various aromatics as 
follows: Green anise (Pimpinella anisi), Star anise (Illicum anisatum), Large 
absinth (Artemisia absinthium), Small absinth (Artemisia pontica), Coriander 
(Coriandum sativum), and Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis); these are distilled to- 
gether until the distillate comes over reddish, then the following herbs and products 
are steeped in the distillate to color and flavor it: Peppermint (Mentha piperita), 
Balm (Melissa officinalis), Citron peel (Citrus medicus), and Liquorice root (Gly- 

cyrrhiza glabra). 

The leaves and tops of the plant are recognized in the U. S. Ph., and the 
officinal preparation is Vinum Aromaticum* It is officinal in the Eclectic Materia 
Medica as Absin thine and Infusum Absynthii. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The fresh young leaves and the blos- 
soms are treated as in the preceding species. The resulting tincture is opaque ; 
in thin layers it has a beautiful crimson color ; its odor is terebinthic and pleasant ; 
its taste extremely and penetratingly bitter ; and its reaction acid. 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Volatile Oil of Wormwood. This oil, isomeric 
with camphor, consists principally of absinthol, C 10 H 16 O. It is dark green, acrid, 
and bitter, retains the odor of the plant, boils at 205 (40 1° F.), has a sp. gr. of 
0.973, an d is soluble to almost any extent in alcohol. 



Absinthin, C 20 H 28 O r — This bitter principle when first extracted forms in yel- 
low globules, which soon crystallize and become a bitter, neutral, inodorous, friable 
powder, fusing at 120 (248 F.) to 125 (257 F.). It is soluble in alcohol, slightly 
also in water, and forms no sugar on decomposing with a mineral acid. 



Succinic Acid,f C 4 H G 4 . — This acid, together with citric and malic acids, exist 
in the leaves and fruit of the plant, from which it may be isolated in inodorou: 
moderately acid, klinorhombic prisms, that fuse at 180 (356 F.), boil at 235 
(455° F-)> and are soluble in alcohol and twenty-five parts water. 



o 



Potassium Chloride, KC1. — This salt has been determined in the plant, J from 
h it may be isolated in yellowish cubes and octahedrons. 



* One part each of Lavender, Origanum, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, and Wormwood. 
t Al>-ynthic Acid of Braconnot. 

\ Kunsmuller, Ann. de Chim., vi, 35, from the ash ; Claassen, Am. Jour. ScL, 1882, 323, from the extract. 



88-3 

Braconnot also determined a green and a bitter resin, albumen, starch, a 
tasteless nitrogenized body, a bitter nitrogenized body, and nitre.* 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— A druggist's clerk took about half an ounce of 
the oil ; he was found on the floor perfectly insensible, convulsed, and foaming at 
the mouth ; shortly afterward the convulsions ceased, the patient remained insen- 
sible with the jaws locked, pupils dilated, pulse weak, and stomach retching. After 
causing free emesis and applying stimulants the man recovered, but could not 
remember how or when he had taken the drug. According to Dr. Legrand, the 
effects prominent in absinthe drinkers are : Derangement of the digestive organs, 
intense thirst, restlessness, vertigo, tingling in the ears, and illusions of sight and 
hearing. These are followed by tremblings in the arms, hands, and legs, numbness 
of the extremities, loss of muscular power, delirium, loss of intellect, general paral- 
ysis, and death. Dr. Magnan, who had a great number of absinthe drinkers under 
his care, and who performed many experiments with the liquor upon animals, states 
that peculiar epileptic attacks result, which he has called "absinthe epilepsy." f 

.Post-Mortein.—GreaX congestion of the cerbro-spinal vessels, of the meninges 
of the brain, extreme hyperemia of the medulla oblongata, injection of the vessels 
of the cord, with suffusion of the cord itself. The stomach, endocardium, and 
pericardium show small ecchymoses.J 



Description of Plate 88. 



i. End of a flowering branch, escaped at Binghamton, N. Y., Aug. ioth, 1885 

2. A lower leaf. 

3. Flower head. 

4. Marginal floret. 

5. Central floret. 

6. Anther. 

7. Style of central floret. 
(3-7 enlarged.) 



* Thomson, Organic Chem., 1838, 864. 

f Et supra, Taylor On Poisons, 1885, 652. 

t Jour, of Physiological Med., 9, 5*5 i * Allen, Ency. MaL Med., he. at. 



89. 



It. 




3 




















i 








XCl.ad nat.dcl.et pinxt. 



Gnaphauum 



POLYCEPHALUM , Michx. 



N. ORD-COMPOSITVE. 

Thbe.-SENEGIONIDE/E. 



89 



GENUS— GNAPHALIUM,* LINN 



SEX. SVST.— SVNGENESIA SUPERFLUA. 



GNAPHALIUM. 



EVERLASTING. 



SYN. — GNAPHALIUM POLYCEPHALUM, MICHX. ; G. OBTUSIPOLIUM, 
LINN.; G. CONOIDEUM, LAM. 

COM. NAMES. — FRAGRANT EVERLASTING, LIFE EVERLASTING, OLD 
FIELD BALSAM, WHITE BALSAM, INDIAN POSEY, CAT FOOT, SILVER 
LEAF, NONE-SO-PRETTY; (FR.) IMMORTELLE, LE COTONNIERE; (GER.) 
IMMERSCHON RUHKRAUT. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT GNAPHALIUM POLYCEPHALUM, MICHX. 



Description. — This persistent, annual herb, usually grows to a height of from 
i to 3 feet. Stem erect, terete, and rloccose-woolly ; branches numerous at th< 
summit, either glabrous or minutely viscid-pubescent when the wool is off. Lea es 
alternate, closely serrate or slightly amplexicaul, but never decurrent, somewhat 
aromatic, thinnish, all lanceolate or linear, narrowed at the base, and mucronately 
acute or acuminate at the tip, soon bare and green, or viscid-puberulent above ; 
margins entire, often finely undulate. Inflorescence in terminal -paniculate, or 
cymose, glomerules ; heads numerous, ovate-conoidal before expansion, then obo- 
vate, all discoid and heterogamous ; involucre woolly only at the base ; bracts 
oblong, obtuse, thin, dull white, becoming somewhat rusty-colored, pluriserially- 
imbricate, without tips or appendages ; receptacle flat, chaffless, and bractless. 
Flowers fertile throughout, arranged in several rows ; corona filiform-tubular, 
shorter than the style ; anthers with slender tails. Hermaphrodite flo7,'crs, very 
few ; styles two-cleft, the branches mostly truncate. Akenes terete, lightly 3- to 4- 
nerved, smooth and glabrous ; pappus a single row of scabrous, capillary bristles, 
each free at the base and falling separately. 



History and Habitat. — This species is indigenous to North America, where 
it ranges from Florida and Texas northward to Canada and Wisconsin. It grow 
upon old fields and in quite open, dry woods, and blossoms from July to October. 

The Everlastings formed a part of aboriginal medication, and from there they 
descended to the white settlers, who, in conjunction with the more or less botanic 
physicians, used them about as follows : The; herb, as a masticatory, has always 
been a popular remedy, on account of its astringent properties, in ulceration of the 

* Yvd[>a\ov,gnaphalon, a lock of wool ; from the floccose appearance of any torn <;i broken end. 



89-2 

mouth and fauces, and for quinsy. A hot decoction p: 
what anodyne, as well as sudorific in early stages of fev 
been mi 



pectoral ar 
A cold infi 



d 



ch used in diarrhoea, dysentery, and hemorrhage of the bo 



some- 
>n has 
ind is 



ermifugal ; it is also recommended in leucorrhcea. The fresh j 



considered 
for sprains 



Hot fomentations of the herb have been used like Ami 



■ains and bruises, and form a good vulnerary for painful tumors and un- 
healthy ulcers. The dried flowers are recommended as a quieting filling for the 



pillows of 



Raft 



Of Antcnnaria plantaginifolia, Hook. (Gnaphalium plantaginifolium, 
lesque says: "For a small fee, the Indians, who call this plant Sinjach 
j themselves to be bitten by a rattlesnake, and immediately cure them 



Linn 



with this herb." 

Gnaphalium is not officinal in the U. S. Ph. ; in the Eclectic Dispensatory, the 
preparation recommended is : Infusum GnapJialii. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh plant, gathered when 

■ 

the flowers are still young, should be treated as directed for the root of Inula.* 
The resulting tincture should have a brownish-orange color by transmitted light; 
a pleasant, slightly balsamic odor ; a taste at first aromatic, then bitter ; and an 
acid reaction. t 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — No analysis to determine the character of 
the bitter principle has been made. The herb contains a little resin, a volatile 
oil, a bitter principle, and tannin; and yields all its sensible qualities to both water 
and alcohol. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The symptoms following the ingestion of from 
15 drops to a half ounce of the tincture, at the hands of Dr. Woodbury,f were 
essentially as follows : Slight abdominal griping, vomiting and purging ; profuse 
diarrhoea, dark-colored offensive passages. Experiments with small doses of the 



hands of Dr. Banks,J corroborated 



the 



triturated dry flowers and leaves, at the 
above symptoms, though the result was less severe, and gave the following symp- 
toms beside : Giddiness, especially on rising ; dull, heavy expression of counte- 
nance ; diminished appetite ; rumbling of flatus, increased urine ; sexual excite- 
ment ; intense sciatic pain ; weakness, and languor. 



Description of Plate 89. 

. Summit of plant, Binghamton, N. Y., Aug. 10th, 1886. 

2. A leaf (from a plant gathered by Chapman in Florida) 

3. Outer ) . 

T > scale of involucre. 

4. Inner j 



* Page 81-2. 



5. Floret. 

6. Stigmas. 

7. Seed. 



(3-7 enlarged.) 



f Trans. Mass. Horn. Soc 



N. A. Jour. Horn., 7, 383 






90 













■«. 




.TO.. riiiaHel.it pint. 



ERECHTHITES HlERACIFbLIA , Rat 



N. ORD -COMPOSITE. 

Tribe.-SENEGIONIDEJE. 



90 



GENUS.— ERECHTHITES,* RAF 



SEX. SYST.— SYNGENESIA SUPKRFIAA. 



ERECHTHITES. 



FIRE WEED. 



SYN.— ERECHTHITES HIERACIFOLIA, PREALTA, AND ELONGATA, RAF. ; 
SENECIO HIERACIPOLIUS, LINN. ; CINERARIA CANADENSIS, WALT. 

COM. NAMES.— FIREWEED ; (FR.) HERBE DE FEU; (GER.) FEUERKRAUT. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT ERECHTHITES HIERACIFOLIA, RAF. 



Description. — This rank, glabrous, or slightly hairy annual, usually row 
from i to 7 feet high. Stem stout, erect, virgate, sulcate, and leafy to the top. 
Leaves alternate, sessile, tender, and thin, all narrowly or broadly lanceolate 



d acute ; margins sharply dentic 



ly incised ; basi <>l 



the upper leaves somewhat auriculate and partly clasping. Infloresce* in a loo 
terminal, corymbose panicle ; heads about one half inch long, cylindraceous, heter< 
gamous, and discoid ; involucre a single row of erect, linear, acute scales; bractcolc 
few, setaceous; flowers numerous, white, or ochroleucous, the outer f. - 1 



phrodite. Corollas 



der and tubular. Female florets : corolla- 



tube filiform, the limb slightly dilated, and 2- 4-toothed. Hermaphrodit flowers. 
corolla-tube filiform, the limb short, cyathiform, 4- 5-lobed. Anthers tailless. Style- 
branches narrow, tipped with a conical pubescence. Receptacle flat and naked. 
Pappus white and copious; bristles soft, fine, and elongated. Akenes oblong 
somewhat striate, tapering at the end. 

History and Habitat. -This coarse, homely, indigenous weed ranges from 
Newfoundland and Canada southward to South America; -, grows « >W 

woods upon enriched soil, and blossoms in July and .September. Is vulgarism 

woods, upon tnnc . , „„ kinCT new ly-burned fallows, there growin 

Fireweed, is given it on account ot its seeking ucwi) 

in its greatest luxuriance. ., , , , j 

■K e whole P .ant is succulent, bitter, and some^a, «U£ ha n u ; _d 

by the laity principally as an emetic, alterauve a***. aend tome an 



o^s of ecVema," muco-sanguineous diarrhoea, an^morrhagc, 

tself has been found highly serviceable in piles and 



the herb 



n 



entery. 



In the Eclectic Dispensatory, the preparations 
Oleum Erechtkiti and Infusum Erechthih. 



recommended for use are 



.Derived from the an, nt name of >ome troubk .me fi n>un. 



el. 



90-2 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole fresh, flowering plant. is 



d as recommended for the next drug 



The resulting tincture has a clear, beautiful, reddish-orange color by trans- 



tted light ; a sourish odor, resembling that of 
;n astringent and bitter; and an acid reactic 



6 



CHEMICAL 



probability, the principal virtues of the 



plant reside in its peculiar volatile oil, though no analysis to determine other bod 
has been made. 



■ 

Oil of Erechthites. — This fluid, transparent, yellowish oil, is obtained by dis- 
tilling the plant with water. It has a strong, fetid, peculiar, slightly aromatic odor, 
and a bitterish, burning taste. Its sp. gr. is 0.927. It is soluble in both alcohol 
and ether. According to Beilstein, and Wiegand,t it consists, almost exclusively, 
of terpenes, boiling between 175 and 310 F. (79.5°-i54.4°). 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Fhe symptoms of disturbance causedby doses 
of from 12 to 200 drops of the tincture, at the hands of T. J. Merryman,J were in 
substance as follows : Uneasiness approaching nausea ; griping in the bowels, fol- 
lowed by three copious, yellow r , mushy, fecal stools, followed again by constipation; 
increased flow of urine, containing a large amount of mucus ; stimulation of the 



£> ~ -£> 



genital organs, followed by erections ; and pains in the extremities. 



Description' of Plate 90. 



1. Summit of plant, Binghamton, N. Y. ? Aug. 27th, 1886. 

2. A middle leaf. 

3. A floret. 

4. Stamen. 

5. Stigmas. 

6. Fruit. 

7. Akene. 
(3-7 enlarged.) 



* Senecio, page 91-2. 

f Bcrichte, 1S82, 2354; ,/;//. Jour. Phar., 18S3, 372. 

% E. M. Hale, Trans. Horn. Med. Soc. y N. K, 1868, 78. 







91 



adnatdel.etpinxt 



Senecio Aureus Linn. 




N. ORD. COMPOSITE. 

Tribe.SENECIONIDE/E. 



91 



GENUS.— SEN ECIO,* LINN 



SEX. SVST.— SYNGENESIA SUPERFLUA. 








IO. 



GOLDEN RAGWORT. 



SYN.— SENECIO AUREUS, LINN.; SENECIO GRACILIS, PURSH.: SENECIO 

FASTIGIATUS, ELL. 

COM. NAMES.— GOLDEN RAGWORT, GROUNDSEL, SQUAW-WEED, LIFE- 
ROOT, FALSE VALERIAN, GOLDEN SENECIO, FEMALE REGULA- 
TOR, FIREWEED.f UNKUM; (FR.) SENECON; (GER) GOLDENES 
KREUZKRAUT. 



A TINCTURE OF THE ENTIRE, FRESH, FLOWERING PLANT, SENECIO AUREUS. I. INN. 



Description. — This early spring perennial, usually attains a growth of a bo 



i or 2 feet. Root small, thin, horizontal ; rootlet. 



St 



■s 



the 



free of woolliness at the flowering season, floccose woolly when young. It 
alternate; radical leaves on long, slender petioles, blade mostly rounded and 
divided, base somewhat truncate or almost cordate, margin crenate, under surface 
pinkish-purple ; cauline leaves, lowermost similar to 
tion of 2 or 3 lobelets opposite along the petiole, blade subcordate, crenate, pink- 
ish beneath; middle leaves lyrately divided and passing gradually to laciniai - 
pinnatifid, bases semi-auriculate, clasping; superior leaves linear-lanceolate, lin- 
ear, sessile, and lastly bracteolate. Inflorescence numerous superior-axillary and 
finally corymbose, long-peduncled, ray-bearing heads ; heads radiate, many -dow- 



el; receptacle flat and naked. Ray fl. 



void, pisti 



Disk florets numerous, perfect, tubular; corolla 5-lobed ; lobes revolute, obtuse. 
Involucre of a few lanceolate scales arranged m a single row ; pappus of man) 
soft, capillary bristles. Anthers tailless. Style bifurcated ; stigmas recurved, .limes 
quite glabrous or only microscopically hairy on the angles, neither rostrate nor 
winged. Read description of the order, under Eupatorium purpureum,. 78. 

History and Habitat.— The Golden Ragwort is common everywhere, the 
primary form mostly in swampy spots and on the wet borders of streams. It 

flowers from May until June. 

Like many another of our partially-proven plants, the medical history is very 

suoerficial Senecio has been found useful in Aboriginal medicine as an anti- 



* The old Latin name for the plant, from semx, an old man, on account of the h ry ,, H >us. ThU 1 ge ami 
widely-distributed genus contains in North America 5 7 species and l 5 varied, all but 3 of wh.ch are ,„d,gc„o«s ; of the 

varieties, 6 belong to S. aureus. 

f The true fireweed is Erechthites hieracifolia, Raf. (90). 



9 1-2 

hemorrhagic, abortivant and vulnerary. Later it has been recommended as a 
substitute for ergot, as an excellent drug to control pulmonary hemorrhage, gene- 
rally as a diuretic, pectoral, diaphoretic, tonic, and a substance to be thought of in 
various forms of uterine trouble. 



The plant has no place in the U. S. Ph. The officinal preparations in the 
Eclectic Materia Medica are : Decoctum Senecii, Ex tr actum Senecii Fluidum, and 

Senecii Oleo-resince. 



PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The entire, fresh, flowering plant, is 
chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of 
alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest 
of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole, pour it into a well-stoppered 
bottle, and let it stand eight days in a dark, cool place. 



The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, has a brownish-oi 
?r by transmitted light, the peculiar odor of the bruised herb, a sweetish 
htly bitter taste, and a strong- acid reaction. 



& 



CHEMICAL 



— Senccin, an arbitrary oleo-resin, of unknown 
constitution. No analysis of the plant has been made, as far as I can determine. 

Upon adding the tincture to water a decided deposit of resin takes place, and 

presence of tannin, even in a mixture of four drops of 



of iron shows th 



the drug-tincture in a drachm of alcohol 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— We have several provings of this drug, b 
n is not determinable from them. 



Description of Plate 91, 



Whol 



* — w — J 

2. Disk floret (enlarged). 

3. Ray floret (enlarged). 




N. ORD -COMPOSITE. 

Tribe-CYNARODE/E. 

GENUS.— A RCTI U M ,* LINN. 

SEX. SYST.— SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA ^QUALIS. 



92 



LAPPA. 




BURDOCK. 



ARCTIUM LAPPA, LINN.; A. MAJUS, SCHK.; LAPPA OFFICINALIS, 
ALLIONI; L. MAJOR, G^ERTN. ; L. OFFICINALIS, VAR. MAJOR, GRAY; 
BARDANA MAJOR, GER. 

COM. NAMES.— COMMON BURDOCK, CLOTBUR; % BAT WEED ; (FR.) GLOU- 

TERON, BARDANE ; (GER.) KLETTE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF ARCTIUM LAPPA, LINN. 






Description. — This coarse, rank, biennial emigrant, grows to a height oi 
about 3 or 5 feet. Root deep, sub-cylindrical, almost black externally and white 
within. Stem stout; branches numerous, widely spreading. Leaves alternate, 

e, orbicular-cordate, unarmed; green an d smooth above, whitish cottony 




beneath, all marked with prominent, crimson veins; petioles stout, those of the 
lower leaves deeply channelled upon the upper side. Inflorescence somewhat 
cymose or clustered; heads many flowered, homogamous, tubulilloral, herma- 
phrodite; involucre globular, strongly imbricate ; bracts all spreading, coriao on s, 
d nearly smooth, divided into three portions from below upward, viz. : ba* 



dilated appressed, with a ridge marking its outer median line, the edg 

what serrated ; arista long, slender and smooth, the apex coverted into a strongly 

incurved hook of a horny consistence, sharp and transparent. Corolla pink, equally 



nequally five-cleft; lobes long, narrow, and 



Stamens 



united by their anthers (except the tips) into a purple tube enclosing the style 
filaments smooth, distinct; anthers tailed at the base and furnished 1 with an elon- 
gated, connate, cartilaginous apex. Style long, filiform, thickened at the apex 

where it bifurcates into partly distinct, slender, smooth branches without appen- 
dages, and stigmatic to the apex on the inner side. Receptacle flat or convex, 
densely setose Akenes somewhat bony, inversely pyramidal, transversely wnn- 
kled, and attached by the very end of the pointed base ; pappus composed of 
numerous, short, rigid, barbellate bristles, which are finally separately deciduous. 






. -^, J*. (CeUic .**), » b-r. «- a fanci-d re^bW ^^g^l \ Hd. -d 
t A*.,,, «* lo lay ho.d of, Cellic *» . I-*, £• *«£.— Uf: „ „,„„„„,. - ,,„„ ^U,, 

the coats of animals. Ray says {Hist., 232 ; Sytt., 196), L«PP" aici \ m 

% The clotburs are properly species of Xanthium. 



92-2 

History and Habitat. — This common weed is indigenous to Europe and As 
growing there as here — about roadsides and dwellings. Since its introduction in 



this country it has spread rapidly westward, its seeds being numerous and readily 
carried about by both man and animals. It flowers from June to October. The 
herb is so rank that man, the jackass, and caterpillar are the only animals that 
will eat of it. The young stems, stripped of their rind, may be eaten raw or boiled 



salad with oil, or a potage with vinegar. (Withering.) 

The previous uses of this plant have been a decoction of the 



P 



nary catarrh, rheumatism, gout; and a depurant in scrofula, scurvy, venereal erup- 
tions, lepra, and kindred affections, in which it is even now considered better in many 
cases than sarsaparilla. It is also diuretic. The powdered seeds have been used 
as a diuretic, and application for the cure of styes. Woodville says* that he 
"never had an opportunity of observing the effects of the root, except as a 
diuretic, and in this way we have known it succeed in two dropsical cases, where 
other powerful medicines had been ineffectually used ; and as it neither excites 
nausea or increases irritation, it may occasionally deserve a trial where more 
active remedies are improper." 

The root is officinal in the U. & Ph. ; in the Eclectic Materia Medica the 
following preparations are given : Infusum Arctii; Extmctum Arctii; and Syrupus 
Aralice Compositus \\ 



PART USED AND PREPARATION, -The fresh root gathered in Autur 
before the frost has touched the plant deeply, should be chopped and pounded 
a pulp and weighed Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp w 
mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After I 

thoroughly stirred, pour it into a well-stoppered bottle and all 



been 



pare 
acid 



stand eight days in a dark, cool place 

The tincture, separated from this mass by filtration, should be clear and trans- 
nt. It should have a slighly brownish-orange color by transmitted light, and an 
reaction. This tincture gives no odor or taste by which it may be identified. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-Z^A^._This peculiar bitter principle was 
discovered by Messrs. Trimble and Macfarland,J and judged by them an alkaloid, 
as it answered to several of the alkaloid tests. It is described as an amorphous, 
intensely bitter body, with a faintly alkaline reaction. Its solubility and peculiar 
physical properties are as yet uninvestigated ; it cannot, however, be soluble in 
cold alcohol to any great extent, as our tincture does not show its presence, at 
least to the taste. 

OU of Lappa .§— This fixed oil exists in the seeds in the proportion of 154 
-ent. It is yellow, bland, not soluble in cold alcohol, and has a sp. gr. of .930. 



per 



* AM. Bo/., i, 34. . 

SombuLXe™"? cJSacum tZl T^Tlt^'oo^ ' ^^ ( "" ^ ***** "^ (r ° 0t) ' BUrd ° Ck ^ 



% Am. your. Phar., 1885, p. 127. 



\ Ibid. 



\ 



Inutin* tannin, a gummy extractive, nitrate of potash.f a resin 
r, and another in alcohol, have been determined 



92-3 

ble in 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION The onlv cvmnMm „r • c 

iUC oni y symptom ol importance so ta 

recorded from the action of this drug, is an increased secretion of milky urin- 
with frequent desire and copious discharges. 



Description of Plate 92. 



1. A flowering branch, Binghamton, N. Y., August 1st, 1884. 

2. Floweret. 
3 and 4. Bract 

5. Seed. 

6. Bristle of Pappus. 

7. A thoroughly dried horn. 
(2-7 enlarged.) 



* See under Inula Helenium, Si. 

f Loudon says that the mature green herb, when burnt, wi'IJ yield fully one-thud its quantity of a pttl w ;ilk.i 
line salt equal to the best potash. 






93 



6 



(BTU.adnat.(lel.etpinxt. 



ClCHORIUM lNTYBUS,Linn 



N. ORD -COMPOSITE. 

S. ORD-LIGULIFLORA. 

GENUS.— C ICHORIUM,* TOURN 

SEX. SYST.-SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA ^-QUALIS. 



93 



CICHORIUM. 



CHI CCO R Y. 



SYN. — CICHORIUM INTYBUS, LINN.; CICHORIUM SYLVESTRB SIVE 

OPPIC. BAUH. 

COM. NAMES.— WILD OR BLUE SUCCORY OR CHICCORY, WILD EN- 
DIVE ; (PR.) CHICOREE SAUVAGE ; (GER.) CICHORIE, WEGEWART. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH ROOT OF CICHORIUM INTYBUS, L. 



Description. — This partially naturalized, branching, perennial herb, grows tc 
a height of from 2 to 4 feet. Root deep, more or less fusiform, woody, branching 
and surcharged with milky juice. Stem bristly, hairy; branches rigid and stout 
leaves alternate, those from the root runcinate, the lower stem leaves oblong-Ian- 



dentate, and partly clasping, those on the branches varying from 



s 



mere bracts. Inflorescence axillary and terminal heads; // ul 
2 or 3 sessile, several-flowered, homogamous, or single and raised upon a hoi low- 
peduncle. Involucre double, the outer row composed of 5 short, spreading scales ; 
the inner of 8 or 10. Flowerets all ligulate and perfect; ligules 5-tOOthed. bright 
blue, becoming pinkish, then whitish, as the day advances. Stamens: filamaL 
white, slender, and unconnected ; anthers deep blue. Stigmas 2, circinat , dark 
blue. ' Akenes turbinate, striate, angular, and glabrous ; papjms composed of 
numerous short, chaffy scales, forming a sort of crown. 

History and Habitat.— This European emigrant grows chiefly near the 
eastern coast, from whence it is spreading somewhat inland. It flowers through- 
out the months of July, August, and September. Its blossoms present at* du- 
tiful sight in early morning or on cloudy days, but fade and wither during bright 
sunshine. The principal previous use of this plant has been that of the root 
as an adulteration of, or substitute for, coffee. This use, it appears, ongmated 
with the Egyptians and Arabians, who also used the bleached leaves as a sa lad, 
the boiled or baked roots as pottage, and made a flour for bread from them when 
dried. Endive (Ochorzum Endivia), so much used in many countries as salad 

at one time thought to be merely a cultivated state of this species The 



was 



from the same A 



specific names Endivia and Intybus both appear to spnng iron, tne sa.n 
word designating the herb, hendtbeh. As regards the use of *m.B*°r ~J 
in his - Household Words : " - The great demand for ch.ccory has led o Us v 
extensive cultivation in this country; cons.derable sums of mone y have b, 



* The Latinized Arabian name Chickouryeh 



93-2 



expended on the kilns and machinery required to prepare it for the markets, and a 
large amount of capital is profitably employed upon this branch of English agricul- 
ture. . . . The bleached leaves are sometimes used as a substitute for endive, and 
are commonly sold as an early salad in the Netherlands. If the roots, after being 
taken up, be packed in sand in a dark cellar, with their crowns exposed, they will 
push out shoots, and provide through the winter a very delicate blanched salad, 
known in France as Barbe de Capucin. When chiccory is to be used for coffee 
the roots are partly dried, cut into thin slices, roasted and ground. The ground 
chiccory thus made is used by many poor upon the continent as a substitute for 
coffee by itself. It has not, of course, the true coffee flavor, but it makes a rich and 
wholesome vegetable infusion of a dark color, with a bitterish, sweet taste, which 
would probably be preferred by a rude palate to the comparatively thin and weak, 
and at the same time not very palatable infusion of pure coffee of the second and 
third quality. By the combination of a little chiccory with coffee the flavor of the 
coffee is not destroyed, but there is added to the infusion a richness of flavor and a 
depth of color — a body — which renders it to many people much more welcome as a 
beverage than pure coffee purchased at the same price." In times of scarcity chic- 
cory certainly would make a better substitute than many other substances used, as, 
for instance, during the war of the Rebellion, when — especially in the South — beans, 
peas, rye, sweet potatoes, corn, cotton seed, pea-nuts, etc., were utilized. 

The medical history of chiccory is of little value to us. A free use of the root 
and leaves produces, according to Lewis, a mild catharsis, rendering aid in jaundice 
and obstruction of the bowels. It has also been used as a diuretic and detergent 
in gravel, and a refrigerant in hectic fevers and agues.* 

PART USED AND PREPARATION— The fresh root, gathered while the 
plant is budding to blossom, is to be treated as in preceding drug. The resulting 
tincture has a clear orange color by transmitted light, an acid bitter taste, and acid 
reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. —The activity of the plant, without doubt, lie? 
wholly in its milk-juice, which has not yet been investigated. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— We have no record of toxical effects of Cicho- 
rium ; its disturbance of the system is very slight, and that appears to be wholly 
confined to a slight increase of glandular secretions. 



Description of Plate 93. 



2. A portion of the main stem. 

3. Floweret. 

4. Akene. 

5. Stigma. 

6. Section of the root. 

7. Pollen grain, x 150. 



t 



(3-6 enlarged.) 



Med. 



f Where it has escaped to the streets in many localities. 




/ 






,-■• 



A 




94. 



* 




/ 




> 






* 




- 



r 






y 




















i 






Ttl.ad naf . del. et pinxt. 



Prenanthes 



SERPENTARIA , Pursh. 



N. ORD.-COMPOSnVE. 

Tribe.-CICHORIACE/E. 



94 



GINUS.— PREN ANTHES,* VAILL. 



I \ s \ r._s\ NGENESl \ l.<)i VI. IS. 




ABALUS. 



RATTLESNAKE ROOT. 



SYN —PREN ANTHES SERPENTARIA, PURSH.; P. ALBA, VAR SERPEN- 
TARIA, TORR.; P. GLAUC A, RAF. ; NABALUS ALBUS, VAR. SERPENTA- 
RIUS GRAY; NABALUS SERPENTARIUS, HOOK.; N. TRILOBATUS, 
CASS, AND D. C; N. FRAZERI, D. C; N. GLAUCUS, RAF.; HARPALYCE 
SERPENTARIA, DON.; ESOPON GLAUCUM, RAF. 

COM. NAMES.-RATTLESNAKE ROOT, WHITE LETTUCE LIONS FOOT, 
GALL-OF-THE-EARTH, DEWITT SNAKEROOT DROP SLOWER CAN- 
CER WEED; (FR.) LAITUE BLANC, PIED D'LEON; (GER.) WEISSER 

LATTICH. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT PRENANTHES SERPENTARIA. PURSH 



Description.-This variable perennial herb, grows to a height of from i to 3 

^ . ._ . . * t „ 1^..^ ftiKofAiic • Qtryi). stout 



feet. Root very bitter, fusiform, thickened 



berou 



eht glabrous or a little hirsute, sometimes purple-spotted or splashed 



Lea 



alternate, diversely variable, dilated 



d pale beneath ; deeply sinuate- pinnatified, or 3-parted, and the 

, r ., :., „ i:«.u rrvurh-rWmte • the cauhne nearly all 



lobe 



3-cleft ; the margin a little roug 



e, slend 



& 1 olon^nlate- die lower and radical truncate, cor- 

■ , / « .„ u ina s.ng.e row, with a few small bractlets at the.r base. 

tmged ; scales , to I* u * s.ng.e gr e e nish-wh,te r 
receptacle naked, flower* an pei-icn, i i K ov<!i . r „,,| 

«,WW™,, 8 corolla hgulate; *0A long and slender . shg 



lets or ped 



Akenes linear-obl 



d and finely serrate ; pappus sord 



vhitish,t composed of rough capillary b 



This botanically difficult species 



History and Habitat .-in* ^_ y^ ^ ^ ^^ induding 

rowth and shape of leaf, all the iorn is '™ m aistrict bein 



of growth and 



and barbata) : hardly two pi 



two varieties (nana and oaroam h - -</ r glomerules and 

found with constant characters except, ^a - J * ^ 



Thus, now, P. serpentaria includes in itself 



pappus. 1 nus, now, 1 . *~£ ~~~ _ 

may not represent the pappus correctly. 



f the plait 



• 



94-2 



to be 17 distinct species and varieties ; and affords an interminable field of work 
for a botanist of Rafinesquian tendencies. The Rattlesnake Root is indigenous to 
North America, where it ranges from New Brunswick and Canada, to Florida, 
being especially abundant northward. It habits the sterile soil of open grounds 
and hilly wood-borders, and blossoms in August and September. 

As Gall-of-the-Earth, it has been known in domestic practice from an early 
date, and is said to be an excellent antidote to the bite of the rattlesnake and other 

1 the domestic literature of medi- 

rer has a chance to prove fatal. — 



g 



poisonous serpents, — one who searches throi 
cinal plants, wonders why the bite of snakes 
As an alexiteric, the milky juice of the plant is recommended to be taken inter- 
nally, while the leaves, steeped in water, are to be frequently applied to the wound ; 
or a decoction of the root is taken. A decoction of the root has been found useful 
in dysentery, anemic diarrhoea, and as a stomachic tonic. 

Prenanthes is officinal in none of the pharmacopoeias. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole plant, gathered during the 
tlowering season, is treated as directed under Lappa.* The resulting tincture has 
a beautiful deep-orange color by transmitted light; an odor similar to that of the 
root; a bitter, astringent taste ; and an acid reaction. 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — No analysis of this species has been made 
to determine a specific principle. An analysis of the root of P. alba — too nearly 
allied to this species — by Neri. B. Williams,f showed the presence of resins, tannin. 
extractive, gum, and waxy matters. 



Description of Plate 94. 



1. Inflorescence, Binghamton, N. Y., Aug. 25th, 1886. 

2. A lower leaf. 

3. A portion of leaf-margin. 

4. Flower. 

5. Involucral scales. 
6 and 7. Floret. 

(3-7 enlarged.) 



* Pa - 92 2. 



f Thesis, Am. Jour. Phar., 1886, 117 



95 






.t 







p. 

pfA 



&* 



a 





tfm. 



ad nat.dcl.et pinxh 



r 



Taraxacum Dens-Lecnis, oesf 



N. ORD. COMPOSITE. 

Tribe-CICHORACE/E. 

GENUS.— TARAXACUM,* HALLER 

SEX. SVST.-SYNGENESIA POLYGAMIA ^EQUALIS. 



95 



TARAXACUM 



DANDELION. 



SYN.-TARAX A CUM 



TARAXACUM 



WEBER; TARAXACUM VULGARE, SCHR. ; LEONTODONf TARAXA- 
CUM, LINN.; LEONTODON DENS-LEONIS, LAM.; LEONTODON VUL- 
GARE, LAM.; LEONTODON OFFICINALIS, WITH.; DENS-LEONIS, 
RAIL; HEDYPNOIS TARAXACUM, SCOP. 

COM. NAMES.— DANDELION,* PUFF-BALL \\ (ENG) PISSABED; (FR.) DENT 



COMMUNE: (GER.) LOWENZAHN 



ROHRLEIN. 



A TINCTURE OF THE FRESH. ROOT OF TARAXACUM DENS-LEONIS, DESF. 



Description. — This vernal, tufted, perennial herb, springs from a vertical tap- 
shaped root, furnished with numerous short, thickened rootlets. Leaves radical, 
varying from spatulate to lanceolate, pinnatifid, runcinate, or irregularly dentate. 
Inflorescence several many-flowered heads, each raised upon a scape that elongates 
during and after anthesis ; scape slender, naked, cylindrical, fistulous, 6 to 18 inches 
long in fruit. Involucre double, the outer portion composed of numerous short 
scales ; the inner of a single row of linear, erect scales. Receptacle naked. Akenes 




terete, oblong, ribbed; ribs roughened by numerous, ascending tubercles; c 
abruptly conical or pyramidal, prolonged into a slender, filiform beak ; pappus 
borne upon the summit of the beak, and composed of copious, soft, white, capillary 
bristles. Read description of the order, under Eupatorium purpureum, 78. 

History and Habitat. — The Dandelion is a" native of Greece, or, at least, of 
Europe and Asia Minor, and has become by introduction a common herb in fields, 
pastures, lawns and open grounds everywhere in this country, where it blossoms 
in early spring and fruits in the summer. The growth of this plant furnishes an 
instance of a beautifully provisional Nature. During the expansion of the flower, 
the outer scales of the involucre reflex, after anthesis the inner row contracts 
until it covers the forming pappus; then while the fruit is maturing the beaks 
gradually extend by growth and raise the pappus, until finally the inner involucre 



* Tapdatroo, tarasso, to disorder, in allusion to its action upon the system. 

f Atov, /eon, lion; oioi?, odous, a tooth; from a supposed likeness of the leaf incisions to a lion's tooth. 

% Americanized from (Fr.) Dent de lion. 

\ On account of the separability of the akenes from the receptacle. The true puff-ball is Lycoperdon Bovista. 



95-2 

in turn reflexes, disclosing the fruit as a beautiful, white, globular, feathery head, 

ptacle the ripe seeds ready to be dissipated and 



exposing up 



fted to new fields by the first summer zephyr that passes by 
Tufts of this plant are eagerly gathered by the poor, in early spring, and 



giv 



cooked, furnishing thus an excellent and palatable pot-herb ; they are also in many 
localities bleached like, and used in lieu of, endive * as a salad. The leaves are 
eaten raw or cooked by the Digger and Apache Indians, who value them so highly 
that they scour the country for many days' journeys in search of sufficient to appease 
their appetites. So great is their love for the plant, that the quantity consumed 
by a single individual- exceeds belief.f In many parts of Europe, especially in 
Germany, the dried roots "are roasted and substituted for coffee by the poorer 
inhabitants, who find that an infusion prepared in this way can hardly be dis- 
tinguished from that of the coffee berry." J 

Taraxacum has been used in medicine from ancient times ; it is one of those 
drugs, overrated, derogated, extirpated, and reinstated time and again by writers 
upon pharmacology, from Theophrastus' a<pa%Yi and xi%opiov to the present day. 
It has been considered as a mild detergent, aperient, and diuretic ; Bergius recom- 
mends it in hepatic obstruction, hypochondriasis, and icterus ; and many authors 
2 it repute in dropsy, pulmonic tuberculosis, various skin disorders, gastric 
derangements, biliary calculi, incipient visceral s'cirrhus, etc., etc. Children often 
play with the scapes at making chains, bracelets and " curls." The curls are formed 
as follows : A split is started in four directions at the smaller end of a scape, into 
which the tongue is deftly and gradually inserted, causing a slow separation 
into sections that curl backward, revolutely, being kept up to their form by the 
tongue, when the scape is curled to the end it is drawn several times through 
the operator's mouth and partially uncurled into graceful ringlets. In its manu- 
facture a child usually gets full benefit of the milky, bitter juice, and, if susceptible, 
verifies the common name of the plant as applied in England : . . . quasi lectiminga 
ct urinaria herba diciiur — plus lotii derivat in vesicam qu&rn pueruli retinendo stmt, 
prcesertim viter dormiendum, ebque tunc imprudentes et inviti stragula permingunt.\ 

Taraxacum is officinal in the U. S. Ph., its preparations being: Extractum 
Taraxaci and Extractum Taraxaci Eluidum. The same preparations are offici- 
nal in Eclectic pharmacopoeias, also Decoctum Taraxaci, and Pilulcz Taraxaci 
Compositce.\\ 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh root, gathered in March, 
July or November, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and pressed out in a piece 
of new linen. The expressed juice is then, by brisk agitation, mingled with an 
equal part by weight of alcohol. This mixture is allowed to stand eight days 
in a dark, cool place. 

The tincture, separated from the above mass by filtration, should have a light 

orange color by transmitted light, a bitter, somewhat acrid taste, and an acid 
reaction. 



* Cichorium endiva. 

f Dodge, U. S. Agric. Rep., 1870, p. 423. 



% Murray, App. Med., p. 107 
§ Rati Hist. PL, p. 244. 



Sanguinaria, Podophyllin, Taraxacum, and Mentha viridis. 



95-3 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Taraxacin. This body, when extracted from 
the roots or milky juice, forms in a bitter amorphous mass, soluble in alcohol, 
ether, and water. It was discovered by Polex in 1839, and named by Kromayer, 
who corroborated the discovery in 1861. 

Taraxacerin, C 8 H 16 O. — (Kromayer, 1861). This crystalline principle is said 
to resemble lactucerin* It is soluble in alcohol, but not in water. 



Levulin, C 6 H 10 O.. — (Dragendorf). This amylose principle has the same 
composition as inulin,\ but differs in that it is soluble in water and devoid of 
rotary power. 



Inosite, C 6 H 12 O c (H 2 0) 2 .— (Marme\ 1864). This hydride of glucose was 



determined in the leaves and scapes, but not in the root. It forms transpannt 
rhombic crystals, losing their water of crystallization when exposed to .the air. It 
is soluble in water, the solution having a sweet taste. 

LeoiitodoniwnX is simply, or in great part, the inspissated juice of the plant, 
and in a measure the principles en masse. Mannitc, C, H 8 (O H) f( , h; . been proven 
by Messrs. T. and H. Smith (1849) to be present only after a sort of fermentation 
had taken place in the juice.§ This is probably the change that lakes place- to a 
greater or less extent, when the roots are undergoing the wint r changes. 

Taraxacum also contains, according to many assayists,|| -aoutchouc, re in, 
gum, mucilage, free acid, sugar, wax, and the usual plant constituents. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— Although this plant has reoived the attmtion 
of scientists of all nations from remote times, still I know of no attempt having 

been made to determine its toxic action. 

The symptoms caused by repeated doses are, in general: mental exatemem 
vertigo and headache, blotchy white coated tongue, nausea and colic ; fr ,uent 
urination ; general sticking or stitching pains ; sleepiness, chilliness and sweating 
These symptoms point to a peculiar action upon the hver, causing mac non 



g 



Its action upon the skin in causing an exanthem seems to be dep 



greatly upon the amount of gastn 



Description of Plate 95 



J 



2. Root. 



3. Ray floret (enlarged). 

4. Disk floret (enlarged). 

5. Fruit. 

6. Seed (enlarged). 



7 . Section of root (enlarged). 




* See Lactuca, 96. 

f See Inula, 81. 

t Kromayer, 1861. . 

I Et supra, Fluck. & Han., Pharmacographra in part 

|| Sprengel, Frickhinger, Squire, Polex, John, Overbrc 



•mayer, M \mt. to4 



Wide 










adnafdel.etpinxt. 



Lactuca Canadensis, 



N. ORD -COMPOSITE 

Tribe-CICHORIACE/E. 



96 



GENUS.— LACTUCA,* TOURN. 



SEX. SYST,— SYNGENESIA J-1QUALIS. 






LACTUCA. 



LETTUCE. 



SYN.— LACTUCA CANADENSIS, LINN.; L. ELONGATA, MUHL. (TYPE); L. 
ELONGATA, VAR. LONGIFOLIA. T. & G.; L. CAROLINIANA, WALT.; 
L. LONGIFOLIA, MICHX. ; GALATHENIUM ELONGATUM, NUTT. ; SON- 
CHUS PALLIDUS, WILLD. 

COM. NAMES.— WILD LETTUCE, FIRE-WEED.t TRUMPET- WEED,: ; (FR.) 
LAITUE DU CANADA; (GER.) CANADISCHE LATTICH. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT, OF VARIOUS SPECIES, INCLUDING THIS 



Description. — This glabrous, glaucescent biennial, grows to a height of from 
4 to 9 feet. Stem erect, very leafy to the top, and copiously supplied with milky 
juice. Leaves alternate, mostly sinuate, pinnatifid below, lanceolate and rutin 
above, all partly clasping by a sagittate base, and pale beneath; midrib naked, 
or rarely with a few sparse bristles ; margins entire or sparingly dentate, especially 
near the base ; terminal lobe elongated. Inflorescence in a terminal, narrow, elon - 
o-ated, leafless panicle; heads 12- to 20-rlowered ; flowers pale yellow, all perfect: 
involucre a half-inch or less high, cylindraceous, irregularly calyculate. and slightly 
imbricated in two rows. Corolla ligulate in all the flowers of the head ; tube hairy : 
ligules obscurely, if at all, notched at the apex. Receptacle naked. Akenes blackish, 
broadly oval, flat, wingless, rather longer than the beak, obscurely scabrous-rugu- 
lose, and lightly 1 -nerved in the middle of each face; beak filiform, abrupt at the 
base, and expanded at the apex ; pappus of soft, silvery-white hairs, on the dilated 
apex of the beak. 

History and Habitat.— Wild Lettuce is indigenous to North America, where 
it extends from Nova Scotia and Canada to Saskatchewan, and southward to 
Upper Georgia. It habits rich moist grounds along the borders of fields, thickets, 
and roads, where it blossoms in July and August. 

This species has been used in early practice as an anodyne, diaphoretic, laxa- 
tive and diuretic, in many diseases, principally, however, in hypochondria, satyria- 



pulmonalis, ascites, anasarca, and 



g 



* Latin lac, milk; on account of the milky juice. 

t Many plants have been given this name in different local.* on account of their growmg ,, a rt.cularly on nev.h 

burned fallows, Enechthites hieracifolius, Smecio aurtus, Hieracium CanaJtme, and th 

t This name also designates Eupatorium purfttreuin. 



96-2 

Lactucarium, or Lettuce Opium, being of the same nature, no matter from 
what species it is obtained, consists of the inspissated milky juice of various spe- 
cies of Lactuca. The yield varies greatly with the species ; greatest in L. virosa, 
and diminishing as follows : L. scariola, L. altissima, L. Canadensis, L. sativa. Dr. 
Coxe, of Philadelphia, was the first to call the attention of the profession to this 
substance as a substitute for commercial opium;* his reasoning and experiments 
were based upon the product of Z. sativa. Although Lettuce has been considered 
narcotic from ancient times, still it is but slightly soporific, and hardly deserves a 
tithe of the reputation writers have made for it. 

Lactucarium from L. virosa is still officinal in the U. S. Phar., but will, without 
doubt, be dropped at the next revision. 

PART USED AND PREPARATION. — The whole fresh plant, just as the blos- 
soms open, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by 



.s 



f alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one- sixth part of 



(1 the rest of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well, it is poured into a 
ill-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The 
icture formed thus, after straining and filtering, has a deep orange-red color by 



tted light ; the odor of canned tomatoes ; a slightly bitter and astring 



taste ; and an acid 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. — Lactucarium, or Thridace, as noted abov 
repn ;ents in itself all the active principles of the plant, being a mixture of diffe 
ent organic and about ten per cent, inorganic bodies. It is not fully soluble 
any vehicle, and merely softens on the application of heat. Subjected to analysi 



> 



Lactucerin,f C^H^O.J — This compound body composes nearly half the whole 
weight of Lactucarium. It forms in slender, colorless, microscopic, odorless and 
tasteless acicular crystals, insoluble in water, soluble in boiling alcohol and cold 



eth 



F 



Lactucin, C n H I2 :i (rLO). — This body, which proves not to be a glucoside 
:s to Lactucarium its intensely bitter taste. It forms, when purified, white, bit 
pearly scales, insoluble in ether, soluble in alcohol and in hot water. 



Lactucic Acid. — This very acid body, isolated by Pfaf and Ludwig, results as 
an amorphous light yellow or brownish mass, only crystallizing-after long standing. 

Lactucopicrin, C 4 ,H (U 0. ir — This bitter amorphous substance seems to be 
forme 1 by the oxidation of Lactucin. It is soluble in alcohol and water. 

Beside the above, Lactucarium also contains a yellowish-red tasteless resin ; 



a greenish-red acrid 

acids ; sugar ; mannite ; asparagin ; and a \ 



malic, and succinic 



* Trans. Am. Phiiosopk. Socy., 1799,387. 
f I.actucon. 

+ Fliickiger,C u lT 24 0; Franchimont, C„ .H„0. 



16"26 






96-3 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Lactucarium, in large doses, causes : Delirium ; 
fusion of the brain, vertigo, and headache; dimness of vision; salivation; difficult 



deg 



• * 



)n ; nausea and vomiting, and retraction of the epigastric region, with a 
sensation of tightness ; distension of the abdomen, with flatulence ; urging to stool 
followed by diarrhoea; increased secretion of urine; spasmodic cough, oppressed 
respiration, and tightness of the chest; reduction of the pulse ten to twelve or 
more beats; unsteady gait; great sleepiness; and chills and heat, followed by 
profuse perspiration. 



Description of Plate 96. 



1. Whole plant, eighteen times reduced, Binghamton, N. Y., July 26th, 1885 

2. A portion of the panicle. 

3. An upper leaf. 

4. Outline of a lower leaf. 

5. Flower-head. 

6. A floret. 

7. Anther. 

8. Fruit. 

(6 and 7 enlarged.) 




97. 




(Eltl.adnat.iiel.et pinxt. 



Lobelia Cardinalis, Linn 



\ 



N. ORD.-LOBELIACE^. 

Tribe-LOBELIE/E. 

GENUS.— LOBELIA,* LINN 

SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



97 



LOBELIA CARDINALIS. 



CARDINAL FLOWER. 



SYN.— LOBELIA CARDINALIS, LINN.; L. COGCINBA, STOKES; TRACHE- 
LIUM AMERICANUM, PARK, 

COM. NAMES.-CARDINAL FLOWER, SCARLET OR RED LOBELIA, HIGH- 
BELIA; (PR.) LOBELIE CARDINALE; (GER,) ROTHE KARDINALS 
BLUME. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PLANT LOBELIA CARDINALIS, LINN. 



Description. — This showy perennial grows to a height of from 2 to 4 feet. 
Stem minutely pubescent or glabrous, commonly simple. Leaves oblong-ovate, to 
oblong-lanceolate, tapering at both ends, sessile, and irregularly serrate or serru- 
late. Inflorescence a dense, terminal, more or less one-sided virgate raceme ; 
flowers large and showy, intense red, or rose-color, sometimes pure white; pedicels 
erect or ascending ; bracts of the upper portion linear-lanceolate, of the lower, 

Calyx smooth ; tube short, hemispherical, much shorter than the lobes ; 
lobes linear-subulate. Corolla^ gamopetalous, tubular; tube about 1 inch long, 
straight; limb bilabiate; upper lip 2-parted to the base, the cleft extending down 




the calyx, the lobes erect, linear-lane 
jhtly recurved, the segments oblong 



lower lip 3-cleft, spreading plane or 
ite. Stamens free from the tube of 



the corolla, monadelphous almost to the base, exserted through the cleft in the 
corolla tube, which they again enter between the two upper lobes ; filaments red ; 
anthers syngenesious, curved, blue, the two larger ones naked at the tip, the other 
three ciliate. Capsule hemispherical, thin-walled, 2-celled, and loculicidally 2-valved 
at the summit. Seeds numerous, oblong, rugulose-tuberculate, similar to those of 
L. in flat a, 

LobeliacesB. — This large family, closely related to Campanulacea, is represented 
in North America, by 7 genera and 31 species, characterized in general as follows : 
Herbs (when not Tropical) with acrid, milky juice. Leaves alternate,, simple; 
stipules none. Inflorescence racemose ; flowers 5-merous, perfect. Calyx adnate 
to the ovary ; limb divided down to the ovary, or entire ; lobes persistent when 
present. Corolla regular and perigynous, inserted with the stamens just where 
the calyx leaves the ovary ; limb disposed to become, bilabiate ; lobes 5, valvate in 



* Dedicated to Mathias de L'Obel, a Flemish herbalist, Botanist to James I. 

f In describing this organ, I adopt the position it stands in while flowering. See Lobeliacece. 



97-2 



bud, or in some cases induplicate, commonly deeper cleft or completely sd1> 
down between two of the lobes (this cleft is generally upon the lower face of th 

young, but becomes superior, by a twisting of the pedicel 



hen the bud 



during its maturation). Stamens 5, epigynous, as many as the lobes of th 
and alternate with them, usually both monadelphous and syngenesious ; til 



£> 



rally free from the corolla, but not invariably so ; anthers 2-celled, introrselv 



dehiscent, firmly united around the top of the style. Ovary wholly inferior 
sometimes half free, 2-celled, with the placentae projecting from the axis (some- 
times 1 -celled with 2 parietal placentae) ; ovules anatropous ; style filiform, entire- 
stigma commonly 2-lobed, and girt with a ring of more or less rigid hairs, at first 
included, then exserted * Fruit capsular and loculicidal, or baccate and indehiscenf 
seeds indefinitely numerous; embryo small or narrow, straight and axial; albumen 
copious, 4 fleshy. 

Many species of this order are acrid, narcotic poisons, only a few being, so 
far, used in medicine, among which the West Indian Rebenta Cavallos (Hippriro- 
ma longifolia, Don.) is noted for its poisonous properties. If taken internally it 
speedily brings on hypercatharsis, while the juice, if touching the mucous mem- 
brane, quickly causes acute inflammation ; and Tufa Fenillaei Don., is said to 
bring on nausea in one simply smelling of its flowers. The three species described 
in this work are, however, all that are much used 

History and Habitat.— The Cardinal Flower is indigenous to North America, 
from New Brunswick to Saskatchewan, southward east of the Mississippi to 
Honda, and southwest to the borders of Texas. It rears its magnificent spike of 
gorgeous flowers along the muddy banks of streams, during the early autumn 

months. It was introduced into Great Britain from Virginia, on account of its 
beauty, in 1629. to 

Shcepf mentions the use of the root of this species, by the Cherokee Indians, 
lor syphilis; and Dr. Barton speaks of their successful use of it as an anthelmin- 

Hy some early physicians it was considered fully equal to Spigelia Marilandica, 
in tns direction. This species is, however, seldom used now, L. inflata taking its 
p ace entirely. It is considered, however, to possess marked anthelmintic, nervine, 
and antispasmodic properties. 



tic 



mm ^f ED AND PREPAR ATION.-Tne whole fresh plant, gathered when 

coming into blossom, is treated as in the next species. The resulting tincture has 

and t^r °™ lsh " bro ™ n col °r by transmitted light; a sweetish, herbaceous odor 
and taste ; and an acid reaction. 

been^ade 110 ^ C °* S ™ UEN TS.--No special examination of this plant having 
inflntn ™ ' We ° an n ° better at Present than to refer to the chemistry of L. 



tjlata, page 99-3 




See pp. 98-98-2. 



97-3 



Description of Plate 97. 



1. Top of a flowering plant, Binghamton, N. Y., Aug. 10th, 1886. 

2. A middle leaf. 

3. Flower. 

4. Stamens. 

5. Section of the stamen-tube. 

6. Stigma. 

7. Open stigma. 

8. Fruit. 

9. Section of the ovary. 

(4-9 enlarged.) 



■l 





2 







5 




.TU.ailnatdel.etpinxt. 



Lobelia Syphilitica, Linn. 




98 






N. ORD -LOBELIACE^E. 



98 



GENUS. 



LOBELIA, LINN 



SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



LOBELIA SYPHILITICA. 



# 



GREAT BLUE LOBELIA 



SYN.— LOBELIA SYPHILITICA, LINN.; LOBELIA CCERULEA 



LOBELIA 



STOKES 



COM 



NAMES. — GREAT LOBELIA, BLUE LOBELIA, BLUE CARDINAL 
FLOWER; (PR.) LOBELIE SYPHILITIQUE ; (GER.) GEMEINE LOBELIE. 



A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT, LOBELIA SYPHILITICA, LINN. 



Description. — This erect, perennial herb, attains a growth of from i 



to 3 



feet, 



its conspicuous racemes being generally from one-third to one-quarter the length 
of the whole plant. Stem simple, leafy to the base of the raceme, and somewhat 
hairy, especially upon its angles. Leaves sessile, ovate-lanceolate, irregularly 
denticulate-serrate, acute at the base, from 2 to 6 inches long, and about 1 inch 
wide; thin, and more or less appressed hairy. Inflorescence supra-axillary, com- 
posed of a long, at first leafy, then morphologically bracted, dense spike or 
raceme ; pedicels shorter than the bracts ; flowers light blue, nearly 1 inch long 
extending beyond the leafy bracts. Calyx five-cleft, hirsute, shorter than the tube 
of the corolla, with reflexed, conspicuous, two-cleft auricles at the sinuses; hi be 
hemispherical, short ; lobes one-half the length of the corolla. Corolla with a straight, 
sub-cylindrical tube, more or less two-lipped, having a deep fissure at the superior 
margin ; tipper lip of two erect, slightly diverging lobes ; lower lip spreading and 
three-lobed by incision. Fruit a globose pod, free above, but enclosed by the 
loose, persistent calyx ; two-celled, opening at the apex ; seeds many. For a de- 
scription of the Natural Order, see Lobelia cardinalis, 97. 



History and Habitat.— The great blue lobelia habits the borders of marshy 
places and wet spots in pasture lands and meadows, pretty generally throughout 
the United States, to which it is indigenous ; flowering from July to September. 
In some localities it is called high belia, in unconscious pun upon its lowlier but 



Th 



e 



more frequently-used companion, L. inflata, or low belt a, as they term it. 
lobelias furnish one of the best examples of the system of cross-fertilization in 



plants. The stamens, especially their 



anthers, grow into 



a tube, enclosing the 



stigma, and apparently making self-fertilization positive. A closer study, how- 
ever, reveals the following conclusive points : The stigma is two-lobed, the recep- 



* Dr. Hale, in his M New Remedies, " treats of this drug as Lobelia ccerulea. Dr. Allen remarks that — as there are 
a number of blue lobelias, and beside this the true ccerulea grows at the Cape of Good Hope, and may yet be proven 
syphilitica should always designate this drug. 



98-2 . 

tion surfaces— in the earlier stages of growth and while enclosed in the anther 
tube— are tightly pressed together and fringed with close, bristly hairs, all together 
resembling the mouth of a full-bearded man, with lips compressed. The tube of 
anthers opens by a pore at the tip and discharges the ripened pollen directly 

this pore when it is irritated by the back of any insect that may creep 



g 



throat of the corolla after nectar. As the pollen is discharged 



.-> 




by elongation of the style, presses forward, keeping up the discharge by acting as 
a swab, until the cell is completely empty; then, as it projects beyond the pore, 
the compressed lips open and roll back, standing ready to collect the pollen from 
the back of some insect that has been on a visit to a neighboring plant. 

The former uses of this plant were the same as those of L. intlata, than which 
it is less active. The natives of North America are said to have held this 
a secret in the cure of syphilis, until it was purchased from them by Sir William 
Johnson, who took a quantity to Europe, and introduced it as a drug of great 
repute in that disease. European physicians, however, failed to cure with it, and 
finally cast it aside, though Linnaeus, thinking it justified its Indian reputation, 
gave the species its distinctive name, syphilitica. The cause of failure may be 
the fact that the aborigines did not trust to the plant alone, but always used 



it in combination with may-apple roots {Podophyllum pcltatum), the bark of the 
wild cherry [Prunus Vtrgimca), and dusted the ulcers with the powdered bark 
of New Jersey tea [Cenothus Americanus). Another chance of failure lay in the 
volatility of its active principle, as the dried herb was used. It is not officinal in 
the U. S. Ph., nor in the Eclectic Materia Medica. 



• PART USED AND PREPARATION. -The whole fresh plant is chopped and 
pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, 
the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it and the rest of the alcohol 
added. The whole, after thorough mixture, is poured into a well-stoppered bottle 
and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then sepa- 



rated by straining and filtering. Thus prepared, it has a beautiful, clear, light- 
rown color by transmitted light, a slightly bitter taste and tingling sensation 
pon the tongue, and a strong acid reaction. 



b 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-The chemical properties of this plant will 
probably be found to differ from those of L. inflata only in quantity. An analysis 
by M. Boissel resulted in the separation of fatty and butyraceous matters, muci- 
lage, sugar, earthy salts, and a volatile bitter principle. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.-No data upon this is obtainable. We will do 
well, perhaps, to again consult L. inflata, which, in virulence of action, is the type 
of the genus in the Northern States 



Description of Plate 98. 

1. Whole plant, once reduced; from Chemung, N. Y., September 9 th, 1879. 

2. Apex of raceme. 

3. Flower (somewhat enlarged). 

4- Fruit. 

5- Pollen, with end view x 380. 




99 




2 



«r 




3 



^p.XTt . ad nat dcl.et pinxh 



Lobelia Inflata, Linn. 



N. ORD-LOBELIACEiE. 

Jribe-LOBEUE/E. 

GENUS.— LOB ELI A, LINN- 
SEX. SYST.— PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 



99 



LOBELIA INFLATA. 



INDIAN TOBA CCO. 



SYN.— LOBELIA INFLATA, LINN. ; BAPUNTIUM INFLATUM, MILL. 

COM. NAMES.— WILD OR INDIAN TOBACCO, EYE-BRIGHT,* BLADDER 

POD,t EMETIC ROOT OR WEED, PUKE WEED, ASTHMA WEED • (FR ) 
LOBELIE ENFLEE; (GBR.) LOBELIE. 



WHOLE 



Description. — This well-known milky, acrid, biennial or annual herb, varies 
greatly in its growth, generally, however, its height is from 8 inches to 2 feet.J 
Root slender, yellowish-white ; stem erect, somewhat angled, lined or winged, 
leafy, paniculately branched, especially above, and divergently hirsute, principally 
below; leaves sessile, veiny, acute, and irregularly or obtusely toothed; they vary 
from ovate or oblong below to foliaceous or even subulate bracts above, longer 
than the pedicels. Inflorescence loose, terminal, spike-like racemes; flowers small, 
inconspicuous, irregular. Calyx persistent 10-veined, not auriculate nor append- 
aged in the sinuses ; lobes linear-subulate, nearly as long as the corolla, and spring- 
ing from a decided ring involving the throat of the tube. Corolla marcescent, 
about two lines long, pale blue externally, somewhat violet within ; lobes 5, the two 
upper lanceolate, erect, the three lower ovate, acute, and projecting. Stamens 5, 
epigynous, projecting with the style (which they enclose) through the complete 
slit in the upper median line of the corolla tube. Capsule 2-celled, oval, glabrous, 
much inflated, longitudinally 10-nerved and roughened between the nerves by 
transverse rugae, they greatly exceed their pedicels in length ; seeds numerous, 
oblong, rough, of a brilliant brown color and reticulated with honey-yellow inter- 
mixed lines ; placenta central. A description of the genus is incorporated in that 
of Lobelia Cardinalis, 97. 



History and Habitat. — Indian Tobacco is common in dry open fields from 
Hudson's Bay westward to Saskatchewan and southward to Georgia and the 
Mississippi, where it flowers from July to October. Linnaeus first noticed this 



* The true eye-bright is Euphrasia officinalis, L. {Scrophulariacea). 
•j- The true bladder- pod is Ve sic aria Shortii, T. &° G. (Cruciferete). 

% I met many individuals this season (1885), scarcely 3 inches high, simple stemmed, and in full flower and fruit. 
I judge this depauperate form to be the var. simplex of Rafinesque. 






99-2 



species in the Transactions of the Upsal Academy in 1741. 1 It was introduced 
into England in 1859, and noticed medically by Schoepf in 1787, his observations 
being mostly founded upon the use of the plant by the American aborigines as an 
emetic, and application for " sore eyes." It afterward became in frequent use by 
Botanic physicians, and in 18 13 was more or less prominently brought before 
the medical profession by the Rev. D. Cutler, as a valuable remedy in asthma. Its 
use was not carried into England until 1829. 

The name Indian Tobacco might have arisen either from the peculiar tobacco- 
like sensation imparted to the tongue and stomach on chewing the leaves, or from 

the fact that the American Indians often smoked the dried leaves to produce the 
effect of the drug. 

Lobelia has been recommended and used in the Botanic practice particularly, 
either alone or compounded with other drugs, for almost every disease known, and 
has proven curative in some cases, palliative in more, useless in many, and a deadly 
poison in more cases than one. Its action, as will be seen farther on, is, as in all 
narcotics, principally upon the brain, thus making it anything but a desirable 
emetic, as which it is most frequently used. From the power it exhibits to relax 
the whole system, it has been found very valuable in spasms, tetanus, 



P 



f 



lated hernia, whooping cough, and even hydrophobia. Samuel Thomson 
claims to have discovered the virtues of the plant, though without doubt his first 
ideas of its emetic property were gathered from the Indians. He went so far as 
to claim it curative in all disorders, giving it with such a reckless hand that he 
fatally poisoned one of his patients, a certain Ezra Lovett, for which he was 
arrested on the charge of murder, escaping punishment because said Lovett 



foolish enough to take the prescription of a man who claimed to 



potent (?) drugs as " well^ny-gristle" and "ram-cats. 



carry 



>> 



Lobelia Inflata is officinal in the U. & Ph., as: Acetunt Lobelia; Extractum 



Medi 



Lobelia Fluidum ; and Tinctura Lobelia; and in the Eclectic M 

above, and as: Cataplasma Lobelia et Ulmus * Enema Lobelia Composita ; 3 Ex- 
tractum Lobelia Fluidum Compositum * Linimentum Stillingia Compositum ; 5 
Lotto Lobelia Composita;" Oleum Lobelia; Pilula Aloes Composita;" Pulvis 
Lobelia Compositus* Tinctura Hydrastis Composita;" Tinctura Lobelia Com- 
posita ; " Tinctura Lobelia et Ca P sici ;« Tinctura Sanguinaria Acetata Composita ;" 
line turn Sanguinaria Composita, and Tinctura Viburni Composita}" 

PART USED AND PREPARATION.-The whole plant gathered in Septem- 
ber, or when the last nowers^are developing and the lower capsules are ripe, 

! IT* T f', 1741, n '■ P ' 43 ' * Lobelia, Eh^Lve" 

8 unctura I.ol>di;eet Capsici zss witer ?« 4T ur m , « 

6 < to of Stilling! Cajep u, and 12 ^ ?' f "f^ and Sanguinaria. 

» Boneset \Hn,l nL V 7, , Ba y berr y bark > Lobelia leaves and seeds, and Yellow Dockroot 

. liu ' , ! ""!' e nSe " 8 ' , A1 ° eS ' S ° a P> Gamb °S e . -1 Capsicum and Lobelia seeds. 



« Lobelia, Blood-root, Skunk-cabbage, Ipecac, and Capsic 



9 Hydrastis and Lobelia, 



um. 



'« lllo.Hl.ro,. Lobelia, Sknnk-eabbage root, and Vinegar 
ll.gh Cranberry barK, UM. Ked , b,^.^ ^^^ ^ ^.^ ^ ^^.^ ^ 



* 



be treated 



the preced 



species 



The 



lting 



99-3 

should be 



f a clear reddish-orange color by transmitted light, and have a very acrid p 



t> 



tobacco-like taste, a peculiar characteristic odor, and an acid 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— Lobeli 



red by Calho 



2 



though Procter 



This alkaloidal body was d 



first to isolate it. 3 Ba 



4 



working with 



previous knowledge of its discovery, also isolated the principle. Lobel 



after separation, especially when carefully sealed 



oily, yellowish fluid 



Its 



ing a decided alkaline reaction, this is especially noticeable in its watery 



pungent, very like that of 



doses, the poisonous action of the herb 



It 



is 



a 



d 



It exhibits, even in very small 
newhat volatile, decomposing 



the 



sing 



dity at a temperature above ioo° (21 2° F.) eith 



or in 



P 



f dilute acids 



cau 



alkal 



It is 



ble in water, alcohol, 



d 



Lobelina neutralizes acids, and except with acetic, forms crystallizabl 
oluble in water than the alkaloid itself 



Lobelacrin. — This glucoside (?) was discovered by Pereira 8 and corroborated 



by Enders. Lewes (1878), who made a thorough analysis of this drug, suggests 
that this body may be Lobeliate of Lobeli7ia, a salt of lobelina formed by the free 
acid in the plant itself. Lobelacrin, according to Enders, exists as acrid, brownish, 
verrucose tufts, decomposing rapidly in water at ioo° (212 F.), and resolv 
under the action of acids or alkalies into sugar and 



n g 



Lobelic Acid. — This acid is crystallizable, non-volatile, soluble in water, alco- 
hol, and ether, and yields an insoluble plumbic and soluble baric salt. 



Lobelianin. — This body, so named by its discoverer, Pereira, is now considered 



to be the volatile oil, Lobeliin, a compound body isolated 
considered indefinite. 




Reinsch, and now 



Oil of Lobelia. 



Th 



oil 



may 



be 



tracted from the seeds, which, when 



bruised between heated rollers, generally yield abo 



o 



o p 



cent. 



According 



Procter its specific gravity is 0.940, and its drying quality and consistence q 



similar to that of linseed oil. 
medicinal qualities of the seed 



Dr. John K 



possesses all the 



Beside the 
been determined 



foreeoine, caoutchouc, 8910 extractive, 810 resin, 91011 and fat* h 



PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. — Thanks to much reckless prescribing by many 
so-called Botanic physicians, and to murderous intent; as well as to experimentation 
and careful provings, the action of this drug is pretty thoroughly known. Lobelia 



1 Lob din > Lobe line. 



2 Journ. Phil. Coll. Pharm., 300. 



1838, p. 98; and farther ibid. y 1871, p. I ; and 1851, p. 456 

4 1850. Ibid., 185 1, p. 270. 

6 1871, in an analysis made for the authors of the Pharmacographia, 1. c, p. 400. 



Mat, 



7 Am. Disp., 1880, p. 492. 
'J Reinsch. 



10 Pereira, /. c. 



8 Bigelow, Am. Med. Bol., 1817, Vol. I, p. 179. 
11 Procter, /. c. 



i 



% 



99-4 



in large doses is a decided narcotic poison, producing effects on animals generally, 
bearing- great similitude to somewhat smaller doses of tobacco ; and lobelina in 



t> t> 



like manner to nicotia. Its principal sphere of action seems to be upon the 
pneumogastric nerve, and it is to the organs supplied by this nerve that its toxic 
symptoms are mainly due, and its "physiological" cures of pertussis, spasmodic 
asthma, croup and gastralgia gained. Its second action in importance is that of 
causing general muscular relaxation, and under this it records its cures of stran- 
gulated hernia (by enemata), tetanic spasms, convulsions, hysteria, and, mayhap, 
hydrophobia. Its third action is upon mucous surfaces and secretory glands, 

increasing their secretions. 

The prominent symptoms of its action are: great dejection, exhaustion, and 
mental depression, even to insensibility and loss of consciousness ; nausea and 
vertigo ; contraction of the pupil ; profuse clammy salivation ; dryness and prick- 
ling in the throat; pressure in the oesophagus with a sensation of vermicular 
motion, most strongly, however, in the larynx and epigastrium ; sensation as of a 
lump in the throat; incessant and violent nausea, with pain, heat, and oppression 
of the respiratory tract ; vomiting, followed by great prostration ; violent and 
painful cardiac constriction; griping and drawing abdominal pains; increased 
urine, easily decomposing and depositing much uric acid; violent racking parox- 
ysmal cough with ropy expectoration ; small, irregular, slow pulse ; general weak- 
ness and oppression, more marked in the thorax ; violent spasmodic pains, with 
paralytic feeling, especially in the left arm ; weariness of the limbs, with cramps in 
the gastrocnemii ; and sensation of chill and fever. Death is usually preceded 
by insensibility and convulsions. 



Post-mortem.— The stomach is found congested and filled with fluid, and the 
brain engorged with blood. 



Description of Plate 



99 



1. Whole plant, Chemung, N. Y., September 9 th, 1879 

2. Flower. 

3. Fruit. 

4. Seed natural size and magnified 100 diam. 

(2-3 enlarged.)